Imagini ale paginilor
PDF
ePub

CHAPTER 111.-BREATHLESSNESS (continued)

86
Mechanism of Breathlessness-Reflex Disturbances of the Re-

spiratory Movements · Physical Sensations and Moral Im-
pressions -- Stammering Respiration- Why we become less
Breathless at a Fencing-School than in a Duel-Reflexes due
to Carbonic Acid-Reflexes are at first Useful; They become
Dangerous when Exaggerated-Dangers of Instinctive Move-
ments-Part played by the Heart in Breathlessness-
Active Congestions—Fatigue of the Heart- Muscle and Passive
Congestion of the Lungs—The Influence of the Heart is
Secondary-Cessation of Breathlessness notwithstanding the
Persistence of Circulatory Disturbances after Exercise-
Personal Observation : the Ascent of Canigou-Effort ; its
part in Breathlessness--Prompt Advent of Breathlessness
in Wrestling--Sprint Running and Long Distance Running
--Our observations on the Rhythm of Respiration During
Breathlessness - Inequality of Expiration and Inspiration
during Breathlessness;- Causes of this Inequality — Grave
Phenomena of Breathlessness--Action of Carbonic Acid on

the Muscular Fibres of the Heart.
CHAPTER IV.--BREATHLESSNESS (concluded)

103
Three Stages of Breathlessness-First or Salutary Stage-.

Respiration more Active, but not Insufficient--Second Stage-
Symptoms of slight Carbonic Acid Intoxication; Leaden Com-
plexion ; Breathless Respiration ; General Discomforts--Third
or Asphyxial Stage--Cerebral Disturbances ; Symptoms of
severe Carbonic Acid Intoxication; Vertigo; Unconscious
Movements; Syncope; Stoppage of the Heart—Observations
-Dangers of Running as a Sport-Too vigorous an Assault-
at-Arms—Animals succumbing to Breathlessness; the Horse
ridden to Death-Death of a Carrier Pigeon-A Hunted

Beast which Breaks Cover.
CHAPTER V.-STIFFNESS
Return to the Gymnasium; a Sleepless Night-Febrile Stiffness

- Three Degrees of Stiffness of Fatigue-Causes of Stiffness;
Immunity due to Habituation-Explanation of Symptoms-
Imperfection of Theories--Local Symptoms; They are due
to Trauma-General Symptoms; They are due to an Auto-
intoxication – Deposits of Urates Influence of Muscular
Exercise on their Formation ; Diversity of opinions of
Authors — Personal Observations -- Conditions which cause
Variations in the Formation of Deposits after Work-Slow
appearance of the Deposits after Exercise.- Influence of
the Intensity of the Work on their Formation — Hitherto
misunderstood influence of Training-Constant Correlation
observed between the Production of Stiffness and the
Formation of Deposits—This Correlation is found in all
circumstances which render the Individual more liable to
Fatigue--Influence of Moral Causes on Consecutive Fatigue
and on the Deposits.

III

1

CHAPTER VI.-STIFFNESS (concluded).

125
Objection to Our Theory-Are Urinary Deposits due to the

Perspiration produced by Exercise?-Observations opposed
to the opinion of Authors on this Subject-An Experiment
in Fatigue : Rowing from Limoges to Paimbauf-Agreement
of Observations with Chemical Analysis-Exercise produces
a Uricæmic condition-Analogy of Stiffness of Fatigue
with certain Febrile conditions-Stiffness of Fatigue and an
Attack of Gout-Cause of Immunity from Stiffness when in
Training – Function of Reserve Materials — Products of
Dissimilation Part played by Uric Acid in Stiffness

Stiffness is an Auto-Intoxication.
CHAPTER VII.—OVERWORK .

