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neer.

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Willard Van der Veer, photographer. Capt. Frederick C. Melville, master of
Ralph Shropshire, hydrographer.

City of New York.
Bernt Balchen, pilot.

Charles J. McGuinness, chief officer.
Dean Smith, pilot.

Sverre Strom, second officer.
Harold I. June, pilot.

Bendik Johanssen, boatswain.
Alton Parker, pilot.

Thomas B. Mulroy, chief engineer.
Benjamin F. Jett, oiler.

Esmond O'Brien, first assistant engi-
James A. Feury, fireman.
Arthur Berlin, fireman.

John J. Bayer, second assistant engi-
Louis Reichert, cook.
Roy Ellis Cullens, cook.

John Buys, seaman.
Dr. Francis D. Coman, medical officer. S. Edward Roos, seaman.
Charles V. Gould, carpenter.

Clair D. Alexander, supply officer.
Victor H. Czegka, machinist.

William C. Haines, meteorologist.
John Jacobson. sailmaker.

Haldor Barnes, assistant physician.
Lloyd V. Berkner, radio.

Ashley C. McKinley, aerial photoLloyd Grenlie, radio. George A. Thorne, jr., seaman, ski man,

grapher.

John S. O'Brien, surveyor. surveyor. Christoffer Braathen, seaman, ski man.

Jn. Olson, fireman. Richard W. Konter, seaman, musician.

George Sjogren, fireman. George H. Black, seaman, tractor man.

William Gawronski, mess boy. Jacob Bursey, seaman, dog teams.

Ben Dennison, seaman. Joseph Rucker, photographer.

William Erickson, seaman. Frank T. Davies, physicist.

C. 0. Petersen, radio. Quin A. Blackburn, topographer.

Arthur B. Creagh, cook. Henry T. Harrison, jr., aerologist.

P. J. Wallis, tailor. Paul A. Siple, boy scout.

V. Vojtech, scientist. Anson W. Perkins, seaman.

J. Bird, bird man. Lyle Womack, seaman.

W. J. Armstrong. William Darling, seaman.

A. C. Brustad. Bax Boehning, fireman.

M. W. Dobston. Arthur T. Walden, in charge of dogs.

R. Eva. Frederick E. Crockett, dog driver.

W. Gribben. Norman D. Vaughn, dog driver.

F. Lockwood. Edward E. Goodale, dog driver.

J. W. Morrison. Frank Wolfgang, aviation mechanic.

J. 0. Orbell. Capt. Gustav L. Brown, master of R. Perks. steamship Eleanor Bolling.

F. Paape. Harry R. King, mate.

A. B. Robinson. Joseph de Ganahl, mate.

J. Robinson. Harry Adams, mate.

M. C. Woolhouse. Frank McPherson, chief engineer.

H. L. Willcox. John Cody, first assistant engineer.

R. Young Elbert J. Thawley, second assistant

H. N. Shrimpton. engineer.

P. J. Hart. John L. Sutton, oiler.

W. Hamilton. Leland L. Barter, oiler.

W. H. Kelly. Frank R. Fritzon, oiler.

T. M. Royal. Carroll B. Foster, jr., fireman.

J. Walling. Arnold H. Clark, fireman.

J. Jones. Malcolm P. Hanson, radio.

G. A. Gillespie. Howard F. Mason, radio.

R. Mercola. Sydney Greason, steward.

G. Samson. George W. Tennant, cook.

N. Newbold.
Charles L. Kessler, seaman.

C. Wilson.
Benjamin
Roth, staff sergeant.

H. Hausten.
Kenneth F. Bubier, aviation mechanic. W. Harvey.
E. J. Demas, aviation mechanic.

M. Tracy.
A. Innes-Taylor, dog man.

C. Aldons.
D. Blair.

The accomplishments of the expedition at Little America were many. Much was learned about the use of airplanes in extremely low temperatures. Despite the handicaps of frequently poor visibility, storms, and cold, many flights were made. On the 15th of January, 1929, Commander Byrd led an aerial exploration inward from Discovery Inlet, a district which therefore had never been penetrated.

Later vast mountains were discovered and named the Rockefeller Range. Marie Byrd Land was discovered February 18, 1929.

After the Antarctic winter the work of laying auxiliary bases toward the pole was was begun. During these base-laying flights the Charles Bob Mountains were discovered, November 20, 1929.

On the 28th of November Commander Byrd, with Bernt Balchen, Harold I. June, and Capt. Ashley C. McKinley, made his famous flight over the South Pole and returned to Little America after 17 hours and 39 minutes in the air.

While on this flight it was learned that Carmen Land, reported by Amundsen to exist, in fact does not exist. A few days later another range of mountains was discovered by an aerial party.

The geological data collected by the expedition is of great value. The first specimens were gathered at the Rockefeller Range, when a party flew out under the leadership of Dr. Lawrence M. Gould. It was on this trip that the Fokker was lost in a gale traveling at 125 miles per hour, and Commander Byrd flew the trimotor Ford to rescue his men.

A very remarkable achievement of the geological party was the sledge journey to the Queen Maud Range. This trek covered an aggregate of 1,500 miles, one of the longest sledge trips ever recorded. The nonexistence of Carmen Land was confirmed by this party. It was discovered that the mountains of East and West Antarctica vary in their structure, and the theory that the mountains of Antarctica are of the same rock as the Andes in South America was exploded.

A new feature of polar exploration was introduced, the aerial survey. By a conservative estimate the area surveyed is set at 150,000 square miles. During Byrd's flight to the pole Captain McKinley mapped a total of 1,600 miles, probably the most extensive single mapping ever done.

