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THE MEDICAL WORLD. AL

344

ing of the estivo-autumnal variety. I de- antistuporous properties, so to speak. In. termined then to try the most ancient of stead of manifesting the usual symptoms known remedies against malarial poison- of opiates, many of the actively febril ing---namely, opium—as an adjuvant to patients were roused by it out of the charquinin. Forty-seven of the actively feb- acteristic lethargy of the fever, and even ril cases, with temperature ranging from in the weak apyretic patients with pro103° to 106° F., were chosen, while check nounced anemia the testimony was almost cases in equal number at first, were left uniform that they felt better and stronger with the former treatment. I chose the after taking it, the effects appearing the camphorated tincture of opium as the very reverse of narcotic and more like most suitable preparation on account of those of a cardiac and general nervous its stimulant properties, and gave it in stimulant. I have noted analogous rethree daily doses of half an ounce each, sults also in private practice in the treatwith doses of fifteen grains each of quinin ment of chronic malarial infection, notably and of ginger twice a day.

when the patients complained of repeated As I have already publisht a detailed headaches and general malaise, so that I account of our observations on the effects have no hesitation in recommending this of the camphorated tincture of opium as preparation of opium as one of our most an adjuvant to quinin in these Roosevelt trustworthy agents in the management of Hospital cases, I will only quote from it this common cause of prolonged invalidism the following: In twenty-two, or forty- in our climate.-W. H. THOMSON, M. D., seven per cent. of the number who took in N, Y. Med. Jour. paregoric, the result was an immediate break in the fever—that is, the tempera

A New Poet. ture fell to normal in twenty-four hours, A new singer hails from the Golden Gatenor did it rise again afterward. This His lute has been heard up and down the effect was the more impressive because in Pacific coast, but one of his songs has leapt every instance they had been unavailingly over the Sierras and the Rockies, across the treated with quinin and Warburg's tinct- plains, and on and on it has come till we on ure for an average period of ten days pre- the Atlantic slope are entranced by it. On viously without reducing the fever. Of the following page we give this song, with an the remaining twenty-five out of the forty- illustration of the European peasant which seven there were ten patients, or about it describes. Read the poem, then read twenty-one per cent., in whom it took again with a pause for thought after each from thirty-six to forty-eight hours to re- stanza. This poem, tho young, has already duce the temperature to normal. No re- taken a permanent place among the classics. lapse was recorded in the case of any The reason it is introduced here is to show patient who took the paregoric treatment the influence of heredity. Militarism seafter the temperature was once reduced to lected the best, for slaughter in the wars, normal.

leaving the worst physical specimens to Sir William Roberts, chairman of the propagate their kind. To this add oppresBritish royal commission appointed to in- sion, and you have the result given below. vestigate the opium question in India in Would it not be better to reverse this prothe years 1893–94, maintains that the anti- cess ? malarial properties of opium are due to its Mr. Markham appeared at the Buffalo alkaloid, commonly named narcotin, but Conference on the last day. His keen, which he maintains should be termed black eye, iron gray hair and beard and anarcotin, as it has neither anodyne nor kindly face reminded me very forcibly narcotic properties. The proportions of of Longfellow. His hand-grasp was warm the two alkaloids in Smyrna opium are and lingering, his voice musical and his morphin, eight per cent.; narcotin two demeanor extremely modest. It is seldom per cent.; while in Bengal or India opium that one meets so delightful a personality. the proportion is morphin, four per cent., Upon request he made a very neat and inand narcotin, six per cent. In many spiring speech to the Conference, but the cases, according to the voluminous statis- audience would not consent to his leaving tics of British India surgeons, narcotin the platform until he recited “The Man administered alone has been more effica- With the Hoe,'' which he did in a masterly cious than quinin as an antiperiodic. One

I will always remember this as of the most striking effects of the paregorio the crowning event of the Conference. treatment in my hands was its unlookt for

[Poem on next page.]

manner.

[graphic]

What gulfs between him and the seraphim!
Slave of the wheel of labor, what to him
Are Plato and the swing of Pleiades ?
What the long reaches of the peaks of song,
The rift of dawn, the reddening of the rose ?
Thru this dread shape the suffering ages look ;
Time's tragedy is in that aching stoop;
Thru this dread shape humanity betrayed,
Plundered, profaned and disinherited,
Cries protest to the Judges of the World,
A protest that is also propbecy.
O masters, lords and rulers in all lands,
Is this the bandiwork you give to God,
This monstrous thing distorted and soul-

quenched ?
How will you ever straighten up this shape ;
Touch it again with immortality ;
Give back the upward looking and the light;
Rebuild in it the music and the dream ;
Make right the immemorial infamies,
Perfidious wrongs, immedicable woes ?
O masters, lords and rulers in all lands,
How will the Future reckon with this Man ?
How answer his brute question in that hour
When whirlwinds of rebellion shake the world ?
How will it be with kingdoms and with kings-
With those who shaped bim to the thing he is—
When this dumb Terror shall reply to God
After the silence of the centuries?

