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Increase in the Flood Waters in the Cultivated Lands, 101.-The Ocean:

Secular Changes in the Level of the Ocean, 70; New Generalization in

Ocean Physics, 72; the Challenger Observations on the Deep-sea Bottom,

73; Photographing the Waves, 103; Barometric Observations on the

Ocean, 104; 80-called Tides in Great Lakes, 69; Tides of the Eastern

Aleutians and the North Pacitic, 70; Influence of Winds upon the Tides,

73; on the Tides in the Roadstead of Fiume, 107; Tides of the Mediterra-

nean, 113; Origin of Ocean Currents, 71; the Circulation of Ocean Cur-

rents, 71.–The Air. See Meteorology.

(b.) METEOROLOGY.

Meteorology in general: Nautical Meteorology, 76; Treatise on Meteor-

ology by Mohn, 78; Application of Amsler's Planimeter to Meteorological

Calculations, 79; Maritime Conference in London, 88; the Importance of

Meteorology, 90.--Climatology in general: Influence of Forests on Cli-

mate, 74; the Dry Season of Brazil, 79; Report of the Signal-Service Ob-

server on Pike's Peak, 80; the Frequency of Storms, 80; the Passage of

Storms to Europe from America, 80; Do Storms Cross the Atlantic? 112;

Cause of the Warm Climate of the West Coast of Norway, 81; Connection

between the Seasons and Human Mortality, 81; the Distribution of Thun-

der-storms, 82; Currents of Air within Cyclones and Waterspouts, 85;

the Temperature of Stormy Winds, 88; on Atmospheric Pressure, Winds

and Rain, 89; Secular Changes of Climate, 90; Meteorology in New South

Wales, 91; Connection of Weather and Colliery Explosions, 114; Periodic-

ity of Hail-stornis, 116; Climatology of Florida, 117.omWeather Signals

and Predictions: Daily Weather Charts, 113.-Atmospheric Electricity:

see Electricity (Physics); Atmospheric Electricity, 97; Figures made by

Lightning, 117; Lightning-conductors, 156; Atmospheric Electricity in

Spitzbergen, 157.-Atmospheric Pressure and the Winds: on the The-

ory of Tornadoes and Waterspouts, 77; the Progressive Movement of

Areas of Cold Air, 85; Carbonic-acid Gas in the Air, 92; Barometric Ob-

servations on the Ocean, 104; on the Distribution of Barometric Pressure

in European Russia, 105.-Temperature: the Penetration of Cold Air

into the Earth, 86; Glaciation of Iceland, 113; Periodicity of Severe

Winters, 115.--Moisture : Rainfall and Solar Spots, 79; Mirage, 83 ; Aque-

ous Vapor in the Atmosphere, 87; Periodicity of Rainfall, 87; on the Secu-

lar Diminution in Europe of Springs, Rivers, and Streams with the Simul-

taneous Increase in the Flood Waters in the Cultivated Lands, 101; the

Destructive Floods in Southern France, 98; the Diurnal and Annual

Periodicity of the Moisture in Russia, 108; the Hourly Distribution of

Rainfall, 114.-Instruments: a New Barometer of Large Scale, 83; the

New Self-recording Barometer, 84; a very Delicate Barometer, 86; the

New Anemoscope, 87; the Small Oscillations of the Barometer, 104; on

the Accuracy of Anemometers, 108; the Self-registering Barometer of

Redier, 111.

C. GENERAL PHYSICS......

.(xlii) 119

General: Attraction and Repulsion Resulting from Radiation, 119; the

Difference between Dry and Moist Air, 120; on the Laws of Apparent

Adhesion, 121 ; the Dissipation of Energy, 122 ; Crystallization Illustrated

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by the Microscopic Photograph, 123; Chemistry and Thermotics, 125;

Continuity of the Liquid and Gaseous States of Matter, 125; the Forces

developed by Evaporation and Condensation, 126; the Heat produced by

Galvanic Currents, 126; the Molecular Constitution of Gases and Liquids,

127; Compressibility of Water, 145; the Friction and Thermal Conductiv-

ity of Gases, 169; the Connection between Fluorescence and Absorption,

170; the Isochronism of the Balance Spring, 171; Attraction, Repulsion,

and Radiation, 173; Rood's Application of Zöllner's Horizontal Pendulum,

174; the Elasticity of Bars of Iceland Spar, 175; a New Manometer, 176;

the Physical Properties of Matter in the Liquid and Gaseous States, 176;

on the Influence upon the Movement of a Pendulum of a Fluid contained

in its Spherical Bob, 177; Flow of Air through Orifices, 186.

