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that the law was in conflict with a certain clause of the state constitution and therefore invalid. Altho the law was eminently satisfactory to the people of the state, irrespective of party affiliations, yet there has been no movement among them to have the constitution amended so the law can be reinacted and withstand all attacks as to its constitutionality. They seem to have forgotten-or never known-that the framers of our constitution made provisions for its amendment from time to time as experience and changing conditions might require. If the inheritance law was a good law, then the clause in the constitution that caused its overthrow is bad, and it should be removed or amended. The popularity of our present National inheritance tax law and the growing popularity of such of our state inheritance tax laws as have stood the test of constitutionality, and also the popularity of those laws in foreign countries, is conclusive proof that any clause in a constitution that prohibits such laws is decidedly erroneous and unjust. It was clearly the intention of the wise and good men who made our constitutions that in just such cases as this the constitution should be promptly amended, and they provided means whereby this can be done. They did not pretend to perfection in law making. They did not set themselves up as guardians of future generations. At the time that most of them did their great work there were no railroads, telegraphs, electrical motors, etc. They did not hand down the constitutions as perfect documents and suited to all times and conditions. In fact, if they could revisit us now, they would be sorry to know that we are allowing the minor imperfections in their work to stand in the way of progress and justice, thus tending to bring all of their work into disrepute. If they could speak to us from their graves they would say: 'Correct our mistakes; keep our noble constitutions abreast with the progress of civilization; do not allow them to fall into decay; and above all, do not allow them to be stumbling blocks in the path of progress and justice; amend them freely as occasion demands; we made ample provisions for this and we intended that those provisions should be made use of freely.'
"But Pennsylvania is not the only state that is thus discrediting the makers of our constitutions. In the last few years we have all frequently seen accounts of good laws that were past in our various states in the interest of the people, and which the people fully indorsed or demanded, being stricken down by some bad clause in the local state constitution, yet there has been no movement to remove the blotch from the constitution. But we have lately seen a notable exception to this rule. The state of Michigan has a governor who is noted above his contemporary state governors for his strong common sense and manly courage. He is from the people, for the people and believes in government by the people. The last legislature of Michigan past a law providing for the taxation of railroad and other corporation property at its actual value the same as farm lands and other property is taxed. The courts have lately held that the law is unconstitutional and hence void. But instead of tamely submitting to an error in the constitution (or of the court in construing the con
stitution), Governor Pingree has announced that he will soon call an extra session of the legislature to pass and submit to the people an amendment to the constitution and thus correct the error in the present constitution. We need more of such governors who are not party slaves and who work in the interest of the people. And above all, our people should be taught that the authors of our constitutions intended and desired that they should be freely amended from time to time as experience and changing conditions require."
This will keep the constitution constantly up to date. This feature (the exact wording I de not now remember), is in the South Dakota amendment, adopted by the people of that state last fall. "Unconstitutional" has grown to be to me the most disheartening and aggravating word in the English language. It has kept back progress more than any other. It has been the hope and bulwark of the privileged classes. The above plan would preserve all the safety of our constitutions and courts, and at the same time would take from them all oppressive possibilities.
Trusts cannot be killed by scolding about them; and as long as they have honest and genuine economic advantages they will and should succeed. Then the best-the only-way to deal with them will be to absorb them. But in the mean time we should compel them to obey righteous law, just like a firm or individual, and take from them all artificial support that a protective tariff gives them. The following newspaper clipping will give some idea as to their methods:
Washington, June 8.-The Industrial Commission to-day resumed its investigation of trusts, the Standard Oil Company receiving especial attention W. H. Clark, of Ohio, who until last February was employed by the Standard Oil Company in various towns in that State, but was then suspended, testified that while employed at Marietta the Standard had ousted other companies from the business by competition, and then put up the price of oil. He said that eight nominal grades of oil were sold out of only two tanks, the faucet being turned in different directions for different grades. This was done, he said, under instructions from the managers for the Standard Company, Messrs. Matthews and Hollingsworth. Mr. Clark also said that the company bought and sold turpentine, but before selling it would put six or seven gallons of gasoline in each barrel of turpentine.
