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MAY 29 (calendar day JUNE 5) 1930.-Ordered to be printed

Mr. Nye, from the Committee on Public Lands and Surveys, sub

mitted the following

REPORT

(To accompany S. 4617)

The Committee on Public Lands and Surveys, to whom was referred the bill (S. 4617) to provide for the creation of the Colonial National Monument in the State of Virginia, and for other purposes, having carefully considered the same, report favorably thereon with the recommendation that the bill do pass with the following amendments:

On page 2, line 3, strike out the word “suitable”; and in the same line, after the word "areas" and before the word “to”, insert the words "for highways”.

On page 2, line 5, after the word “Monument" and the comma and before the word "and", insert the words "not to exceed 2,000 acres of the said battle field or 500 feet in width as to such connecting areas” and a comma.

On page 3, line 8, after the word "city", beginning with the word except' strike out all down to an including the word “Yorktown before the period in line 12.

On page 3, line 15, after the word "sums" and before the word "as”, insert the words “not exceeding $500,000”.

On page 4, line 20, beginning with the word "Sec." strike out all down to and including the word "year" and the period in line 4,

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page 5.

For the commemoration of the colonial period in American history this bill proposes the establishment of the colonial national monument to include Jamestown Island, colonial Williamsburg, and the battle field of Yorktown. Through inclusion in this proposed colonia? national monument, it is intended to preserve for all time these great historic shrines and through them to extend to this and succeeding generations of Americans a greater knowledge and appreciation of the sacrifices and achievements of heroic figures of the colonial days.

It has been said:

It is one of the striking coincidences of fact, stranger than fiction, that the definite beginning of the American colonial period and its definite close should have been within 20 miles of each other in the enchanted peninsula in tidewater Virginia, the beginning on Jamestown Island in 1607, the first permanent English settlement in the new world, and the close at Yorktown when the surrender of Cornwallis admitted the independence of the Colonies. Midway between lies Williamsburg where was erected the first legislative building in America, the first public school, one of the first colleges, and much else occurred of prime importance in our earliest colonial period. It is my thought that this island, this ancient city, and this battle field, with suitable connecting forest lands should constitute a great historical national monument, challenging the interest and reverence of all patriotic Americans.

At Jamestown Island, the Virginia Society for the Preservation of Antiquities and the Federal Government have made a very desirable beginning, but the bulk of the island is in private ownership. The erosion of the island by the waters of the James River has been protected against by concrete construction as to a small portion of the island, but below this concrete work the wearing away of the island continues and foundations of buildings erected over 300 years ago are being washed away.

Williamsburg, the early colonial capital, retains much to remind the visitor of its great colonial importance. Here was established in 1693 the College of William and Mary, the second oldest college in America; here in 1705 was constructed the first legislative building, where Patrick Henry made some of his most noted speeches, where in 1776 the Convention of Virginia passed resolutions calling on Congress to declare the colonies free and independent States, where Mason's declaration of rights was adopted, and where was framed the first constitution of a free and independent State. Here George Washington received his commission as a surveyor and George Wythe, the first professor of law in America, instructed Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, James Monroe, and many other of the giants of those days. Here is being carried on through the generosity of John D. Rockefeller, jr., the largest program of colonial restoration that will ever be possible in America. This colonial exhibition, of the greatest interest to Americans when completed, will be dedicated to America. Plans for the future maintenance of this restoration are not developed, but however maintained the restoration will be of outstanding importance as an exhibit pertaining to the colonial period.

At Yorktown the battle field, still retaining some of the early fortifications and numerous marks of that siege, is practically all in private ownership. If not brought into public ownership in the near future the general development of this region following the construction of roads and bridges will remove all remaining traces of the historic events which took place here.

S. 4617 opens the way for the creation of a national monument to preserve the historical structures and remains in this region. It authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to make an examination of the island, parts of the city of Williamsburg, and battle field, and suitable areas to connect them with a view to determining the areas desirable for inclusion in the colonial national monument. Upon completion of that examination and upon his recommendation the President shall establish the boundaries of this national monument by proclamation. The Secretary of the Interior would be authorized then to accept donations of land and buildings and to acquire by purchase other tracts necessary for the completion of the monument.

