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HISTORICAL. Shakspere, who, according to Malone, read no me, for the trial of the matter, to suffer them history but Holinshed's, may now be traced to to commit you to the Tower, or else no man another source—to one of the most popular dare come forth as witness in those matters, you books in our language, ‘Fox's Acts and Monu- being a counsellor.' ments of the Christian Martyrs,' printed in " When the king had said his mind, the arch1563. Our poet saw the dramatic power of this bishop kneeled down, 'I am content, if it please scene, though the occurrence took place long your grace, with all my heart, to go thither at after the birth of Elizabeth :
your highness' commandment; and I must “When night came, the king sent sir An- humbly thank your Majesty that I may come thony Denny about midnight to Lambeth to to my trial, for there be that have many ways the archbishop, willing him forthwith to resort slandered me, and now this way I hope to try unto him at the court. The message done, the myself not worthy of such report.' archbishop speedily addressed himself to the “The king, perceiving the man's uprightness, court, and coming into the gallery where the joined with such simplicity, said, 'Oh Lord, king walked and tarried for him, his highness what manner o' man be you? What simplicity said, 'Ah, my lord of Canterbury, I can tell is in you? I had thought that you would rather you news. For divers weighty considerations have sued to us to have taken the pains to have it is determined by me and the council, that heard you and your accusers together for your you to-morrow at nine of the clock shall be trial, without any such indurance. Do you not committed to the Tower, for that you and your know what state you be in with the whole chaplains (as information is given us) have world, and how many great enemies you have? taught and preached, and thereby sown within Do you not consider what an easy thing it is to the realm such a number of execrable heresies, procure three or four false knaves to witness that it is feared, the whole realm being infected against you? Think you to have better luck with them, no small contention and commotions that way than your master Christ had ? I see will rise thereby amongst my subjects, as of by it you will run headlong to your undoing, if late days the like was in divers parts of Ger- I would suffer you. Your enemies shall not so many, and therefore the council have requested prevail against you; for I have otherwise de
vised with myself to keep you out of their them the king's ring, revoking his cause into hands. Yet, notwithstanding, tomorrow when the king's hands. The whole council being the council shall sit, and send for you, resort thereat somewhat amazed, the earl of Bedford, unto them, and if, in charging you with this with a loud voice, confirming his words with a matter, they do commit you to the Tower, re- solemn oath, said, “When you first began the quire of them, because you are one of them, matter, my lords, I told you what would become a counsellor, that you may have your accusers of it. Do you think that the king would suffer brought before them without any further in this man's finger to ache? Much more (I wardurance, and use for yourself as good persua- rant you) will he defend his life against brabling sions that way as you may devise; and if no varlets. You do but cumber yourselves to hear entreaty or reasonable request will serve, then tales and fables against him.' And incontinently deliver unto them this my ring (which then the upon the receipt of the king's token they all king delivered unto the archbishop), and say rose, and carried to the king his ring, surrenderunto them, If there be no remedy, my lords, ing that matter, as the order and use was, into but that I must needs go to the Tower, then I his own hands. revoke my cause from you, and appeal to the “When they were all come to the king's preking's own person by this token unto you all; sence, his highness, with a severe countenance, for (said the king then unto the archbishop) so said unto them, 'Ah, my lords, I thought I had soon as they shall see this my ring, they know had wiser men of my council than now I find it so well that they shall understand that I have you. What discretion was this in you thus to reserved the whole cause into mine own hands make the primate of the realm, and one of and determination, and that I have discharged you in office, to wait at the council-chamber them thereof.'
