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REPORT No. 930
EXPOSITION TO BE HELD AT PARIS, FRANCE, IN 1931
JUNE 17, 1930.-Ordered to be printed
Mr. BORAH, from the Committee on Foreign Relations, submitted
(To accompany H. J. Res. 311]
The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, having had under consideration H. J. Res. 311, for participation of the United States in an exposition to be held at Paris, France, in 1931, reports the same favorably and recommends that it do pass without amendment.
The facts are fully set forth in House Report No. 1351, which is hereto attached and made a part of this report.
[House Report No. 1351, Seventy-first Congress, second session) The Committee on Foreign Affairs, to whom was referred the resolution (H. J. Res. 311) for the participation of the United States in an exposition to be held at Paris, France, in 1931, having considered the same, reports it to the House and unanimously recommeds that it do pass with the following minor amendments:
Page 3, line 18, after the word "exposition", insert the following: “or when the connection of the Government of the United States therewith ceases,'
Page 4, line 24, strike out the word “herewith” and insert in lieu the word “therewith."
The passage of the resolution has been recommended by the Department of State and the Department of Commerce. In his letter of April 15, to the chairman of your committee, the Acting Secretary of State, the Hon. Joseph P. Cotton, draws attention to the elaborate participation of the United States in the Ibero American Exposition at Seville, Spain, and to the invitation which has recently been extended to the French Government soliciting its participation in the Century of Progress Exposition to be held at Chicago in 1933.
Continuing, Secretary Cotton states:
“A dispatch has just been received from the American Ambassador at Paris indicating his interest in the exposition and expressing the belief that our participation therein would have a tendency to facilitate the consideration of pending questions. The ambassador states that French Government officials are deeply interested in the success of the exposition.
“Inclosed with the ambassador's dispatch is a letter dated March 18, 1930, from Marshall Lyautey, who is commissioner general of the exposition. It will be noted from this letter that there are apparently two methods of participation in the exposition, one to erect a building and the other to participate in the International City of Information.
“There is likewise inclosed a translation of a memorandum from the secretariat of the exposition showing those countries which have to date agreed to participate and the character of their participation.
“There is also inclosed a letter dated April 7, 1930, from the Secretary of Commerce presenting the commercial aspects of the question of participation and expressing his opinion that acceptance of the invitation and participation by the United States would be justifiable.
“As the exposition will unquestionably have important commercial characteristics, I believe that the Secretary of Commerce can also appropriately comment as to the character of possible American participation and the extent thereof."
The following paragraphs are quoted from the recent dispatch received from the American ambassador at Paris, the Hon. Walter E. Edge:
“I venture to offer my personal views on the advisability of our Government recognizing this exposition in one form or another. During the three months I have been in Paris, I have undertaken to interest the appropriate governmental officials in the advisability of consummating a commercial treaty between the United States and France. Likewise, I have quite frequently discussed with them various phases of the double-taxation problem, the question of tariff between the two countries, local taxation American residents, and, in fact, practically all pending economic or commercial problems. I think I am justified in stating that I have, generally speaking, found sympathy and responsiveness.
“I find the Government officials here deeply interested in the success of this overseas exposition. From the standpoint of cooperation and as evidence of our interest in their commercial possibilities, it appeals to me as tremendously important that the United States be represented in this exposition.
“Only a few weeks ago the embassy presented, under the direction of the State Department, the official invitation of the city of Chicago to France to participate in the forthcoming exposition in that city. I am informed by Ambassador Dawes that he has taken this matter up with Great Britain and they have assured him of their participation. Our ambassador to Great Britain has likewise expressed to me the hope that we can secure French participation. It can quite readily be appreciated that, in view of the Chicago exposition occurring in 1933 and the French exposition in 1931, I shall be in a very poor position to urge the former participation if the United States shows no interest in the earlier French enterprise."
In his communication to Ambassador Edge the commissioner general of the exposition, Marshall Lyautey, says:
"At the moment when the question is raised decisively as to the participation of the United States in the 1931 exhibition, permit me to state precisely, on one hand, the object and importance of this international manifestation, and on the other hand, the conditions under which the United States might be represented there.
“The exhibition of 1931, called Exposition Coloniale International de Paris (Colonies et Pays d'Outremer) (International Colonial Exhibition of Paris Colonies and Overseas countries), has for its object: To show the universe the work accomplished overseas by our civilization. To enable all civilized countries to compare their methods one with another in order to succeed in improving them and in extending those recognized as most effectual both in the social and economic order.