It is simply the purpose of the bill to put the Federal Government in such a position that it can cooperate suitably with the State of Virginia, the Virginia Society for the Preservation of Antiquities, and with communities and individuals interested to preserve in the best way for the use and enjoyment of the American people these interesting colonial shrines. Whether the Virginia Society for the Preservation of Antiquities or the Rockefeller Foundation will prefer to retain control of their properties in this area or to have them administered by the Federal Government will be a matter to be ascertained. The splendid patriotic services of both these organizations are too great for any action to be taken contrary to their view under this bill if it becomes law.

The siege and surrender at Yorktown is to be commemorated in October, 1931, by a celebration heretofore authorized by Congress and to which Congress has authorized the President to invite foreign nations. The United States Yorktown Sesquicentennial Commission authorized by Congress to prepare plans and program for the commemoration of the siege of Yorktown and the surrender of Cornwallis has in its report (H. Rept. 569, 71st Cong., 2d sess.), filed January 31, 1930, urged the enactment of this proposed legislation:

This commission recommends to the Congress for its consideration the bill, H. R. 8424, introduced by Representative Cramton, of Michigan, on January 10, 1930, which provides for the creation of a national monument to include Jamestown Island, parts of the city of Williamsburg, and the Yorktown battle field. The park to be established would include the Moore House, wherein the terms of surrender were negotiated. This commission indorses the purposes and principles of this bill and recommends that legislation to accomplish these results be enacted at an early date, to the end that the monument may be available in time for the sesquicentennial celebration, if possible.

Because of the close connection between the creation of the colonial national monument and the celebration of the sesquicentennial at Yorktown, it is important that S. 4617 become law at this session of Congress and that the necessary portions of the Yorktown battle field be acquired by the Government in the near future. The plans for the celebration of the sesquicentennial and the plans for the preservation and use of the Yorktown battle field can then proceed in harmony and much more effectively than would otherwise be possible.

This legislation for the creation of the colonial national monument has been approved by the Bureau of the Budget, the National Park Service, and the Secretary of the Interior, as shown by letters attached hereto. It has also been approved by the attached resolution unanimously adopted by both houses of the Legislature of Virginia, as well as by Governor Pollard, of Virginia. The Daughters of the American Revolution, at their recent meeting in Washington, adopted the attached resolution of indorsement. The legislation also has the cordial approval and support of the American Civic Association and of many civic and patriotic organizations. It also has the cordial support of substantially everyone in the area affected.

Your committee feels that this is a measure of great importance that opens the way for the protection of shrines of primary historic value, and that through the establishment of this national monument important lessons in patriotism will be taught,

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,

Washington, June 5, 1930. Hon. GERALD P. NYE, Chairman Committee on the Public Lands,

United States Senate. MY DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: In response to your request of June 4 for an opinion as to the merits of S. 4617 there is transmitted herewith a memorandum submitted by the Acting Director of the National Park Service.

The Colonial National Monument project promises a development in which I am tremendously interested and is one that I am particularly hopeful will be brought about as early as possible. The National Park Service of this department is especially fitted to care for this shrine of colonial America. I earnestly recommend that this measure be given favorable consideration. Very truly yours,

Ray LYMAN WILBUR.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE,

Washington, June 5, 1930. Memorandum for the Secretary.

This will refer to request, under date of June 4, from the chairman, Senate Committee on the Public Lands, for report on S. 4617, "A Bill to provide for the creation of the Colonial National Monument in the State of Virginia, and for other purposes."

This bill would provide for the creation of a national monument in Virginia to embrace the historical sites and structures at Jamestown and Yorktown, which mark the beginning and close of the American colonial period, together with portions of colonial Williamsburg. It was on Jamestown Island that the first permanent English settlement in the new world was made in 1607. Here also the first legislative assembly held in America met on July 30, 1619. It was at Yorktown, by the surrender of Cornwallis, that the colonial period was brought to a triumphant close. Between these sites lies Williamsburg which succeeded Jamestown as the capital of colonial Virginia; where the capitol was erected in which Patrick Henry kindled the fires of the American Revolution; where the Bill of Rights, the immortal work of George Mason, was adopted; where the first written constitution of a free and independent state was framed, and where the resolution was adopted calling upon the Continental Congress to declare the colonies free and independent States. In Williamsburg also was erected in 1693 the royal College of William and Mary; the three ancient buildings of this college still remain, and are the oldest academic buildings in America. Jamestown Island, the colonial city of Williamsburg and the Yorktown battle field, with suitable connecting lands would constitute a great historical national monument, and information now before me indicates that it is reasonable to expect the aid of the Commonwealth of Virginia and the cooperation of private individuals in carrying out this project.