door amongst servingmen? You might have The archbishop, perceiving the king's be considered that he was a counsellor as well as nignity so much to him wards, had much ado to you, and you had no such commission of me so forbear tears. “Well,' said the king, ‘go your to handle him. I was content that you should ways, my lord, and do as I have bidden you.' try him as a counsellor and not as a mean My lord, humbling himself with thanks, took subject. But now I well perceive that things his leave of the king's highness for that night. be done against him maliciously, and if some
“ On the morrow about nine of the clock be- of you might have had your minds, you would fore noon, the council sent a gentleman usher have tried him to the uttermost. But I do yon for the archbishop, who, when he came to the all to wit, and protest, that if a prince may be council-chamber door, could not be let in, but of beholding unto his subject (and so solemnly purpose (as it seemed) was compelled there to laying his hand upon his breast, said), by the wait among the pages, lackeys, and servingmen faith I owe to God, I take this man here, my all alone. D. Butts, the king's physician, re- Lord of Canterbury, to be of all other a most sorting that way, and espying how my lord of faithful subject unto us, and one to whom we Canterbury was handled, went to the king's are much beholding, giving him great comhighness, and said, 'My Lord of Canterbury, if mendations otherwise.' And, with that, one or it please your grace, is well promoted : for now two of the chiefest of the council, making their he is become a lackey or a servingman, for excuse, declared, that in requesting his inyonder he standeth this half-hour at the council-durance, it was rather meant for his trial and chamber door amongst them.' 'It is not so his purgation against the common fame and (quoth the king), I trow, nor the council hath slander of the world, than for any malice con. not so little discretion as to use the metropolitan ceived against him. “Well, well, my lords (quoth of the realm in that sort, specially being one of the king), take him, and well use him, as he is their own number. But let them alone (said worthy to be, and make no more ado. And the king) and we shall hear more soon.' with that, every man caught him by the hand,
" Anon the archbishop was called into the and made fair weather of altogethers, which council-chamber, to whom was alleged as before might easily be done with that man.” is rehearsed. The archbishop answered in like The christening of the Princess Elizabeth at sort as the king had advised him; and in the Greenwich is the last "show" of this “historical end, when he perceived that no manner of per- masque.” In the description of this ceremony suasion or entreaty could serve, he delivered Hall is again superb. The most important
part of the day's proceeding is briefly de- Elizabeth :' and then the trumpets blew, then spatched by the chronicler :
the child was brought up to the altar, and the “The godfather was the Lord Archbishop of Gospel said over it: and after that immediately Canterbury; the godmothers were the old the Archbishop of Canterbury confirmed it, the Duchess of Norfolk and the old Marchioness Marchioness of Exeter being godmother, then of Dorset, widows; and the child was named the Archbishop of Canterbury gave to the Elizabeth : and after that all thing was done, at Princess a standing cup of gold : the Duchess the church-door the child was brought to the of Norfolk gave to her a standing cup of gold, font, and christened, and this dope, Garter fretted with pearl: the Marchioness of Dorset chief king of arms cried aloud, ‘God, of his gave three gilt bowls, pounced, with a cover : infinite goodness, send prosperous life and long and the Marchioness of Exeter gave three to the high and mighty Princess of England | standing bowls, graven, all gilt, with a cover."
COSTUME. The male costume of the reign of Henry VIII. curious old painting of the meeting of Henry has been rendered familiar to our very children and Francis, preserved at Hampton Court, and by the innumerable portraits of “ Bluff King the bas-reliefs representing the same occurrence, Hal,” principally copied from the paintings by at Rouen. The profusion of feathers in the Holbein, and the female costume scarcely less latter—a fashion of the previous reign, and still so by those of his six wives. Henry VIII. was raging in 1520-adds greatly to the picturesque born in 1491, and was therefore just thirty years effect of the general costume. For the later of age at the period at which the play opens period, the full-length by Holbein engraved in (the arrest and impeachment of Buckingham ‘Lodge's Portraits,' or the print by Vertue, in having taken place in 1521), and forty-two at which Henry is seen granting a charter to the the time it is supposed to close, as above men- barber-surgeons, would be preferable. Of Cartioned. The best authorities, therefore, for the dinal Wolsey there is a fine painting by Holbein dress of the monarch and his nobles at the at Christ Church, Oxford, engraved in Lodge's commencement of this play would be the work. Cavendish, in his 'Life of Wolsey,' describes him as issuing out in his cardinal's habit Suffolk; and, 3rdly, Dr. Butts sent by the king of fine scarlet or crimson satin, his cap being of and Anne Bullen to the sick cardinal with black velvet: and in a MS. copy of that in- tokens of favour. The gentlemen in the carteresting work, formerly in the possession of dinal's train wore, we are told, black velvet the late Francis Douce, Esq., F.S.A., are three livery-coats, the most part with great chains of very curious drawings, representing-1st, The gold about their necks; and all his yeomen cardinal's progress on his way to France, with following were clad in French tawny livery. his archers, spearmen, cross, pillar, and purse coats, having embroidered upon the backs and bearers, &c.; 2ndly, The cardinal surrendering breasts of the said coats the letters T and C the great seal to the Dukes of Norfolk and under the cardinal's hat.
