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brated kneeling white hart as a badge of cognizance, or sign of company, since retainers and followers of every condition bore the order of their leader. But this badge, so annoying on many occasions to Henry the Fourth, was probably never permitted to interfere with the family coats. The shields of the Lees of Adlington and Booths had a bend sable; whilst those of High Legh wore the bend fusilled. The coats of the Lees of whom we have been treating, are thus :

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The old shield was, as usual in earlier times, both simple and significant ; but successive intermarriages have introduced various impalements and compound additions. The primitive coat worn by the ancient Cheshire family already mentioned was, Azure, two bars argent, a bend sable, with a Bear statant sable, collared and lined or, for crest. These arms, slightly differenced, were confirmed and granted to the Hartwell stock in the year 1572, being-ARMS. Azure, two bars or, over all a bend compony gules and of the second. CREST. Upon a wreath of the colours, on a mount vert a Bear statant sable, muzzled, collared, and chain reflexed over the back argent; the muzzle, in Gwillim’s language, binding the beast to good behaviour. Motto. In large letters, VERVM ATQVE DECENS. But in carrying out this grant, the herald seems to have made some omission in the drawing and blazon of the crest; for the Bear has long been passant over the wreath, without the intervention of a mount vert. The arms and crests now borne by Dr. Lee are seen in Plate II.

page 33;

33; and technically may be thus described :-ARMS. Quarterly: first and fourth LEE, viz. Azure, two bars or, over all a bend chequy gules and of the second ; second and third FIOTT, viz. Azure, on a chevron between three lozenges or an anchor erect with cable sable. CRESTS. First LEE, viz. on a wreath of the colours a Bear passant sable, muzzled, collared, and chain reflexed over the back argent; second Fiott, viz. on a wreath of the colours a demi-horse argent, , charged on the shoulder with a fleur-de-lys sable. MOTTO. (Ut supra.)

. There is no local tradition for the introduction of the mouth-fastening, though it may be assumed that there was a reason for it. In a similar case with another Cheshire family, also having a bear for its cognizance, when a stalwart Brereton was guilty of an excess of ardour at a tournament, the king, thinking a mild rebuke was called for, exclaimed—“ I shall put a muzzle upon that bear;” and directed it to be notified accordingly by the heralds. It is just possible that the alteration observable in the crest before us, may have resulted from some implied promise of good behaviour on the part of the Lees, to Richard's successors: in the words of King John

And then their arms, like to a muzzled bear,

were only to be used when the head was released by the proper master.

It should not be overlooked that the Lees of Quarendon, though deriving the name of Lee from the lordship of Lee in the parish of Wibonbury, in the county palatine of Chester, have yawed off from their cousins of Hartwell. The Quarendon branch was brought into Buckinghamshire by Benedict Lee, about the beginning of the reign of Edward the Fourth. That gentleman had issue, by Elizabeth his wife, Richard Lee, who altered the old family arms, and thereby swerved from the main stream.

The Coat he assumed was- Argent, a fesse between three crescents sable. CREST: On a marquess's coronet or, a

demi stone-column argent, and on its cap a regal crown proper. JOTTO: Fide et Vigilantia. The family flourished, and they appear to have been in high favour with Queen Elizabeth (see page 62), as well as other sovereigns. In 1674, Sir Henry Edward Lee was created Earl of Lichfield by King Charles the Second, on his marriage with Lady Charlotte Fitzroy, one of the natural daughters of that profligate monarch by the noted Duchess of Cleveland. The ninth son of this newly-made Earl, the lIon. Fitzroy Henry Lee, served in the Royal Navy, and was a very useful though not popular officer : he died a ViceAdmiral in April, 1751.

This rapid sketch might possibly have been benefited, as well as enlarged, by consulting the documents of the various Heralds’ Visitations which are lodged in the British Museum and the Heralds' College: and, had not that important trust, the Record Commission, been so immaturely strangled, no doubt the several ramifications of the numerous family in hand, had found frequent enrolment among our historical registers. And, indeed, the Lees of lartwell might be more minutely detailed by a stricter examination of the papers now in the Muniment Room than I have had leisure, or sufficient practice in old writings, to give them. These documents constituted a forbidding gurgite vasto when I first inspected them; but they are now being chronologically arranged, under the able inspection of Mr. William Henry Black, of the Rolls' IIouse; and will in future be of comparatively easy access.

To assist inquiry, it may be as well to state the principal heads under which the muniments are to be classified, namely,

I. Charters of feoffment, and deeds of various kinds, from the time of King John (or earlier)

to the present time. II. Royal patents, pardons, and grants, from Henry III. to George III. III. Fines and inquisitions, from A.D. 1293. IV. Chirographs of fines, and exemplifications of fines, recoveries, and outlawry, from

Henry VII. to George III.
V. Court Rolls of manors, from Edward II. to the present time.
VI. Rentals in rolls and books for Hartwell, Stone, Bishopstone, and Little Hampden, from

Edward I. to the present time.
VII. Leases and counterparts, from Elizabeth, or earlier.

VIII. Maps, plans, and surveys or terriers, of estates.
IX. Wills and administrations, from Edward IV. or earlier.

X. Old copies of inquisitions post mortem, Henry VIII. and Elizabeth.
XI. Proceedings in law and equity, from Charles II. to the present time.
XII. Assessments on the three Hundreds of Aylesbury.

There are also bundles of letters and papers of miscellaneous kinds; accounts of real and personal estates, of various periods; and several charters without dates, but all prior to the year 1290. This depository is an appropriate and secluded apartment on the first floor, at the north-west angle of the mansion, and apparently in little danger of destruction by fire: the following is a view of

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CILAPTER III.

PARTICULARS RESPECTING HARTWELL HOUSE: ITS APARTMENTS, PAINTINGS,

LIBRARY, MUSEUM, NUMISMATA, AND EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES.

§ 1. THE MANSION.

Hartwell House is, with great propriety of selection and adaptation, erected on a gentle eastern slope from the main road between Aylesbury and Oxford, where it forms the bight or bend whence that part derives its Saxon name,Bitnam. The park is, therefore, circumscribed on the west by this highway; but its stately trees entirely screen the venerable mansion from the gaze of mere roadsters,—though applicants for admission are never refused.

The building, as already shown, is of considerable age; and, notwithstanding the many alterations and additions it has undergone at various times—for better or for worse—it still retains a large portion of its old structure. It was erected on the site of one much older, by Sir Thomas Lee, who, acquiring the estate de jure uxoris in 1570, expended a large sum of money, and evinced much taste in the undertaking. He was, however, fortunate in commencing at a time when Inigo Jones was widely diffusing that domestic architectural judgment, which had made its appearance among us in the days of IIenry VIII. and Cardinal Wolsey, who both delighted in rearing palaces; and who, aided by Hans Holbein, opened out the composite of Roman and Gothic styles, which obtained such popularity in England as the Elizabethan. And, although the grounds were not “ dressed” till after his day, Sir Thomas is considered to have selected

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