Much has been done and is being done toward the preservation and protection of these historic sites, but unless much more is accomplished a great deal of valuable work will be lost. The Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities years ago made a tremendously important beginning in the acquisition of a portion of Jamestown Island and its suitable development. The greater part of the island, however, is still in private ownership and is being encroached upon by the waters of the James River and the foundations of structures three centuries old are being washed away.

Colonial Williamsburg is being restored through the generous interest of Mr. John D. Rockefeller, jr. This restoration will preserve and present the most unique exhibit of colonial architecture and of preserved and restored public buildings to be found in America, and will minister to the culture, and education, of the people, and serve as an inspirtion to patroitism by recalling the faith, devotion, and sacrifice of the nation builders. Plans for its future maintenance are not complete.

At Yorktown, the Moore House, where the terms of Cornwallis's surrender were agreed upon, is owned by Mr. Rockefeller, who is holding it for the time when the Nation will take it over. The battle field itself, still retaining numerous marks of the historic engagement, is practically all in private ownership and partly devoted to a golf course. With the extension and improvement of highways this region is likely to receive a development in the next few years that will destroy much of fundamental interest to America. An opportunity presents itself at the present time to establish over this area a national monument, which opportunity, if lost, could not be recalled without the expenditure in the future of funds vastly in excess of what would now be required. The territory embraced within this area is closely associated with every war fought on American soil; Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown, all having been the battle fields in the War of the Revolution and in the War between the States, while Yorktown was shelled in the War of 1812.

8. 4617 opens the way for the creation of a national monument to preserve the historical structures and remains in this region. It authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to make an examination of Jamestown Island, parts of the city of Williamsburg, and the Yorktown battle field, and suitable areas to connect them with a view to determining the areas desirable for inclusion in the Colonial National Monument. Upon completion of the examination and upon his recommendation the President would establish the boundaries of the national monument by proclamation. The department would be authorized then to accept donations of land and buildings and to acquire by purchase other tracts necessary for the completion of the monument. It is not contemplated under the provisions of this bill to buy any large portion of the lands, but only tracts to fill in and complete the monument.

The purpose of the bill, as we see it, is primarily to authorize Federal cooperation with the Commonwealth of Virginia, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, and with the private owners now interested in preserving in the best way for the use and enjoyment of the American people these interesting colonial areas. It is understood that the Virginia Conservation Commission and many prominent Virginians in official stations and otherwise are in sympathy with the proposal contained in this bill, as are many throughout the Nation.

In this connection, I desire to call attention particularly to the fact that the only provision of the bill immediately effective is the one authorizing an investigation of the areas involved. Funds for such an investigation are included in the 1931 Interior Department appropriation bill. It is respectfully recommended that S. 4617 be enacted into law.

A. E. DEMARAY,

Acting Director.

JOINT RESOLUTION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF VIRGINIA

Whereas a bill "To provide for the creation of the colonial national monument in the State of Virginia, and for other purposes, was offered in the National House of Representatives on January 10, 1930 (H. R. 8424), by Hon. Louis C. Cramton, which bill provides under certain stated conditions for the inclusion in the proposed colonial national monument “Jamestown Island, parts of the city of Williamsburg and the Yorktown battle field and suitable area to connect said island, city, and battle field”; and

Whereas the establishment of this proposed colonial national monument, embracing a unique but long-neglected historic area within this State, would result in preserving in perpetuity these sacred shrines of national life and liberty, and would further result in presenting to the present and future generations the epoch-making events and glorious achievements which mark the birth of this Nation in 1607, and the beginning of representative government in America at Jamestown, Va., in 1619; together with the constructive and immortal contributions made in Williamsburg, Va., to the national independence, to the declaration of the rights and duties of man, and to the creation of the safeguards of national liberty; and which, finally, would result in establishing a perpetual witness to the sacrifice and devotion by which national independence was secured by the culminating victory of the Revolution at Yorktown, Va.; and

Whereas Virginia while cherishing these sacred memorials and glorious associations, is not herself able to reclaim, develop, enrich, beautify, preserve, and maintain for all time this historic area and thus make it a worthy memorial of the past and an inspiring witness to the future; and because Virginia further feels that what is hers within this area is also a national inheritance, a national trust, and a national responsibility: Therefore

Be it resolved by the house of delegates, the senate concurring, That we do hereby most heartily indorse the Cramton bill, which provides for the creation of the colonial national monument in Virginia and requests the Virginia Members of

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