Sound (see also p. xlix): Reflection of Sound from a Layer of Flame or

Heated Gas, 128; New Method of Observing the Vibrations of a Tuning-

fork, 130; the Action of Organ-pipes, 131; Effect of the Movement of the

Observer on Sound and Light, 131; the Theory of Resonators, 132; Vibra-

tions of Membranes, 132; the Cause of Wolf in the Violincello, 179; the

Pyrophone, 179; Ancient Musical Instrument in China, 202; Remarkable

Improvements in Stringed Instruments, 203; Harmony in Musical Instru-

ments, 204.- Fog-signals: the Gas-gun for Fog-signals, 129; Steam Fog-

whistles, 129; a New Fog-signal, 130; Relative Efficiency of Various Fog-

signals, 180; Fog-signals, 181.

Light (see also ASTRONOMY for Spectroscopy, and p. lix): the Spectra

of the Least Fusible Metals, 133; the Cause of the Variation of Gaseous

Spectra, 133; a Simple Spectroscope for Stars, 133; the Beginnings of

Spectrum Analysis, 134; Spectra of Certain Rarer Metals, 134; Effect of

Temperature and Pressure on the Spectrum Lines, 135; New Tables of

Spectrum Lines, 135; Advantageous Construction of the Spectroscope,

136; Abbe's Refractometer, 136; the Cause of the Luminosity and Non-

luminosity of Flames, 136; Flame of Burning Glycerine, 137; a Perfectly

Monochromatic Sodium Flame, 137; an Apparatus for Illustrating the

Mechanical Effects of Light, 137; on the Intensity of the Light Reflected

from Glass, 138; the Fixed Stars as Visible through Minute Apertures,

139; the Opacity of Photographic Images, 140; on Wave Surfaces in

Optics, 140; on Optical Phenomena at the Transit of Venus, 142; the

Color of Diamonds, 144; Gilt-edged Prism in the Construction of the

Camera-lucida, 144; the Reflection of Light, 146; the Action of Light

upon Chlorophyl, 146; Experiments on the Velocity of Light, 147;

Automatic Registration of the Chemical Action of Light, 148; New Method

of Measuring the Velocity of Light, 149; the Power of the Electric Light,

150; Electric Light for Locomotives, 151; the Connection between Flu-

orescence and Absorption, 170; the Spectroscope with a Fluorescent Ocular,

138; Accidental or Subjective Colors, 189; Reflection of Thin Films, 191;

Elliptic Polarizations of Light, 140; a New Class of Absorption Phenomena,

141; the Phosphorescence of Phosphorus, 141; Great French Light-house

at La Havre, 149; the Roman Pharos in Dover Castle, 150; New Pho-

tometers, 145; on Celestial Photometry, 182; Recent Improvements in the

Microscope, 188; Testing Microscope Object-glasses, 189, on the Phenom-

ena of Diffraction Produced by Circular Net-work, 143,

Heat (see also p. liii): Attraction and Repulsion Resulting from Radia-

tion, 119; Increased Radiation with Temperature, 119; Ebullition Phenom-

ena, 124; Relation between Chemistry and Thermotics, 125; the Heat

produced by Galvanic Currents, 126; the Thermal Conductivity of Mer-

cury, 152; on the Expansion of India Rubber by Heat, 154; on the Molec-

ular Heats of Similar Compounds, 155; on the Repulsion Due to Heat,

155; the Specific Heat and Cubic Expansion of Bodies, 156; the Cariations

of Temperature accompanying the Diffusion of Gases, 172; the Freezing

of Salt Water, 194; the Black Bulb in Vacuum Thermometers, 151 ; a New

Source of Error with the Mercurial Thermometers, 152; Reliability of

Siemens's Pyrometer, 153; Siemens's Electrical Pyrometer and Differential

Voltameter, 191; a New Mercurial Thermometer Minimum and Maximum,

153; New Self-recording Thermometer, 154.