At Columbus, Mr. Clark was the cashier of the Standard Company. At that point, he said, much of it was adulterated. For instance, miners' oil was made by mixing in a little cotton seed oil. Here the Standard Company started what was called the Shoemaker Oil Company. This was a purely Standard establishment, he testified, its men being paid by the
Standard Company, but it was made to appear to be an independent concern, and was used as a blind.
At Springfield, Mr. Clark said, he was a wagon salesman, and the instructions there were to get trade regardless of the price. Some refined oil was sold as low as four cents, and here also as many as four nominal grades of oil were taken from one tank. Rebates were made when necessary. When he had spoken to the management of the dishonesty of these practices he had been told that it was not for him to say about such matters, but to do what he was told.
At Urbana, he said, he was manager for the Standard Company. Here a competitor was driven out by a threat to force the price down to one cent a gallon. The competitor afterward went to the poor-house.
Witness for a time was manager at Newark. Here the work was very hard because of the great range of prices. There were twenty-five different figures used there. One man would get oil for seven cents, while his next door neighbor would pay 91⁄2 cents. Rebates also were given to especially favored patrons. were made under the instructions of B. A. Matthews, as were all changes in price or terms.
The witness testified that at Newark the company bought a building from over a leaser's head, who was doing a competitive business, and Mr. Clark, with other men, went into the building in the absence of the competitor, loaded the buildig on carts and carried it away. For this he (Mr. Clark) was complimented, and was to have been rewarded with a two weeks' vacation, while the competitor was so frightened that he went out of the business. This was not accomplisht, however, until all his customers had been located by a boy employed to follow his wagon on a bicycle. At Newark a customer wanted oil from Cleveland. He was satisfied by supplying him out of a barrel painted red and markt as if from Cleveland. He received the same oil, however, that other people got.
The witness said that laborers for the Standard Company were generally paid seventy-five cents a day, and that they workt on an average twelve hours a day.
There was, he said, often a difference of two cents a gallon in the prices of oil between places where there was competition and places where there was
Whether one quarrel with it or not, the situation to-day is that American manufacturers are so powerful that they are underselling the manufacturers of Europe in every market. Meanwhile, they have combined to control prices absolutely in this country, and with the tariff wall, have thus the country that fostered them at their mercy, while they are giving the world the benefit of the growth and strength that this fostering care has produced.-Indianapolis News.
Governor Mount, of Indiana, is a devoted Republican who does not favor domestic monoplies, and who believes that the Republican party should take action on the subject. He has said that, while always a believer in protection, he is opposed to any tariff for the benefit of industries that have combined in trusts, destroyed home competition and controlling prices.
For the Education of the "Educated."
Perhaps many of our readers remote from the centers of population have an imperfect or an erroneous idea of the principles advocated by the labor organizations. In this connection some definit information will be of interest. I happen to have at hand the platform of the Brooklyn Central Labor Union. Here it is:
1. Municipal service wholly divorced from partisan politics Tenure of office during good behavior and promotion for meritorious service.
2. Municipal ownership of street railways, telephones, gas and electric light plants for public distribution of power, heat and light. All municipal franchises to be owned and operated by the municipality in the interest of the people.
3. Eight hour service for all employees engaged directly or indirectly on municipal work.
9. Enactment of laws abolishing the sweating system. Number 4 under the head of National Issues is too extreme; also, number 6 cannot be done suddenly unless we, at the same time, impose income and inheritance taxes sufficient to produce enuf revenue to run the National government. But outside of these two planks, can you find anything to object to? Have not these laborers progrest far ahead of the masses of our people in their ideas of government? The average farmer, merchant or professional man could read the above platform with profit. Show it to your intimate friends and ask them what they think of it. I will give other platforms from time to time, perhaps from as humble a source as the above, for the education of those who consider themselves far more intelligent than mechanics.
An Old Story, Always New.