“The supreme aim is, in a grand manifestation of international good will, to reach a determination of the best means of endowing numberlers populations, as yet destitute in this respect, with means of having a fuller life, to give certain among them a higher ideal, to equip them, and to bring within their reach the inventions most apt to increase their material and moral well-being.
“This exhibition is in truth an international overseas exhibition, in which not only countries possessing colonies should be represented, but also countries producing tropical raw materials, and all those which, overseas, pursue a work of social and economic development."
In continuation Marshall Lyautey explains that the exhibition will include a series of buildings to be constructed by the participating governments around Lake Vincennes in an attractive setting. These will be made easily accessible by a special railway, and will house the exhibitions of the various countries. The space allocated for the entire exposition comprises an area of about 109 hectares, of which 96 are in the wooded section of Vincennes around Lake Daumesnil, and 13 hectares on the site of the old fortification of Paris. It will have a frontage of about 132 kilometers along the Boulevards Soult and Poniatowski. The exhibition will also include an original creation called the international city of information, destined to constitute a veritable bureau of information. The international congresses to be organized on the occasion of the exhibition both from a social and economic point of view, will meet within the boundaries of this city.
“The most efficacious manner in which the American Government could participate,” says Marshall Lyautey, “would be to construct a national palace on & particularly desirable site which would be furnished without charge, and which the Government could use as it deemed best. Space would also be reserved, without cost, for suitable documentation and agents in the palace of the city of information. In the event the American Government should not build a pavilion, particular stress is laid on the needs for representation in the city of information. Persons competent to represent the United States at the international congresses, some of which will be held under the auspices of the International Chamber of Commerce, should be designated. The failure of the United States to participate in the 1931 exhibition will mean a substantial loss in its efficiency, and much emphasis is put on the importance of sharing in this international demonstration."
The Secretary of Commerce, the Hon. Robert P. Lamont, in a letter of April 7 to the Acting Secretary of State, emphasizes the commercial good will and the strengthening of international commercial relations which the United States would manifest by participation in the exposition. He calls attention to the fact that the first commercial treaty made by the United States was negotiated with France in the early days of our Republic.
“The trend of trade between France and the United States"
Says Secretary Lamont“has been singularly steady in its relative importance. The value of this commerce with France and the French colonies for the past decade is shown in its relation to the total world trade of the United States.
“Commercial groups in France and the United States, as well as the French Government, are placing considerable significance upon participation by the United States at this Colonial Exposition. The French have invariably taken part in the great international expositions held in the United States. In consideration of the commercial bonds between the two nations, I feel that acceptance of the invitation and participation by the United States would be justifiable and would present a further indication of the cordial French-American relations that have existed for years."
At the annual dinner of the French Chamber of Commerce in New York City a few months ago Dr. Julius Klein, Assistant Secretary of Commerce, referred to the French-American trade with the French colonial possessions, Doctor Klein said:
Franco-American trade is fortunately becoming more than a trade simply between France and the United States. In the economic development of France during recent years, few factors have assumed greater importance than the colonial empire. From this vast territory France is, or will ultimately be, able to draw a great portion of the industrial raw materials and tropical foodstuffs which she does not possess within her own borders, and by carrying on the development of the latent economic potentialities of these possessions she expects to have a growing market for her surplus industrial production. The seriousness with which France is going about this process is emphasized in the project now before Parliament to spend over a period of five years, a total of eight and six-tenths billion francs, or about $336,000,000 for improvement of the ‘national equipment,' of which the largest single item is about $141,000,000 for colonial public works and other development. Whereas the funds for the remainder of the projects are to be derived from resources already available in the treasury, the colonial item is considered of sufficient importance to warrant the flotation of a special loan.
“This loan, while applying to the whole French Empire, has particular bearing on the African Territories. Algeria has long been the object of special solicitude and has come steadily closer to approximating an integral part of France, providing potential resources of cereals, minerals, fertilizers, cork, olive oil, dates, figs, and many other products susceptible with adequate equipment-of immeasurably greater developinent than at present. Tunisia presents somewhat similar resources, though on a smaller scale. Madagascar in addition to important mineral deposits (especially mica and graphite) and such tropical products as vanila beans is also capable of producing livestock and agricultural products on a much larger scale with the development of irrigation in the drier parts of the island and the general extension of transportation facilities.
“The Moroccan protectorate is now of great interest to France with its agricultural and grazing potentialities, in spite of recent progress still greatly underdeveloped, and its mineral resources not only poorly exploited but even in large part still unexplored. The percentage of increase in Moroccan trade between 1913 and 1928, in fact, is greater than that of any other portion of the French Empire (except St. Pierre and Miquelon in the Atlantic Ocean which have developed a very active trade in recent years). The gold value of Moroccan exports and imports combined was more than three times as great in 1928 as in 1913.
