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national observers to verify such assurances;




(E) live in peace and security with the

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H. CON. RES. 32

Expressing the grave concern of Congress regarding the occupation of the

Republic of Lebanon by the Syrian Arab Republic.


JANUARY 26, 2005 Ms. Ros-LEHTINEN (for herself and Mr. ENGEL) submitted the following co

concurrent resolution; which was referred to the Committee on International Relations

CONCURRENT RESOLUTION Expressing the grave concern of Congress regarding the oc

cupation of the Republic of Lebanon by the Syrian Arab Republic.

Whereas the Syrian Arab Republic is the only country cur

rently occupying another country that is a full member of the United Nations, in violation of all international laws and norms, including United Nations Security Council Resolutions 425, 426, 520, and 1559;

Whereas since its invasion of the Republic of Lebanon in

1976, the Syrian regime has implemented a systematic policy of occupation over Lebanon that has transformed the political, social, and economic character of Lebanon;


Whereas on July 20, 1976, President Hafez al-Assad of Syria

stated that, “Syria and Lebanon were one state and one people . . .";

Whereas the total Syrian occupation was complete on October

13, 1990, when the Syrian troops launched aerial and ground attacks and occupied the Lebanese presidential palace and the ministry of defense, ousting the constitutional government of Prime Minister Michel Aoun of Leb


Whereas the Syrian regime appointed their own proxy gov

ernment and president in occupied Lebanon and started a large-scale persecution operation against the Lebanese people by arresting, abducting, torturing, and killing opponents to the occupation;

Whereas, on May 22, 1991, following the occupation of Bei

rut, Lebanon, Syria concluded the Brotherhood Treaty

for Coordination and Cooperation with Lebanon; Whereas this treaty solidified the integration of the two coun

tries in matters of security and intelligence, finance and trade, and industry and agriculture, by establishing the mechanism for Syrian command under the cover of "joint” decision-making;

Whereas the Syrian regime has continued to employ a wide

range of policy means to transform Lebanon into a "client state" and a Syrian political satellite;

Whereas Syria clearly tampered with the Lebanese par

liamentary elections of 1992, 1996, and 2000, amending electoral laws in all instances, which delineated voting districts and laid down intricate procedures for the elections, which were rigged in a way to guarantee results favorable to Syria;


Whereas Syrian-backed ad-hoc modifications to the Lebanese

constitution extended the presidential tenure of the Lebanese president Elias Harawi by three years, allowed Emile Lahoud, commander of the Lebanese army, to become president, and extended Lahoud's term in contravention of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559;

Whereas Lebanese judicial institutions have been utilized and

mobilized to impose Syrian control, including the routine issuance of death sentences in abstentia against patriots

and oppositionists; Whereas Lebanese Broadcasting Law No. 382 of 1994 pro

vided the legislative framework for controlling and restricting Lebanese radio and television;

Whereas the muzzle on the free flow of information and opin

ion in Lebanon is in sharp contrast to the legacy of jour

nalism in that country; Whereas Syria has reportedly widely utilized the practices of

kidnapping and arresting Lebanese citizens, using torture against them, and causing their virtual disappearance;

Whereas Human Rights Watch reported that in November

1999 Syrian authorities in Damascus, Syria, offering no explanation whatsoever, returned the dead body of Lebanese citizen Adel Khalaf Ajouri, aged 52, who had “disappeared" in 1990;

Whereas within Lebanon itself, Syria reportedly operated de

tention facilities in Tripoli, Beirut, Shtaura in the Bekka

Valley, and Anjar on the Lebanese-Syrian border; Whereas “Syrian order” in Lebanon was institutionalized

when Damascus led the process of disarming the Leba



nese militias except for retaining Hezbollah as a terrorist force engaged against the State of Israel;

Whereas Lebanon, under the control of Syria, continues to

serve as a major training center for terrorist organizations such as Hezbollah, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command;

Whereas Lebanese Government officials have actively facili

tated and contributed to the Syrian occupation and its activities, threatening regional and global security; and

Whereas United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559

calls for the “strict respect of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, unity, and political independence of Lebanon under the sole and exclusive authority of the Government of Lebanon throughout Lebanon", the withdrawal from Lebanon of “all remaining foreign forces", "the disbanding and disarmament of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias," and "the extension of the control of the Government of Lebanon over all Lebanese territory”: Now, therefore, be it


Resolved by the Ilouse of Representatives (the Senate

2 concurring), That it is the sense of Congress that


(1) the Republic of Lebanon is a captive coun




(2) the occupation of Lebanon represents a


long-term threat to the security of the Middle East

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