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Morning Paper.


1. Make a free-hand drawing of a Regular Octahedron, a Right Square Octahedron, and a Right Rhombic Octahedron. Explain in what respects these forms differ,

2. Give a list of the minerals from which Lead is chiefly obtained.

3. Explain the use of the blowpipe in distinguishing minerals.

4. Give the chemical composition of Rock Salt. Name the rocks in which it is chiefly found, and the minerals with which it is usually associated.

5. Define the difference between Sand, Sandstone, Grit, and Conglomerate.

6. Explain the difference between a sulphide and a sulphate. Instance a few minerals belonging to each of those classes.

7. In what way do minerals differ from rocks? To which may Coal be referred, and why?

8. To what class of rocks does Granite belong ? Of what minerals is it composed, and how may they be distinguished ?

9. Define the terms dip, strike, bedding, cleavage, joint, fault; and make a sketch to illustrate your meaning

10. What are Glaciers, and what are the effects they have produced on the surface of the Earth ?

11. What are Landslips? Explain the causes by which such phenomena are produced.

12. Give an account of the particular action by which Caves and other cavities are produced in calcareous rocks.

13. What are Raised Beaches ? State briefly the important information they furnish to the geologist.

14. Explain the origin of Springs. What is the most common cause why Springs of water flow out at the surface of the ground ?

15. Give a concise account of the causes to which the formation of Valleys has been ascribed.

16. Construct a column of the principal subdivisions of the Carboniferous rocks.

Explain their differences of origin, and state the distinguishing mineral character of each.


Afternoon Paper.


1. Give the general characters and composition of some of the more important Igneous rocks.

2. Upon what principles are the relative ages of the Stratified rocks determined ?

3. Explain the principal agencies by which rocks are disintegrated.

4. Define the meaning of the words, Breccia, Conglomerate, Marl, Shale, and Porphyry, and explain how these rocks have been formed.

5. Mention some strata of Freshwater origin, and name the genera of Mollusca usually found in them.

6. Define or illustrate by diagrams the terms, Ordinary, Reversed, and Trough faults.

7. What is Cleavage in Mineralogy ? Mention some minerals which cleave with facility, and state in each case the directions in which they respectively cleave.


8. Explain the meaning of the term “hemihedral' in Crystallography, and give examples of minerals belonging to the Cubical system which occur in hemihedral forms.

9. Mention some minerals of which Silica forms an important part, and give their general characters.

10. From what minerals are the metals used in the manufacture of brass obtained ? Give their chemical composition. .

11. Mention three minerals containing Carbonic Acid, three which contain Sulphur, and three which occur as Oxides.

12. Mention some of the most characteristic fossils by which the three great groups of Sedimentary rocks are distinguished.

13. Give the history of a Coral reef, and state to what class of geological formations it has reference.

14. Name the principal genera of Cephalopodous Mollusca, and give their range in time.

15. Draw up a table showing the succession of the Silurian rocks, and place alongside some of the characteristic fossils.

16. In what parts of Great Britain have deposits considered to be of Miocene age been found, and state their lithological and palæontological characters ?



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