“The French possessions in tropical Africa, however, comprising the two colonies, French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa, and the two mandated territories, Cameroons and French Togo, are perhaps more than any other portion of the colonial empire the present object of French solicitude. The area of this territory is about two-thirds as large as the whole of the continental United States, with widely varied climate and soil, forests of valuable cabinet woods, and unlimited potentialities as a feeder to the industries of the mother country. Little astonishment can, therefore, be occasioned by the willingness of France to spend considerable sums to build roads, railways, and bridges, establish and conduct agricultural experiment stations, combat tropical diseases, and otherwise prepare the area for a more important role in French economy.
Of the other possessions of France, French Indo-China has the greatest possibilities with its suitability for producing rubber and foodstuffs, especially rice, and its resources of tin and other minerals, but it is an older land, with a civilization and development of its own, and consequently lends itself less readily to exploitation and development by France than do the African territories.
* The importance of colonial developments to France is easily realized but their relation to the United States is less immediately clear. A glance at our trade statistics, however, shows that the French colonies, especially the African colonies, are steadily gaining ground and if they continue at the same rate of development will, in the course of a relatively small number of years, attain a position of real importance in our foreign trade.
"In 1913 our exports to the French colonies amounted to only about $7,000,000, of which over $4,000,000 went to African territories. By 1929 the total export figure had risen to over $28,000,000, of which over $21,000,000 were attributable to French Africa. Imports have risen correspondingly but the total has always been considerably lower than that for exports. The import figure of some $1,950,000 in 1913 had increased to $11,000,000 by 1929; imports from French Africa increased from less than $800,000 in 1913 to $9,000,000 in 1929, showing an even more striking relative growth than the export trade with the same territories.
Business organizations in France are evidencing intense interest in the exposition. Mr. William N. Taylor, president of the American Chamber of Commerce in France, has cabled as follows:
PARIS, A pril 11, 1930. Hon. SoL BLOOM,
House of Representatives, Washington: American Chamber of Commerce in France in full sympathy your resolution and hopes United States Government will accept invitation French Government to participate colonial exposition Paris 1931. We believe participation this exposition exceedingly helpful to American business in France.
TAYLOR, President. The French Government has participated officially in a number of international expositions held in the United States--at Philadelphia in 1876, at Chicago in 1893, at St. Louis in 1904, and at San Francisco in 1915. At the Philadelphia Centennial in 1876 the French Government's expenditures amounted to 590,000 francs, at Chicago 4,079,700 francs, at St. Louis 1,450,000 francs, and at San Francisco 2,000,000 francs. On the other hand, the United States Government has taken part in important celebrations in France. At the Paris Universal Exposition of 1878 this Government's participation amounted to $160,000 and at the Universal Exposition of 1889 to $250,000.
According to the international colonial exposition authorities, national palaces are being constructed for Italy, Belguim, Holland, Denmark, and Portugal, which countries will also be represented in the city of information. Great Britain and certain South and Central American Republics will be represented exclusively in the city of information. Spain will at least be represented in the city of information, and the exposition hopes that Canada will build a pavilion.
The committee believes, then, in view of the intense interest of the United States Government in the social and economic development of its noncontiguous territories (Philippine Islands, Alaska, Hawaii, Porto Rico, etc.), and in the welfare of the peoples in these outlying territories, that the Government should be adequately represented at this exposition.
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE,
Washington, April 7, 1930. The ACTING SECRETARY OF STATE,
Washington, D. C. MY DEAR MR. SECRETARY: I am replying to your letter of March 31 concerning the colonial exposition and exposition of overseas countries to be held in Paris 1931. (Your file W E: 851.607 AN.)
The suggestions in my letter of March 13 related to commercial good will and the strengthening of international commercial relations. The first commercial treaty made by the United States was negotiated in the early years of the Republic with France. My intention was to emphasize these trade factors, not the political elements.
The trend of trade between France and the United States has been singularly steady in its relative importance. The value of this commerce with France and the French colonies for the past decade is shown in the inclosed tables and its relation to the total world trade of the United States is indicated.
Commercial groups in France and the United States, as well as the French Government, are placing considerable significance upon participation by the United States at this colonial exposition. The French have invariably taken part in the great international expositions held in the United States. In consideration of the commercial bonds between the two nations, I feel that acceptance of the invitation and participation by the United States would be justifiable and would present a further indication of the cordial French-American relations that have existed for years. Very sincerely,
R. P. LAMONT, Secretary of Commerce.