Electricity (see also METEOROLOGY, and p. lxxii): the Transmission of

Mechanical Power by Means of Electricity, 122; the Evaporation of Metals

by Electricity, 128; the Power of the Electric Light, 150; Electric Light

for Locomotives, 151; Lightning Conductors, 156; Edlund's Theory of the

Nature of Electricity, 157; on the Electricity of Mineral Waters, 158;

the Stratification of Electric Discharges in Vacuo, 158; on Unilateral Con-

ductivity of Electricity, 159, 195; the Theory of the Electrical Machine,

199; the Electrical Conductivity of Ligneous Substances, 200; the Electric

Charge of a Conducting Wire, 159; the Action of Electricity on Phos-

phorus, 160; the Differences between Voltaic and Frictional Electricities,

160; on the Electric Discharge, 196; New Modification of the Leclanche

Battery, 161; Simple Method of Making Carbon Cells, 162; New Absolute
Galvanometer, 162; the Influence of a Magnet upon the Galvanic Arch,
166; Siemens's Electrical Pyrometer and Differential Voltameter, 191 ;
Singular Property of Aluminum Electrodes, 196; Telegraphic Ground-
currents, 197; the Electrical Voting Machine, 198.

Magnetism (see also TERRESTRIAL Piysics and METEOROLOGY, and

p.lxx): On the Relation between Specific Gravity and Magnetism of Iron,

124; Velocity of the Transmission of Magnetic Force, 157; Earth-currents

on Telegraphic Lines, 159; the Formation of Magnets by Electrolysis, 161;

the Effect of Magnetism on the Electric Discharge, 165; Formation of

Magnetism by Electric Currents, 166; the Influence of a Magnet upon the

Galvanic Arch, 166; New Source of Magnetism, 167; Magnetic Permea-

bility of Iron, Nickel, etc., 167; Improvements in the Gramme Magneto-

electric Machine, 168.-Compasses : Variations of Ships' Compasses, 163 ;

Circular Magnetic Needles, 200; Corrections of the Compass on Iron Ships,

201.

Continuity of the Liquid and Gaseous States of Matter, 125; the Forces

developed by Evaporation and Condensation, 126; the Heat produced by

Galvanic Currents, 126; the Molecular Constitution of Gases and Liquids,

127; Compressibility of Water, 145; the Friction and Thermal Conductiv-

ity of Gases, 169; the Connection between Fluorescence and Absorption,

170; the Isochronism of the Balance Spring, 171; Attraction, Repulsion,

and Radiation, 173; Rood's Application of Zöllner's Horizontal Pendulum,

174; the Elasticity of Bars of Iceland Spar, 175; a New Manometer, 176;

the Physical Properties of Matter in the Liquid and Gaseous States, 176;

on the Influence upon the Movement of a Pendulum of a Fluid contained

in its Spherical Bob, 177; Flow of Air through Orifices, 186.

Sound (see also p. xlix): Reflection of Sound from a Layer of Flame or

Heated Gas, 128; New Method of Observing the Vibrations of a Tuning-

fork, 130; the Action of Organ-pipes, 131; Effect of the Movement of the

Observer on Sound and Light, 131; the Theory of Resonators, 132; Vibra-

tions of Membranes, 132; the Cause of Wolf in the Violincello, 179; the

Pyrophone, 179; Ancient Musical Instrument in China, 202; Remarkable

Improvements in Stringed Instruments, 203; Harmony in Musical Instru-

ments, 204.--Fog-signals: the Gas-gun for Fog-signals, 129; Steam Fog-

whistles, 129; a New Fog-signal, 130; Relative Efficiency of Various Fog-

signals, 180; Fog-signals, 181,

Light (see also ASTRONOMY for Spectroscopy, and p. lix): the Spectra

of the Least Fusible Metals, 133; the Cause of the Variation of Gaseous

Spectra, 133; a Simple Spectroscope for Stars, 133; the Beginnings of

Spectrum Analysis, 134; Spectra of Certain Rarer Metals, 134; Effect of

Temperature and Pressure on the Spectrum Lines, 135; New Tables of

Spectrum Lines, 135; Advantageous Construction of the Spectroscope,

136; Abbe's Refractometer, 136; the Cause of the Luminosity and Non-

luminosity of Flames, 136; Flame of Burning Glycerine, 137; a Perfectly

Monochromatic Sodium Flame, 137; an Apparatus for Illustrating the

Mechanical Effects of Light, 137; on the Intensity of the Light Reflected

from Glass, 138; the Fixed Stars as Visible through Minute Apertures,

139; the Opacity of Photographic Images, 140; on Wave Surfaces in

Optics, 140; on Optical Phenomena at the Transit of Venus, 142; the

Color of Diamonds, 144; Gilt-edged Prism in the Construction of the

Camera-lucida, 144; the Reflection of Light, 146; the Action of Light

upon Chlorophyl, 146; Experiments on the Velocity of Light, 147;