Several times in these columns I have referred to the story of the Guernsey Market House. The germ of truth which it illustrates lies at the very foundation of the money question. This incident illustrates clearly that money is only a sys tem of keeping accounts, which also involves the function of facilitating exchange. "Intrinsic value" money is a useless waste. In spite of the full and free discussion of the money question all over this country during the past few years, there are yet many who say: "The money question is too deep for me," "The money question is too difficult for ordinary men; we should leave it entirely to the financiers," etc. To al these, I wish to say, read the following simple and true story. Cut it out and save it, and read it every time that you doubt your ability to understand the money question. Whenever you hear a man say that he can't understand the money question, read this story to him. Our references to this story have heretofore been rather brief. We quote the following rather extended (Continued over next leaf.)
The Medical World
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Medical World financial interests of the attending physi
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of great value; but should he "milk" the resources of the patient to the entire neglect of justice to the attending physician? Frequently the relatives and friends of the patient are called upon to help make up the fee for the specialist; but this is not done for the faithful, patient attending physician. It is not only gracious, but just, that the specialist see that the attendant get a reasonable share of a sum thus made up.
Dr. Emory Lamphear recently read a paper before the St. Louis Academy of Medical and Surgical Sciences on the subject, "Shall the Specialist pay a 'Commission to the General Practitioner?" The following quotations represent the sentiment exprest in the paper:
"But a 'division of the fee' is not only proper; it oftentimes is imperative, if an injustice is not to be done the family doctor. *** I maintain it is the duty of every specialist to ascertain whether or not the regular attendant has already been, or will be, paid sufficiently well for services rendered; if not-then to divide the proceeds equitably."
Care, Control and Treatment of Inebriates. It seems that new communities must take the lead in many important social needs. Old communities have crystallized around old ideals, while young communities are free to lead out with new plans and original ideas. They are untrameled by the customs and traditions of the old communities. In many ways the laws of the younger Western States are much more progressive than the laws of the Eastern States. New Zealand and parts of Australia are already putting into practical operation, in a moderate way, Henry George's land-value tax theory. We are indebted to the antipodes for the intro
It seems only just that the rights and duction and practical testing of many new
social ideas; also for new and higher social cided that we are our insane brother's ideals.
keener, as many public institutions for the treatment and care of the insane testify. Is it not time that we were taking another step, and include the irresponsible inebriate? "The holy ones" will say: "They should not drink; it is their own fault if they do." "If they have formed intemperate habits, they should not have done so." "Such care would only encourage drunkenness." "If drunkards prefer to wallow in the gutter, let them do so; I do not want to be taxed to take them out of the gutter-let them help themselves,' etc.
We doctors know that inebriety is a disease, sometimes inherited, sometimes ac
Judge or Magistrate may make order as to quired. We know that the average conproperty and treatment of inebriate.
firmed inebriate is just as unable to care for himself as the average insane man. Excesses in business, religion, sexual indulgence, etc., lead to insanity. We do
not refuse care to these insane because "they should not have done so." We recognize that the thing has been done, and that the condition exists. So with the inebriate. When will we rise to that ethical height that will lead us to see the true condition of the inebriate and respond to it properly. When we do so, many valuable but unfortunate members will be restored to society.
I have before me a bill which has past the Legislative Council of New South Wales, Australia. We have said much about the duty of the State in the direction of the care, control and treatment of inebriates, but for actual law on this subject we now have to go to the progressive antipodes. The following is an outline of the bill:
A Judge or Magistrate, on application, and after evidence of medical practitioner, and on inspection, may make an order as to control of
Court of Petty Sessions may make an order in case of an inebriate frequently convicted of drunkenness.
Court in Lunacy jurisdiction may make orders as to property of inebriate who is incapable. Directions may be given, and orders varied
renewed or rescinded.
Order shall authorize attendant to prevent supply of intoxicant to inebriate. Inebriate not to leave the Colony. Inebriate escaping from custody may be arrested.
Inspector-general of Insane and other officers to inspect places where inebriates are under control.
Person supplying inebriate with intoxicant liable to penalty.