In the same beautiful work by Lodge, before of martens, chains, bracelets, and collars of mentioned, the portraits will be found of the gold, were prohibited to all persons possessing Dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk, Cromwell, Sir less than two hundred marks per annum. The Thomas More, and Sir Anthony Denny, by sons and heirs of such persons were, however, Holbein; and Cranmer by Flick, the original permitted the use of black velvet or damask, painting being in the British Museum. Also and tawny-coloured russet or camlet. Satin and a most interesting one of the gallant and ac- damask gowns were confined to the use of percomplished Henry Earl of Surrey, by Titian, sons possessing at least one hundred marks per who has represented him in a magnificent suit annum; and the wearing of plaited shirts, garof armour, and thereby given us a splendid nished with gold, silver, or silk, was permitted specimen of the military costume of the period. to none below the rank of knighthood. The In addition to the information conveyed to the hair was cut remarkably close, a peremptory eye by this collection of authentic portraits, it order having been issued by Henry to all his will be sufficient to quote, from the sumptuary attendants and courtiers to “poll their heads." law passed in the 24th year of Henry's reign, Beards and moustaches were worn at pleasure. such passages as will describe the materials of The portraits of Anne Bullen and Queen which the dresses were made, and which were, Katharine will convey a sufficient idea of the indeed, at this time of the most costly kind. costume of ladies of rank at this period. The The royal family alone were permitted to use jewelled cap and feather with which Holbein the fur of the black genet; and sables could has represented Anne in the portraits engraved only be worn by noblemen above the rank of a in Cavendish's 'Life of Wolsey' are exceedingly viscount. Crimson or blue velvet, embroidered picturesque and becoming. The other headapparel, or garments bordered “with gold dress, which was probably the often-talked-of sunken work,” were forbidden to any person “French hood," is better known, nearly all beneath the quality of a baron or knight's son Henry's wives being represented in it. or heir; and velvet dresses of any colour, furs gown was cut square at the bosom, as in the
[Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk.] preceding reign; but instead of the neck being king suddenly come thither (i. e., to the cardibare, it was covered almost to the throat by nal’s) in a mask, with a dozen other maskers in the partlet, a sort of habit-shirt, much like garments like shepherds, made of fine cloth of the modern one, embroidered with gold and gold and crimson satin ; their hairs and beards, silk. The sleeves of the gowns were frequently of fine gold wire, or silver, or some of black silk, of a different material from that which composed with sixteen torchbearers and drums all in the rest of the dress, and generally of a richer satin.” A minute account is given by Hall of stuff. The gown was open in front to the waist, the coronation of Queen Anne Bullen; and also showing the kirtle or petticoat, and with or by Cavendish, who has described the procession without a train, according to the prevailing and the ceremony. We must be careful, howfashion of France or Holland. Anne of Cleves ever, not to confound the procession from the is described as wearing a gown made round Tower to Westminster, on the day previous without any train, after the Dutch fashion; to the coronation, with that introduced in the while the train of Catherine Parr is stated to play, which is the procession from the palace to have been more than two yards long. Anne the Abbey. On the first occasion she wore a Bullen, while Countess of Pembroke, danced surcoat of white cloth of tissue, and a mantle at Calais with Francis I. in a masque consisting of the same, furred with ermine, her hair of seven ladies besides herself, who were attired hanging down from under a coif, with a circlet in masking apparel of strange fashion, made of about it full of rich stones. On the second (that cloth of gold compassed with crimson tinsel in the play) she wore a surcoat and robe of satin, formed with cloth of silver, lying loose purple velvet, furred with ermine, the coif and and knit with laces of gold. They were brought circlet as before. The barons of the Cinque into the chamber with four damsels in crimson Ports, who carried the canopy over her, were satin, with tabards of fine cypress. Cavendish, "all in crimson, with points of blue and red in his 'Life of Wolsey,' says—“I have seen the hanging on their sleeves.” The ladies,“ being