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Matt. v. 23.


Therefore, if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee;

Leave there thy gift, before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother; and then come, and offer thy gift".

putrid and offensive animal substances must have been consumed in that valley, to prevent contagion in so hot a climate, and in such a city as Jerusalem; we may with certainty infer that a great number of persons must be constantly employed in carrying all kinds of filth and offal to the spot, in supplying fuel, in attending on the fires, &c.

Now this must have been the lowest, most degrading, and offensive employment, in the estimation of a Jew, to which any buman being could be devoted; and to this wretched state Christ declares, that he who indulges himself in the habit of treating his fellow-creatures with insolence and contempt, is in danger of coming. It is a common saying, that a man would rather be thought a knave than a fool: the appellation of thou fool, therefore, is attended with a degree of insult that is not easily forgiven; and he who practises such abuses of the tongue must every where expect to find an enemy, instead of a friend; till at length he sinks to the most loathsome offices that can be allotted to him, in order to gain a wretched subsistence.

This exposition derives further countenance from the use of the Greek adjective voxos in the original, which, connected with the future, sat, may mean, shall be held, or bound, as a slave is to his master.-See Hewlett's Commentary in loc. Matt. v. 22.

47 It has excited surprise among some writers, that the Gospels should be written in Greek, instead of the Syriac, or Aramaic, or Syro Chaldee dialect. The observation will only apply to St. Matthew's Gospel. The three other evangelists addressed their Gospels to Grecian or Roman converts. But the necessity of adopting the Greek language, as the dialect of all others most universally spoken, will appear from the remarkable fact that the Jewish writers who were cotemporary with our Lord, or the immediate successors of the apostles, have used many Greek words in their Hebrew, apparently without knowing that the Greek was foreign to their language. Many instances have occurred of this kind among the extracts I have met in Dr. Gill, Lightfoot, and Schoetgen, though it did not seem necessary to observe them. I have, however, collected some few. 1. Προσφέρεις τὸ δῶρόν σε, Matt. v. 23. γ ν μήνη τη pb Tanchuma, fol. 54. 2.

2. "Io0t ivvowv tý ávridíxy cov, Matt. v. 25. rp'qux zwmb Debarin rab. § 5. fol. 257. 1.

3. 'Exì ra Chμaros, Judæi retinent vocem græcam, Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 235.

4. Kúpiɛ p,

Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 232.
5. Ivan, van by a


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Schemoth rabba, § 46. fol. 140. 2. ap

par Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 252.
Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 192.

and jab w 1798 Targum Jerusalem on Exod. xxiv.

7. Venit quidem servum emere cupiens et dixit ad dominum

num קאקנריסין הוא או קאלוחסין הוא cjus: Servus iste quem vendis

Kakηyóρos, an kaλokáуaboç est? Schemoth rabba, § 43. fol. 138. 3. Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 214.

8. 'Aπávṛnois, ha Sw vibh pax) Tanchuma, fol. 56. 1. Schoetgen. vol. i. p. 216.

9. Evdapiov, Luke xix, 20. 77770 • 7y in pecunias sudario

Matt. v. 25. Agree with thine adversary quickly, whilst thou art in the way with him; lest at any time, the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.
















Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come
out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing.

Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Explana-
Thou shalt not commit adultery.

tion of the

But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a command-
woman, to lust after her, hath committed adultery with ment.
her already in his heart.

And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast
it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy
members should perish, and not that thy whole body
should be cast into hell.

And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.

It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement.

But I say unto you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced, committeth adultery.

Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of Swearing old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt per- prohibited. form unto the Lord thine oaths.

But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by hea-
ven, for it is God's throne:

Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool; neither by
Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.

Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou
canst not make one hair white or black.

But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay : for whatsoever is more than these, cometh of evil.

Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an of revenge. eye, and a tooth for a tooth:

But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil; but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.

And if any one will sue thee at the law, and take away
thy coat, let him have thy cloak also.

ligavit. Ketuvoth, fol. 67. 2, &c. 170 18 Rasche et Bava
Mezia, fol. 42, 1.