Proceedings not to be publisht without permission.
Judges may make rules.
Governor may license institutions for inebriates and may make regulations.
For the purposes of this Act"Inebriate" means a person who habitually uses alcoholic liquors or intoxicating or narcotic drugs to excess.
"Institution" means a place licenst under this Act or establisht by the Government for the reception, control and treat
ment of inebriates.
Notice the definition of "inebriate" in this Act; it means the victim, not only of alcohol, but of "intoxicating or narcotic drugs."
The question, "Are we our brother's keeper?" is an old one. In civilized countries it has for many years been de
The Treatment of Gonorrhea.
One of our subscribers writes as follows: "Would it be out of place to ask for a general discussion of gonorrhea in the male, and treatment, also asking for the treatment used at the Jefferson College Hospital? Also the results of the use of methylin blue in this disease, used either internally or by injection? Also the results of the use of ichthyol in this disease? Two or three weeks ago I was in the company of some twenty or thirty physicians, and they also said that they would like to see this subject taken up."
For the following information I am indebted to Dr. H. R. Loux, who is officially connected with the Jefferson College Hospital:
Ichthyol has been tried, but as the results did not seem to be specially encouraging, it was abandoned. The early trials of methylin blue gave sufficient encouragement to justify a series of very careful observations on a large number of cases. One hundred cases were thus carefully observed, with the following general results: It has been demonstrated that methylin blue will destroy the gonococci. Also it has noticeably lessened the average period of duration of this disease. While using methylin blue the following facts must be borne in mind: It changes the color of the urine to indigo blue. Unless the patient is warned of this fact it is likely to frighten him. As this stains the linens, the patient should be appropriately warned, or before he knows it he will be placed in an embarrassing position. If a nocturnal emission should occur, it will be blue also, and will stain the bed clothing if it should come in contact. Therefore, it is a good plan for a patient taking methylin blue to wear an apron day and night, which can be thrown away when soiled. The inconveniences just mentioned may impress the general practitioner as being objections, but we all know how troublesome the treatment of gonorrhea is, and slight objections should not stand in the way of the use of what is considered "one of the best remedies of the present day" by those who have used it extensively.
The following is the present treatment of a typical case of acute gonorrhea in the out-patient department of the Jefferson College Hospital:
After the usual general directions as to the condition of the bowels, dietary, avoiding use of bicycle and physical strains of all sorts, avoiding alcoholic stimulants absolutely, and the society of women as much as possible, etc., etc., the patient is put on the following: A onegrain tablet of methylin blue three times a day. At the same time a capsule containing balsam of copaiba five minims, and oil of cubebs ten minims three times a
day. The tablet and the capsule may be taken both together or separated by an hour or so-it makes no difference. We all know that the general custom is to give copaiba after meals, to lessen the probability of disagreement with the stomach. The methylin blue seems to have no such action. No special details of administration seem to be necessary, the important thing being that the patient get a tablet and capsule three times a day.
At the same time the following astringent injection is ordered: Plumb. acetas
Fl. ex. amarae
aa oz. j q. s. oz.
M. Sig.-Inject morning and evening. The internal treatment is continued until the discharge is stopt. The injection is continued until convalescence, but it is diluted one-half in the latter stages.
In the outdoor department of the Jefferson College Hospital the average duration of acute gonorrhea, treated as above, is about three weeks. Some cases convalesce sooner, and some cases continue four weeks.
Methylin blue is not used as an injection. It has been tried in this way but no virtue seemed to come from it. As above given, the dose of methylin blue is one grain three times a day. Larger doses, say from two to two and a half grains, are liable to produce tenesmus, which, however, soon passes away under the usual management, the medicine being tempo-rarily stopt. It should be borne in mind that methylin blue tends to cause constipation. This tendency should be combated by appropriate measures. It must be borne in mind that the chief virtue of methylin blue seems to be the destruction of gonococci. This remedy is of no value in chronic cases where the gonococci are not present. Here we have tissue changes which must be treated according to the conditions and indications present, local treatment being chiefly relied upon.