Oakland, California.

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im "The Man with tit Hoe and Other Poems." Doubleday & McClure Co.

“THE MAN WITH THE HOE.” Written after seeing Millet's World-Famous Painting.

By EDWIN MARKHAM.
“God made man in His own image.

in the image of God made He him.”Genesis.
Bowed by the weight of centuries he leans
Upon his hoe and gazes on the ground.
The emptiness of ages in his face,
And on his back the burden of the world.
Who made him dead to rapture and despair,
A thing that grieves not and that never hopes,
Stolid and stunned, a brother to the ox?
Who loosened and let down this brutal jaw ?
Whose was the band that slanted back this brow?
Whose breath blew out the light within this

brain ?
Is this the Thing the Lord God made and gave
To have dominion over sea and land ;
To trace the stars and search the heavens for

power;
To feel the passion of Eternity ?
Is this the Dream He dreamed who shaped the

suns
And pillared the blue firmament with light ?
Down all the stretch of Hell to its last gulf
There is no shape more terrible than this-
More tongued with censure of the world's blind

greed-
More filled with signs and portents for the soul-
More fraught with menace to the universe.

Cure For Rhus Tox Poisoning. (Perhaps some of our readers do not think to examin past issues of THE WORLD for seasonable remedies. For this class, and for our new readers, we re publish the following from World for July, 1898.]

Editor MEDICAL WORLD:--Have seen a great deal in the medical press about “rhus tox poisoning" remedies, recommended and “voucht for "' by the skill and talent of the land. Yet in all, the one great "specific" (and, by the way, that is a big word) is never mentioned. I, too, have worried over these cases of poisoning by "ivy," “barley," "certain weeds and “certain oaks”; many vegetables also poison some people. All complain of the same sensations, all down the doctor, and the doctor ditto.

A good old lady way out in Dakota told me several years since that if I would "wash the poisoned parts with sweet spirits of niter” I would cure. I tried my next case

on niter. It workt like a charm. My next was some forty-eight hours old; I added gr. x plumbi acetas to the ounce of niter, and it was cured at once. By “at once" I do not mean in a few days or hours, but as fast as the remedy is applied the skin cools down and feels comfortable.

The first application is somewhat “smarty,” if you know what that means ; then the skin cools off and gets white and

natural. Usually a few applications are 5. Tuberculous lesions of breast and all that is necessary, and the patient says cancer, a. Generally co-exists a regular he was scared more than hurt. If this pulmonary tuberculosis. b. Temperature remedy is used any time within the first changes suggesting tuberculosis. c. As in twenty-four hours the results will be sure all tuberculous lesions we see after a while and satisfactory.

symptoms of local inflammation, often We have here the largest greenhouse in ending in fluctuation thru the formation the West, covering over 100,000 square

of more or less cheesy pus. feet, and their leaf mold always had 5. With all these rules for diagnosis we some of the florists poisoned, so badly, still are sometimes rather in the dark; in indeed, that a doctor made regular calls such cases our duty is very clear-operate to treat this poisoning alone. I was

at once!-The International Jour. of Surg. called, prescribed the niter, and told them what I used. They now buy their niter

Increase of Cancer. by the gallon, and the doctor never gets

During the past few months the differto treat a case of poisoning in that im

ent journals have been devoting much mense concern from one year's end to

space to theories regarding the increase of the next. Every florist washes his hands

cancer. W. Roger Williams propounds a in niter, and they all say Dr. Young is an angel, and they regularly keep his table

new one, and, and says in The Lancet, That

in England four and one-half times as many supplied with cut flowers. I know many physicians will look upon

people die now from cancer as one-half a

century ago, and that probably no single this as empirical-in fact, smacking very

factor is more potent in determining the strongly of quackery; and begin to ask for

outbreak of cancer in the predisposed than physiologic reasons, etc. To such I can

high feeding. There can be no doubt that say: Don't use it if you do not wish to. I

the greed for food manifested by modern once was just as exact. Would never give communities is altogether out of propor. a remedy without knowing all about it.

tion to their present requirements. Many Now, after some twenty years, I am just indications point to the gluttonous conon the verge of a great discovery, and that

sumption of meat, which is such a characis simply that I do not know over half as

teristic feature of this age, as likely to be much about medicine as I thought I did

especially harmful in this respect. Stawhen I began the practice.

tistics show that the consumption of meat Pleasant Hill, Mo. W. H. Young.

has for many years been increasing by Diagnosis of Cancer of the Breast.

leaps and bounds, till it now has reacht 1. Classical signs of cancer :

a. Adher

the amazing total of 131 pounds per head ence of tumor to skin and deep parts. b.