134
Overwork is Exaggerated Fatigue-Different forms of Over-

Work-Acute Overwork ; Death from Breathlessness-Sub-
acute Overwork—The Stag hunted to Death-Forced Game;
Rapid Cadaveric Rigidity; Prompt Putrefaction—Mechanism
of Death by sub-acute Overwork-Auto-Intoxication by pro-
ducts of Dissimilation-Extractives, Lactic Acid-Discoveries
of Gautier; Poisons of Living Organisms; Leucomaines-Rarity
of sub-acute · Overwork in Man-The Soldier of Marathon
-Observations on rapid Cadaveric Rigidity in Men Dying in
a condition of Overwork-Curious positions of the bodies;
Horror-stricken Expressions in Persons who have been
Assassinated Effects of Overwork the Flesh of
Animals—Dangers of Eating Overworked Flesh-Culinary
Qualities given to Flesh in certain cases by Overwork-
Suffering a cause of Overwork Cruelty of a Butcher-
Chronic Overwork the form most frequently observed in
Man.

on

CHAPTER VIII.-OVERWORK (continued)

145
The Disorders of Overwork-Pseudo-Typhoid Fevers--Auto-
infection and Auto-Typhisation-Opinion of Professor Peter
- Microbes and Leucomaines--Frequency of Fevers of Over-
work-Greater predisposition of Adolescents -Two personal
Observations-Abuse of Fencing and too much of the Trapeze

-Overwork in the Army-Too Energetic a Colonel-Forced
Manœuvres-Overwork a cause aggravating Disease-Infec-
tive forms assumed by the mildest Disorders in Overworked
systems-So-called Sunstroke of Soldiers on the March—The
large influence of Overwork in the production of these Dis-
orders-Rarity of Sunstroke in Horse-Soldiers; its frequency
in Foot-Soldiers—Spares persons habituated to Fatigue-
Rarity of Sunstroke in Harvest Men.

CHAPTER IX.-OVERWORK (concluded)

153
A Phthisical Hercules — The Over-trained Horse Chronic

Overwork—Exhaustion through using up of the Organic
Tissues—Difference between the Physiological Processes of
Acute and of Chronic Overwork – Auto-intoxication and
Autophagy-Dangers of excessive Expenditure -- Defective
Balance between Expenditure and Income.--Impoverishment
of the System by excessive work-Atrophy and Degeneration
of Muscles—The Calves of Runners-Overwork of the Heart-
Muscle—The Overdriven Heart-Nervous Forms of Over-
work-Anæmia of the Nerve-Centres and Exhaustion of the
Nervous Substance-Epilepsy of Walkers-Observations on
Peasants-Insanity from Overwork; Influence of Harvest-time
on its Frequency-Frequency of Neuroses in Overworked
Peasants.

CHAPTER X.-THE THEORY OF FATIGUE

163
Fatigue is a Regulator of Work-Organic Conditions which

hasten the onset of the Sensation of Fatigue; Weakness of
the Organs; Excess of Reserve Materials—Order and con-
nection of the Phenomena of Fatigue-- Local and General
Fatigue; Immediate and Consecutive Fatigue--The different
Processes of Fatigue :-(1) Traumatic Effects of Work on the
Motor Organs—(2) Auto-Intoxication by the Products of Dis-
similation—(3) Organic Exhaustion through Autophagy—(4)
Dynamic Exhaustion through Expenditure of all the Force at
the Disposal of the Muscular and Nervous Elements-In-
sufficiency of existing Physiological ideas for explaining all

the Phenomena of Fatigue.
CHAPTER XI.-REPOSE

170
Repair of the Animal Machine-Cleansing of the Organs ;

Elimination of the Waste-Products of Combustions-Diminu-
tion of Combustions during Repose-Fall of Temperature and
Depression of Vital Functions during Sleep-The Duration of
Repose must vary according to the Form of Fatigue-Short
Period of Repose necessary to dissipate Breathlessness-
The Runners of Tunis–Difference in the Rapidity of Elimi-
nation of the various Products of Dissimilation — Dynamic
Effects of Repose; they are still unexplained-Influence of
Periods of Repose in relation to the Conservation of Energy
-The English Boxers.

PART III.

HABITUATION TO WORK.

