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residents of the United States whose vocation is carried on in American-owned vessels.
Section 8: This section proposes relief for American citizens who expatriated themselves by entering the military service of the armies of countries subsequently allied and associated with the United States during the World War. They entered these armies before the United · States declared war. They were obliged to take an oath of allegiance to the sovereign, and thereby lost American citizenship but acquired no other citizenship. By a provision in the act of May 9, 1918, the twelfth subdivision of section 4 of the act of 1906 was added, by which these Americans regained their American citizenship status. No certificate of citizenship was provided, however, for them, and their status, while partially relieved, was not free from embarrassment.
This amendment proposes to give to each such citizen a certificate of his citizenship for his use and protection.
Sections 9 and 10: The enactment of these provisions will accomplish the discontinuance of a great volume of unnecessary clerical work imposed upon clerks of courts which has been of no value in the administration of the naturalization law from the time it was required by the act of 1906. This provision is referred to in sections 5 and 6 of the naturalization act of 1906. The requirement for the posting of notices is in section 5 and reference is made to it in section 6. The change proposed does not let down the restricting provisions of the naturalization law.
Section 11: This provision raises the standards of the present naturalization law which only requires an alien to speak the English language and to sign his name, by mark, or at most in his own handwriting, which often appears in foreign script. This provision requires all applicants for citizenship to read, speak, and write in the English language and to possess a knowledge of American history equivalent to that set forth in the citizenship textbook published by the Bureau of Naturalization under authority of Congress. This book is available to applicants for citizenship only who attend public schools. It should not be available for free distribution, as it would immediately become the source of misuse by self-serving individuals who would fraudulently obtain funds from their unsuspecting countrymen under the guise of instruction. Such instruction would, of course, be carried on under irresponsible supervision and where so accomplished would work more harm than advantage to the country and to the individuals. The requirements to read and write are not applicable to those who hold declarations of intention made prior to the operation of this proposed law. They do not apply to homestead entrymen or to those physically unable to comply with them.
The effect of subdivision (c) is to repeal and reenact the ninth subdivision of section 4 of the act of June 29, 1906, and is in conformity with the desire expressed by the secretary of the National Advisory Committee on Illiteracy, with the approval of the committee, us à result of a study made of illiteracy as a national problem. This committee is one of two committees appointed by the Secretary of the Interior with the approval of the President to study American educational problems. This will enable the Commissioner of Naturalization to enlarge the activities of the Bureau of Naturalization in relation to the promotion of the organization by the public schools of classes of adult foreigners, to which the adult illiterate foreign born
and the illiterate American born may come to secure the schooling which they need and instruction in citizenship responsibilities to enable them to be better citizens in the communities where they live, both as producers and consumers.
Section 12: The purpose of this section is to prevent the issuance to unsuspecting individuals of useless and worthless certificatione regarding parts of naturalization records, as well as to prevent the issuance of certificates of citizenship or declarations of intention, except in accordance with the requirements of the naturalization law.
Section 13: This section repeals what was found to be an impracticable requirement upon citizens of the United States entitled to certificates of citizenship. No records of admission could be found for the reason that they came into the United States, many of them in the period from 1860 to 1906, during most of which time no records of any nature whatsoever were kept or authorized by law of incoming immigrants upon which dependence can be placed.
Section 14: This section permits husbands of American citizens to come in nonquota, placing them in the same position as wives in this respect. Under existing law only husbands by marriage occurring prior to June 1, 1928, may enter the United States as nonquota immigrants. The amendment removes the latter limitation.
Section 15: This section creates a method of advancement in compensation for officers and examiners in the Naturalization Service.
Section 16: This section amends section 24 of the immigration act of 1917, to establish a parity between the clerks in the Immigration and Naturalization Services where like duties are being performed as well as to permit periodical promotions.
Section 17: This section fixes the salaries of the Commissioner General of Immigration and the Commissioner of Naturalization at $10,000 a year.
Section 18: This section contains provisions authorizing appropriations.
In conclusion it may be said that many of the provisions added by your committee are contained in bills which have been introduced and favorably reported to the House. The inclusion of them as amendments in this bill will expedite legislation that is highly desirable of enactment.
REPORT No. 615
ELIMINATION OF THE MICHIGAN AVENUE GRADE
CROSSING IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
APRIL 30 (calendar day, May 6), 1930.-Ordered to be printed
Mr. CAPPER, from the Committee on the District of Columbia,
submitted the following
[To accompany S. 4211]
The Committee on the District of Columbia, to whom was referred the bill (S. 4211) to amend the act entitled "An act to provide for the elimination of the Michigan Avenue grade crossing in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes,” approved March 3, 1927, having considered the same, reports favorably thereon, and recommends that the bill do pass, with the following amendment:
On page 2, line 7, after the word "viaduct", strike out lines 7 and 8 and insert in lieu thereof, the following: "and approaches".
This legislation is needed to abolish one of the most dangerous grade crossings in the District of Columbia. Congress recognized the need of this important improvement by enacting, three years ago, a law authorizing construction of a viaduct over the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad tracks on Michigan Avenue.
In a subsequent study made the National Capital Park and Planning Commission, engineering experts pointed out that if the viaduct were constructed in the present line of Michigan Avenue, as provided in the act, the result would be most unsatisfactory, due to steep grades and other serious topographical deficiencies.
The commission accordingly prepared a substitute plan which would locate the viaduct north of the line of the avenue.
This plan, embodied in the bill under consideration, was accepted by the municipal authorities as the best solution of a difficult engineering problem.