per year, which is more than double what Retraction of the nipple. c. Hardness of

it was half a century ago, when the condi. the tumor, d. Early involvement of ax

tions of life were more compatible with illary glands.

high feeding. When excessive quantities 2. In certain cancers of the breast these

of such highly stimulating forms of nutriare not always all present.

ment are ingested by persons whose cellu. 3. Chronic mastitis and cancer of the

lar metabolism is defective, it seems prob. breast. a. Hard to distinguish from be

able that there may thus be excited in those ginning cancers. b. Usually occurs dur- parts of the body where vital processes are

still active such excessive and disorderly ing pregnancy or after parturition, this not common with cancer.

cellular proliferation as may eventuate in c. Edematous

cancer. No doubt other factors co-opercondition not seen in cancer, in which tumor does not keep imprint of finger on

ate, and among these I should be especially only to a small extent. d. After retrac

inclined to name deficient exercise and tion of nipple, but in a regular manner,

probably also deficiency in fresh vegetable surrounded by a circular ridge of skin

food." - Va. Bi. Mo. Bul. which, if pulled out, will allow the nipple

Dr. C. F. Taylor; Dear Doctor: Please find enclosed hereto stand out-this is not the case in can- with $1 for your most excellent Journal for 1599. Your cer. e. Pain severe and attacks more fre

Monthly Talks are worth the amount. I only wish tbey

could be read by every voter in this land, and that the poter quent, while in cancer there may be no

would only think about the good of our country for just a

little while each week. The trouble is we don't ibink enui. pain as long as there is absence of ulcer- but let prejudice govern us too much in our polities. (.G.

Thornton, Gravel Switch, Ky. ation. f. Improves under the influence of rest and pressure.

World one year and Dr. Waugh's book, $5. You need

them both.

W. L. ROBINSON, M.D., EXAMINER.

HYGIENE.

Medical Examining Board of Virginia.- June Give the treatment of penetrating wounds 5 to 8, 1899.

of the abdomen. EXAMINATION ON ANATOMY.

6.-(a) What the most important indica

tion to be met in the treatment of fractures 1. Describe anatomy of the heart; size,

of the shaft of the femur and (b) how

best met? structure, chambers. What blood vessels

(c) Describe the operation for empty blood into it, and where? Name ligation of the radial artery in lower third

of the forearm. the vessel that carries it from the heart; from what chamber, and describe the cir

7.–Give signs, symptoms and common

varieties of dislocations of the shoulderculation thru the heart? 2. Trace the alimentary canal from joint, and method of reduction of anterior

dislocation. mouth to anus, naming and locating the different parts, and state what organs con

8.—Describe the complete technic of a tribute to digestion.

radical operation for mammary carcinoma. 3. Trace femoral artery from its origin, thru its large branches to the ankle. Describe its anatomical relations in upper

R. W. MARTIN, M.D., EXAMINER, third, and popliteal space.

1.-(1st) When is a disease said to be 4. Name the bones of the skeleton, and (a) epidemic—(6) pandemic-(c) endemic? classify.

(20) Under what circumstances are such 5. Give muscles of forearm.

diseases as diphtheria, scarlet fever, 6. Name the organs of the abdomen. measles, small-pox, etc., said to be epiState relative location. Name and trace demic ? their outlets of secretion.

2.-(a) What measures are required to 7. Give muscles of female perineum. prevent the spread, and stamp out an out

8. What is the sympathetic nervous sys- break of diphtheria in a boarding school. tem? Name and locate its chief nervous (b) How soon should children be allowed centers.

to return to school after recovery from Applicants will answer six of the above ques- measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, or tions.

small-pox?

3.- Construct a model school room acSURGERY.

cording to modern views for forty (10)

pupils. Answer six questions.

4.-(a) Describe the best method of dis1.-(a) What is auto-intoxication (or infecting bedding, clothing, etc., after exauto-infection)? (6) Explain the impor. posure to the contagion of small-pox, diphso doing in patients before and after been sick with diphtheria. tance of its prevention, and the means of theria, measles, scarlet fever, etc. (6)

Disinfect a room in which a patient has operation.