POWER OF RESISTING FATIGUE-MODIFICATION OF

ORGANS BY WORK-MODIFICATION OF FUNCTIONS

OF THE TISSUES BY WORK-TRAINING.
CHAPTER 1.-POWER OF RESISTING FATIGUE

181
Variability in the Power of Resisting Fatigue-Effects of In-

action—Effects of Habitual Activity—Different Mode of Life
causes Different Conformation ; Frugivorous Animals and
Hunting Animals; the Flesh of the Hare and the Flesh of the
Wolf—The Labourer and the Scholar-How we must explain

“Habituation” to Work.
CHAPTER II.-MODIFICATION OF THE ORGANS BY WORK. 187
Function makes Structure-Disappearance of Organs when

their Function has Ceased ; Maintenance of Organs by Per-
sistence of Function—Why gymnasts remain supple even in
Old Age--Modification of Motor Organs by Exercise-Modi-
fication of Organic Apparatus associated with Movement ;
Amplification of the Lungs-Changes in the Living Tissues
due to Work-More active Assimilation; Growth of Muscles-
More rapid Dissimilation ; Diminution of Reserve Materials
- Increase of Strength through Growth of the Muscular
Tissues-Lessening of Fatigue; it is due to the gradual Dis-
appearance of the Reserve Materials—How this Result is
Explained-Fat causes Breathlessness-By what Mechan-
ism? Insufficiency of admitted Explanations Theory of
Trainers : the “ Internal Fat." Objections to this Theory
-Reserve Fat and Constitutional Fat-Fat Runners-Easy
Dissimilation of Reserve-Fats,

Breathlessness by
Excessive Production of Carbonic Acid-Reserve Proteids
and Consecutive Fatigue Disappearance of Stiffness of
Fatigue in Connection with the Disappearance of Urinary

Deposits after Exercise-Personal Observations on Fatigue.
CHAPTER III.—MODIFICATION OF FUNCTIONS BY WORK. 199
Increase in the Contractile Force of Muscle--Probable increase

in the Power of Conduction of Nerves. Improvement in the
Faculties of Co-Ordination of Movement-Education of the
Muscular Sense-Domination of Reflex Actions by the Will;
Regulation of the Respiratory Movements—Changes produced
in the Nervous System by Muscular Exercise-Material

causes

210

we

Changes in the Nervous Tissues ; are they purely Hypo-
thetical ?--An observation of Luys- Functional Changes in
the Nervous System—The Memory of the Spinal Cord; its
Use in the Performance of often Repeated Actions-Psychical
Modifications due to Habituation to Work-Skill-Physical

Courage-Incredible Energy of Prize-fighters.
CHAPTER IV.-TRAINING
Various meanings of the word Training-Training, as

understand it here, is the Adaptation of the Organism to
Work-Natural Training and Methodical Training—Methods
of Training ; rarely put in force in France; very widely
Practised in England — Training of Boxers — Training of
Oarsmen-A Specimen of Method-Physiological explanation
of the Phenomena. The Loss of Weight ; Diet ; Care of the
Skin-Capital Importance of Muscular Work in Training-
Temperament of the Trained Man-Advantages and Dis-
advantages of his Condition.

PART IV.

THE DIFFERENT EXERCISES.

PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF EXERCISES

VIOLENT EXERCISES-EXERCISES OF STRENGTH-
EXERCISES OF SPEED-EXERCISES OF ENDURANCE
-MECHANISM OF DIFFERENT EXERCISES.

OF

CHAPTER 1. — PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSICATION

BODILY
EXERCISES

227
Quantity of Work Done in an Exercise-Gentle, Moderate, and

Violent Exercises-Quality of Work in Exercise-Exercises of
Strength, of Speed, and of Endurance-Mechanism of the

various Exercises.
CHAPTER II.–VIOLENT EXERCISES

230
Violent Exercise must not be confounded

with Fatiguing
Exercise-Difficulty of appreciating the Quantity of Work
expended in an Exercise — Difficult Movements -- Feats of
Strength Gymnastic Pedants Children's Games and
Gymnastics—Skipping compared with Climbing a Rope-
Analysis of Exercises—How the Physiological Effects of

Work may indicate its Degree of Intensity.
CHAPTER III.-EXERCISES OF STRENGTH .

236
Gymnastics—Frequent Intervention of Effort in Exercises of

Strength-Why it is impossible to have “a Smile on the
Lips” in practising an Exercise of Strength--Charles Bell on

« ÎnapoiContinuați »