Automatic Registration of the Chemical Action of Light, 148; New Method

of Measuring the Velocity of Light, 149; the Power of the Electric Light,

150; Electric Light for Locomotives, 151; the Connection between Flu-

orescence and Absorption, 170; the Spectroscope with a Fluorescent Ocular,

138; Accidental or Subjective Colors, 189; Reflection of Thin Films, 191;

Elliptic Polarizations of Light, 140; a New Class of Absorption Phenomena,

141; the Phosphorescence of Phosphorus, 141; Great French Light-house

at La Havre, 149; the Roman Pharos in Dorer Castle, 150; New Pho-

tometers, 145; on Celestial Photometry, 182; Recent Improvements in the

Microscope, 188; Testing Microscope Object-glasses, 189; on the Phenom-

ena of Diffraction Produced by Circular Net-work, 143.

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Heat (see also p. liii): Attraction and Repulsion Resulting from Radia-

tion, 119; Increased Radiation with Temperature, 119; Ebullition Phenom-

ena, 124; Relation between Chemistry and Thermotics, 125; the Heat

produced by Galvanic Currents, 126; the Thermal Conductivity of Mer-

cury, 152; on the Expansion of India Rubber by Heat, 154; on the Molec-

ular Heats of Similar Compounds, 155; on the Repulsion Due to Heat,

155; the Specific Heat and Cubic Expansion of Bodies, 156; the Variations

of Temperature accompanying the Diffusion of Gases, 172; the Freezing

of Salt Water, 194; the Black Bulb in Vacuum Thermometers, 151; a New

Source of Error with the Mercurial Thermometers, 152; Reliability of

Siemens's Pyrometer, 153; Siemens's Electrical Pyrometer and Differential

Voltameter, 191; a New Mercurial Thermometer Minimum and Maximum,

153; New Self-recording Thermometer, 154.

Electricity (see also METEOROLOGY, and p. lxxii): the Transmission of
Mechanical Power by Means of Electricity, 122; the Evaporation of Metals

by Electricity, 128; the Power of the Electric Light, 150; Electric Light

for Locomotives, 151; Lightning Conductors, 156; Edlund's Theory of the

Nature of Electricity, 157; on the Electricity of Mineral Waters, 158;

the Stratification of Electric Discharges in Vacuo, 158; on Unilateral Con-

ductivity of Electricity, 159, 195; the Theory of the Electrical Machine,

199; the Electrical Conductivity of Ligneous Substances, 200; the Electric

Charge of a Conducting Wire, 159; the Action of Electricity on Phos-

phorus, 160; the Differences between Voltaic and Frictional Electricities,

160; on the Electric Discharge, 196; New Modification of the Leclanché

Battery, 161; Simple Method of Making Carbon Cells, 162; New Absolute

Galvanometer, 162; the Influence of a Magnet upon the Galvanic Arch,

166; Siemens's Electrical Pyrometer and Differential Voltameter, 191;

Singular Property of Aluminum Electrodes, 196; Telegraphic Ground-

currents, 197; the Electrical Voting Machine, 198.

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Magnetism (see also TERRESTRIAL Physics and METEOROLOGY, and

p.lxx): On the Relation between Specific Gravity and Magnetism of Iron,

124; Velocity of the Transmission of Magnetic Force, 157; Earth-currents

on Telegraphic Lines, 159; the Formation of Magnets by Electrolysis, 164;

the Effect of Magnetism on the Electric Discharge, 165; Formation of

Magnetism by Electric Currents, 166; the Influence of a Magnet upon the

Galvanic Arch, 166; New Source of Magnetism, 167; Magnetic Permea-

bility of Iron, Nickel, etc., 167; Improvements in the Gramme Magneto-

electric Machine, 168.—Compasses : Variations of Ships' Compasses, 163 ;

Circular Magnetic Needles, 200; Corrections of the Compass on Iron Ships,

201.

D. CHEMISTRY AND METALLURGY,...

(lxxv) 205

General: New Views of Chemical Affinity, 211; Water of Crystallization,

212; Microscopic Examination of the Process of Crystallization, 218; the

Incomplete Combustion of Gases, 219; Gases Occluded in Meteorites, 220;

Why does Plaster of Paris set ? 224; Formation of Sulphate by Gas-flames,

228; Action of Weak Acids on Salts of Stronger Ones, 232.

The Elements and their Simpler Combinations: Vanadium in Rocks,

205; Crystallized Cadmium, 205; Oxidation of Ruthenium, 205; Metallic

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