2.-(a) Give causes of acquired (inguinal) hernia, and explain how each cause HISTOLOGY, PATHOLOGY AND BACTERIOLOGY, acts. (6) Give the clinical varieties of inguinal hernia. (c) What the dangers of Answer questions 1 and 2 and any four of the taxis in the attempted reduction of hernia? remaining six. (d) How would you proceed if in an op- 1.-(a) Name the tissues of special funceration for strangulated hernia you found tion. (b) Name the (3) collections of the gut gangrenous ?

lymphadenoid tissue to be found in the 3-(a) Define each of the (3) degrees alimentary tract. (c) Name the varieties of burns (or scalds). (6) Give the general of cartilage, and state of which variety prognosis of burns, and (c) indications to temporary cartilage is composed. (d) Do be met in the treatment of burns of the the bile-capillaries penetrate the substance third degree.

of the liver cells? (e) Name the layers of 4.-(a) Give the respective indications skin, and state the tissue of which each is for asepsis and antisepsis in operations. composed. (6) Give the essential symptoms of tuber- 2.-(a) Name the micro-organisms or culosis of bone.

organisms causing each of the following 5.-Give the differential diagnosis of diseases: Continued malarial fever, acute penetrating and non-penetrating wounds osteo-myelitis, Kip-joint disease, puerperal of (a) the chest, and (b) the abdomen. fever. (b) The following organisms cause

P. M. SLAUGHTER, M.D., ACTING EXAMINER.

R. M. SLAUGHTER, M.D., EXAMINER.

what diseases ?—The common bacillus, the ters found in the spinal cord ? (c) Give ameba coli, the oidium or saccharomyces the function of the twelfth cranial nerve? albicans, diplococcus intracellularis men- 6.-(a) Locate the respiratory center! ingitidis. (c) Describe (i. e., give mor. (b) What is the function of the cerebellum! phological characteristics of the bacillus (c) What nerve supplies the posterior | of tetani, the micrococcus tetragenus.

tongue with taste and sensation ? 3.-(a) Name the condition of the heartmuscle found in affections requiring extra

TOXICOLOGY AND MEDICO-LEGAL JURISexertion of that organ, and mention some

PRCDENCE. of these affections. (b) Name the condition which results in the conversion of a

1. Describe the external and internal appart of a normal structure into some other pearances of a body recently drowned, and substance, and give example. (c) Name

state how they differ from the appearances the condition found in the uterus after the of a body when life was extinct before menopause. (d) Define necrosis.

being in the water. 4.-(a) Name the infective granulomata.

2. Give the tests by which you can dis(6) What variety of tumors do they re- tinguish between a child still-born and semble in structure? (c) Name the possi

one dying after birth. ble terminations of tubercle.

3. State duties and obligations of a phy5.-(a) What is endocarditis? Is it a

sician when summoned to hold coroner's primary or secondary disease? (b) What inquest over a body suspected of being the most common etiological factor in acute murdered. endocarditis? (c) What the difference in

4. State, with illustration, the different location of the acquired and congenital modes in which suffocation may be pro

duced. forms? (d) What the terminations of acute endocarditis ?

5. What constitutes a dying declaration? 6.-Name tbe cause and chief manifes

Applicants will answer only four of the abore tations of scorbutus in infants.

questions. 7.-(a) Where is the seat and what the nature of the lesion in acute poliomyelitis MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEUTICS. (infantile paralysis)? What is the patho

J. E. WARINNER, 21.D., EXAMINER. logical anatomy of this disease? What are 1.-(a) Which digestive ferment is most its results ?

efficient, and why? (b) In what medium 8.-(a) What are neurons, and where is each ferment most active? (c) Direct a are they founded? (b) Describe a neuron. diet for diabetes mellitus. (d) Direct a

diet for typhoid fever. PHYSIOLOGY.

2.-(a) Give doses, therapy and dangers ROBT. C. RANDOLPH, M.D., EXAMINER.

of three coal-tar products most used as 1.-(a) Give physical properties and antipyretics. (6) Give therapy of nux histological characteristics of blood. (b) vomica and its chief alkaloid. (c) ComDescribe the process of coagulation or clot- pare ether and chloroform as to their ting of the blood. (c) Name the ductless, anesthetic value, giving contraindications vascular or blood glands.

for each. (d) Give means of resuscitation 2.-(a) Describe the mechanism of the in case of danger. heart's action. (b) Describe the sounds of 3.-(a) What are the therapeutic indithe heart and their cause. (c) What phy- cations in poisoning by strychnin, and sical factors are necessary to the main- what drugs are useful? (6) Treatment of tenance of arterial blood pressure?

acute poisoning by arsenic. (C) Treat3.—(a) What is the blood supply of the ment of acute poisoning by opium. () lungs and which arteries supply them with Treatment of acute poisoning by corrosive nutrition? (6) What is the chemical dif- sublimate. ference between inspired and expired air? 4.--(a) What three drugs are best stim(c) What is meant by residual air?

ulants to tardy uterine contractions ? (6) 4.-(a) Describe the mouth digestion. What dangers may result from their use ? (6) What substances are absorbed directly (c) What advantages has strophanthus from the stomach ? (c) What is the suc- over digitalis? (d) Write two prescripcus-entericus, and what are its functions? tions for ophthalmia neonatorum.

5.-(a) Give the number of the spinal 5.-(a) Give origin, derivatives and nerves, and the function of the anterior therapy of guaiacol. (6) Compare atroand posterior roots ? (b) Name the cen- pin with morphin in physiological effects.

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