ADVANTAGES OF THE NEW PLAN
Whereas the original plans for the viaduct are now regarded by Federal and District engineers to be totally inadequate and almost impossible to carry out, the new arrangement is accepted by the authorities as an ideal scheme for the abolition of the deadly grade crossing
Construction of the viaduct as proposed in this bill also would furnish a rapidly-growing section of Washington with a much-needed improvement in its traffic situation.
Work is now in progress for the straightening of Michigan Avenue, and the proposed plans for the viaduct are in accordance with the intention of the National Gapital Park and Planning Commission to extend this improvement of the avenue, which is destined to become an important feature of the city's highway system.
Attention should be directed to the fact that there are approximately 11,000 children in schools in the vicinity of this grade crossing.
The neighborhood now is served by a narrow bridge, with double surface car tracks, at Monroe Street, over the railroad tracks, one block south of the grade crossing.
NEED FOR THE NEW VIADUCT
Automotive traffic, pedestrians, and street cars now use the Monroe Street Bridge, although a considerable number of automobiles pass at the grade crossing.
District engineers feel that the Monroe Street Bridge should be widened to care for the increasingly heavy traffic load, Monroe Street being an east and west thoroughfare, connecting the northwest section of the city with Rhode Island Avenue, and thus to the Baltimore-Washington highway.
Considerable apprehension is felt, however, that the widening of the bridge, if not accompanied by construction of the proposed viaduct, would constitute a new peril for the thousands of school children, through diversion of additional traffic to Monroe Street. Also the danger of the grade crossing still would be present.
The fact is that the new Michigan Avenue viaduct is badly needed to meet existing conditions, without regard to the probable considerable increase in traffic as a result of the improvement of the avenue and as a result of natural traffic growth. “A fatal accident at the crossing should not be necessary to emphasize the necessity of this improvement.
Under the terms of the bill one-half of the total cost of constructing the viaduct and approaches would be borne and paid by the railroad company.
The bill authorizes an appropriation of $500,000, payable in like manner as other appropriations for the expenses of the District government, for acquisition of necessary land and construction of the viaduct.
The committee believes this legislation to be wise, reasonable, and necessary, and strongly urges its passage.
The bill is approved by the District Commissioners and by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget. Letters from these officials are appended hereto as part of the report.
COMMISSIONERS OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,
Washington, May 3, 1930. Hon. ARTHUR CAPPER, Chairman Committee on the District of Columbia,
United States Senate, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR SENATOR Capper: The Commissioners of the District of Columbia submit the following report upon S. 4211, Seventy-first Congress, second session, entitled “A bill to amend the act entitled 'An act to provide for the elimination
of the Michigan Avenue grade crossing in the District of Columbia, and for other purposes,' approved March 3, 1927," which you have referred to them for consideration and report.
This bill amends the act of March 3, 1927, by substituting a viaduct crossing private property to the north of Michigan Avenue, in general accordance with a plan developed in the office of the National Capital Park and Planning Commission, for a viaduct in line of Michigan Avenue as contemplated by the original act. The bill increases the authorized limit of cost of the structure from $275,000 to $500,000, and makes certain other changes which will be discussed below.
The increase in cost is due to the change in the proposed location of the structure, which will involve the acquisition of a considerably larger amount of private property, and to an increase in width of the proposed roadway from 27 feet, as contemplated in the original plan, to 36 feet. The new plan will be an improvement over the original plan in both these respects, and in the opinion of the commissioners is well worth the additional cost.
It is proposed by the amended section 1 to limit the charge to the railroad company to one-half the cost of constructing the viaduct, omitting the approaches, and to make the railroad company liable for the entire cost of maintaining the viaduct within the limits of its right-of-way. It is also proposed by the amended section 3 to eliminate the provision contained in the act of March 3, 1927, requiring that not less than one-half the amount awarded as the value of the land and improvements shall be assessed as benefits against private property. In this connection, the fact should be mentioned that under chapter 15 of the code, as amended, it is provided that the condemnation jury shall take into consideration any benefits that may inure to private property and shall make their appraisal accordingly.
The commissioners are of the opinion that the general purpose to be accomplished by the proposed bill is desirable. The structure authorized by the act of March 3, 1927, in the line of Michigan Avenue is unsatisfactory from an engineering point of view, in that the roadway would be too narrow for an important thoroughfare, the grade of the east approach would be too steep, and the injury to the abutting property would be very great. The plan contemplated by the proposed bill avoids these disadvantages. The commissioners believe, however, that the first three lines of the proviso beginning on line 6, page 2, of the bill should be amended to read as follows: "Provided, That one-half of the total cost of constructing the said viaduct and approaches shall be borne and paid by the said railroad company, *,” conforming to the corresponding provision of the existing law and other recent legislation for the elimination of grade crossings.
Pursuant to the provisions of circulars Nos. 49 and 273 of the Bureau of the Budget, the commissioners submitted a copy of their proposed report on S. 4211 to the Bureau of the Budget for information as to whether or not the proposed legislation is in accord with the financial program of the President.
In reply, the Director of the Budget states, “You are advised that in so far as the financial program of the President is concerned, there is no objection to your proposed report.”. A copy of the director's reply is inclosed herewith. Very sincerely yours,
BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,
BUREAU OF THE BUDGET,
Washington, May 2, 1930. Hon. L. H. REICHELDERFER, President Board of Commissioners,
District of Columbia, Washington, D. C. DEAR DOCTOR REICHELDERFER: I have your proposed report of April 29, 1930, on S. 4211, to amend the act of March 3, 1927, relating to the Michigan Avenue grade crossing, in which you suggest certain modifications in the bill.
You are advised that in so far as the financial program of the President is concerned, there is no objection to your proposed report. Very truly yours,
J. CLAWSON Roop, Director. O