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OF

BODILY EXERCISE.

BY

FERNAND LAGRANGE, M.D.

LONDON

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., 1 PATERNOSTER SQUARE.

1889.

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(The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved)

CONTENTS.

PART I.

MUSCULAR WORK.

THE ORGANS

OF WORK-MOVEMENTS-HEAT-

COMBUSTION.

20

CHAPTER I.-THE ORGANS OF MOVEMENT.

3
Exercise and Work- Muscle-Nerve ; Avalanche Theory-

The Spinal Cord; Reflex Actions; Unconscious Movements-
The Brain; Reflex Movements; Voluntary Movements—The
Motor Centres; associated Muscular Actions - The Will,
Agent of Work-Muscular Contraction- Course of a Volun-
tary Stimulus; Mode of Transmission-Nervous Vibration and

the Muscular Wave-Time of Transmission; Latent Period.
CHAPTER 11.-MOVEMENTS
Associated action of different Regions during Work-How a

Blow is given with the Fist-Co-Ordination of Movements;
Antagonistic Muscles; the Muscular Sense-Ataxic patients-
Static Contraction-Stiffness in Exercise-Muscular Education
-Association of the great Organic Functions with Muscular
Movement-Effort-The Porter and his Load-Effort during
slight Expenditure of Force :-Too Hard a Nut--Frequency
of Effort in Exercise-Long Distance and Sprint Running
-Influence of Movements on the Circulation--The Quicken-
ing of the Pulse; its Mechanism-The Pulmonary Circulation
and the Active Congestion of the Lungs-Congestion of the
Brain during Movement-Dancing Dervishes-A Runaway

Horse.
CHAPTER III.-HEAT

33
The Human Motor and Heat Engines The Mechanical

Equivalent of Heat-Heat is a Cause of Movement, not its
Effect-Heat Lost-How the Temperature of the Body is
Regulated — Effects of Heat on Muscle — Experiment of
Marey on Caoutchouc-Observation of Daily Phenomena-
Muscle Heated and Muscle Numbed by Cold-Gestures of
Anger-Why we Make preliminary Passes in Fencing—The
Hare which has just been put up-Effects of too high a
Temperature-Death of Muscle at + 45° C.

CHAPTER IV.-COMBUSTION .

42
General Idea of Combustion-Chemical Sources of Heat-

Ancient and Modern Theories- Part played by Oxygen-
Oxidation; Hydration; Decomposition - Complexity of the
Chemical phenomena which produce Heat -- Combustible
Materials; Food Stuffs; Reserve-Materials; Tissue-Materials
-Results of Combustion Products of Dissimilation
Products of Incomplete Oxidation; Uric Acid-Elimination of
Products of Dissimilation—Eliminating Organs-Auto-Intoxi-
cation-Dangers of Human Miasma.

PART II.

FATIGUE.

LOCAL FATIGUE BREATHLESSNESS

OVERWORK-EXHAUSTION—THEORY
-REPOSE.

-STIFFNESS
OF FATIGUE

CHAPTER 1.-LOCAL FATIGUE

57
Experimental Fatigue-Absolute and Relative Fatigue-Fatigue

in Ordinary Conditions of Work; it is always Relative-
Examples of Relative and of Absolute Fatigue-Causes of
Sensation of Fatigue-Causes of Muscular Powerlessness
-Influence of Waste-Products of Combustion; Transmission
of Fatigue to Muscles which have not been working—Use of
Fatigue-Part played by the Brain in Fatigue-Unconscious
Movements cause less Fatigue than Voluntary Movements;
Practical consequences.

.

CHAPTER II.-BREATHLESSNESS

67
A Hard Run-Exercises which cause Loss of Breath ; Trotting

and Galloping ; Going Upstairs-Law of Breathlessness-
Respiratory Need; Conditions under which it Increases and
Diminishes—Carbonic Acid ; Its Production Increases with
Muscular Activity ; it Diminishes during Repose-The Sleep
of the Marmot-Explanation of the Law of Breathlessness
-Why we lose Breath in Running Why the Horse
Gallops with its Lungs—Why Exercises of the Legs cause
more Loss of Breath than those of the Arms—The Coefficient
of Breathlessness—The Horse which exceeds its Paces-
Breathlessness is an Auto-Intoxication by Carbonic Acid-
Analogy with Asphyxia-Impossibility of Fighting against
Breathlessness.

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