Many others might be selected from the writers who have en-
deavoured to illustrate Scripture from the Talmudical writings;
but these are sufficient to justify us in asserting that the Greek
language was in general use in Judea, as well as in other parts
of the Roman empire; and was the language therefore most
suitable to the designs of the Evangelists.

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Matt.iv. 41.



And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.

Give to him that asketh of thee; and from him that
would borrow of thee, turn not thou away:

Luke vi. 30. and of him that taketh away thy goods, ask them not again.
And as ye
would that men should do unto you, do ye
also to them likewise.

Matt. v.43.


Ye have heard that it has been said, Thou shalt love Christians thy neighbour, and hate thy enemy.

But I say unto you,

Luke vi. 27, which hear, Love your enemies; do good to them

Matt. v. 44. that hate you; bless them that curse you; and pray for them which despitefully use you:

are to love their ene


45. That ye may be the children of your Father which is in
heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on
the good; and sendeth rain on the just, and on the unjust.
For if ye love them which love you, what reward have Christians



Luke vi. 33.


Luke vi. 32. for sinners also love those that love them:
Matt, v. 46. do not even the Publicans the same?
And if ye salute your
brethren only, what do you more
than others? Do not even the Publicans so?
And if ye do good to them which do good to you,
what thank have ye? for sinners also do even the same.
And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive,
what thank have ye? for sinners also lend to sinners, to
receive as much again.




Matt. v. 48.

But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing again; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Highest, for he is kind unto the unthankful, and to the evil.

Be ye therefore merciful,

Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is

in heaven is

Lake vi. 36. merciful, (and)

Matt. v. 48. perfect.

Matt. vi. 1.





are to do good to all


on almsgiv

Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be Directions seen of them; otherwise ye have no reward of your ing.

ther which is in heaven.


Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do, in the synagogues, and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, they have their reward.

But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doth :

That thine alms may be in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret, himself shall reward thee openly.

And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypo- How to crites are for they love to pray, standing in the syna- pray. gogues, and in the corners of the streets, that they may be

Matt, vi. 5, seen of men. Verily I say unto you, they have their reward.



But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father, which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.

But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the hea-
then do; for they think that they shall be heard for their
much speaking.

8. Be not ye therefore like unto them; for your Father
knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask him.











After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven 48, Hallowed be thy name.

Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.

Give us this day our daily bread.

And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: for thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever.


For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly
Father will also forgive you :

But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will
your Father forgive your trespasses.

Moreover, when ye fast, be not as the hypocrites, of a How to sad countenance; for they disfigure their faces, that they fast. may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.

But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thy head, and wash thy face;

That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father, which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.

19. Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth; where To lay up
moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break treasure in
through and steal:

20. But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven; where
neither moth nor rust doth corrupt; and where thieves do
not break through and steal.

21. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be





The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye Christian be single, thy whole body shall be full of light.

simplicity But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full enforced. of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness?

48 Lightfoot and Schoetgen have shewn, at length, that the various clauses of the Lord's prayer were similar to, and were probably borrowed from, various phrases used in the liturgical services of the Jews.

Mat. vi. 24.



No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate Decision in the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the religion one, and despise the other. Ye, cannot serve God and


Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment?

Behold the fowls of the air; for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they? 27. Which of you, by taking thought, can add one cubit

unto his stature?

28. And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the
lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither
do they spin;




And yet I say unto you, that even Solomon, in all his glory, was not arrayed like one of these.

Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field,
which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven,
shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?
Therefore, take no thought, saying, What shall we
eat? or what shall we drink? or, wherewithall shall we
be clothed?

32. (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek ;) for
your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all
these things:



Luke vi. 37.


But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you.

Take therefore no thought for the morrow; for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself: sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.


Judge not, and ye shall not be judged; condemn not, To judge and ye shall not be condemned; forgive, and ye shall be no man. forgiven:

Give, and it shall be given unto you, good measure, pressed down and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom: for with

Matt, vii. 2. what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged; and with Luke vi. 38, the same measure ye mete withal, it shall be measured to you again.




And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch?

The disciple is not above his master: but every one that is perfect shall be as his master.

And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but

Matt. vii. 3. considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?

4. or how

Luke vi. 42. canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, let me pull out

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