Meanwhile much was being accomplished at the base. With the exception of a very few days, Little America was in constant radio communication with the United States. In the course of a year over 1,000,000 words were sent and received by station WFA, Little America. Frequency and wave-length tests were made. By using short-wave lengths the base kept constantly in touch with its sledge and plane parties. At one time one of the planes over Little America was in direct radio communication with New York. And by radio the base kept in touch with Byrd during his entire flight to and from the pole.

Surface and upper air meteorological investigations were made. Systematic records, both day and night, were kept of barometric pressure, temperature, humidity, wind direction, and velocity, clouds and precipitation, visibility, and such optical phenomena as mirages and auroral halos. Continuous observations throw light on the atmospheric circulation in high southern altitudes, and these were the only criteria for forecasting the weather in Little America.

Important records were kept of the magnetic declination (error of compass from true north) and the needle's magnetic dip during a sunspot cycle. It is doubtful if such records have ever before been made of temperatures running from 20° to 37° below zero continuously for nine months.

An outstanding feat was the freight sledging done by the 76 dogs of the expedition in hauling supplies to the base from the City of New York and the Barrier cache where the Bolling was unloaded. In all, the dogs traveled a total of 12,300 miles and freighted 690 tons.

A sounding was made of the water beneath the ice on which Little America was established, and the depth was 1,600 feet.

Observations were made of the life and habits of seals, whales, and penguins, and specimens were preserved for museums of natural history in the United States.

Land was discovered in the name of the United States. This land is valuable because of its whale fisheries, its minerals, and possible aviation between the two continents in the Southern Hemisphere via Antarctica.

We are greatly indebted to Russell Owen, of the New York Times, for his accurate and fascinating chronicle of the expedition.

As a fitting recognition of his valuable scientific contributions and his skillful and courageous leadership, Commander Byrd was advanced to the rank of rear admiral, United States Navy, retired. A reception by New York City is planned for June 14, when the expedition is expected to land. The National Geographic Society is arranging a reception in Washington for June 16. At that time Rear Admiral Byrd will be awarded the gold medal of the National Geographic Society, and the motion pictures of the expedition will be shown here for the first time in America.

SR-71-2—VOL 2- -35

The members of the committee feel that those who were with Byrd and assisted so ably in the great success of his expedition are entitled to recognition by Congress, and they therefore propoxe that Byrd and his men be presented gold, silver, and bronze medals, which will be but a small reward for their valuable services. The designation of those to receive the gold, silver, or bronze medals will be determined by the Secretary of the Navy and Rear Admiral Byrd.

This resolution is not without precedent. Many persons, both in and out of the military and naval service of the United States, have received gold and other medals by special acts and resolutions of Congress. Following is a list of special acts and resolutions for such purposes:

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ACTS OF CONGRESS PROVIDING FOR THE PRESENTATION OF MEDALS TO PERSONS

NOT IN MILITARY SERVICE

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Joint resolution of March 3, 1857 (11 Stat. 255): Secretary of the Navy to cause to be struck and presented to “Doctor Kane, his officers and men,” medals expressing “the high estimation in which Congress hold their respective merits and services."

Joint resolution of February 24, 1873 (17 Stat. 638): President requested to cause medals to be made and presented to certain volunteers who saved lives from wreck of Metis. (See also joint resolution of March 3, 1876, 19 Stat. 496, No. 2.)

Act of June 20, 1874 (18 Stat. 573): President directed to cause gold medal to be prepared and presented to John Horn, jr., for "heroic and humane exploits in rescuing men, women, and children from drowning in the Detroit River.

Joint resolution of August 27, 1888 (25 Stat. 1249): Director of the Mint to strike gold medal, under direction of Joint Committee on the Library, to be presented by the President to Joseph Francis, for perfection of life-saving appliances.

Joint resolution of March 4, 1909 (35 Stat. 1627): Secretary of War to cause gold medals to be struck and presented to Orville and Wilbur Wright for services to science of aerial navigation.

Joint resolution of July 6, 1912 (37 Stat. 639, sec. 2): President requested to cause gold medal to be made and presented to Captain Rostron, of Cunard liner Car pathia, for rescue of Titanic survivors.

Joint resolution of March 19, 1914 (38 Stat. 769, sec. 2): Secretary of Commerce to cause gold, silver, and bronze medals to be made at the mint and presented to officers and crew of Red Star liner Kroonland for rescue of lives from burning steamer Volturno.

Joint resolution of March 4, 1915 (38 Stat. 1228): President requested to cause gold medals to be made and presented to mediators between United States and leaders of Mexican warring parties.

Act of May 2, 1928 (45 Stat. 482, c. 480): Distinguished flying cross to be presented to certain trans-Atlantic flyers.

Act of May 4, 1928 (45 Stat. 490, c. 503): Special gold medal to be struck and presented to Charles A. Lindbergh.

Act of May 29, 1928 (45 Stat. 1012, c. 919): Special gold medal to be struck and presented to Thomas A. Edison.

ACTS OF CONGRESS RELATING TO ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS

Joint resolution of May 2, 1850 (9 Stat. 561): Acceptance of two vessels from Henry Grinnell, to be used in search for Sir John Franklin and his companions; Navy officers and men to be detailed for the search.

Act of August 31, 1852 (10 Stat. 100, c. 109): Extra pay to officers and men engaged in the above-mentioned expedition. Total amount not specified.

Joint resolution of February 3, 1855 (10 Stat. 723, No. 7): Dispatch of vessels to Arctic seas for relief of Passed Asst. Surg. E. K. Kane and his expedition.

Act of March 3, 1855 (10 Stat. 676): Appropriation of $150,000 to carry into effect resolution of February 3, 1855, above.

Joint resolution of August 30, 1856 (11 Stat. 152, No. 3): Passed Asst. Surg. Elisha K. Kane and other officers of his expedition authorized to accept testimonials from Government of Great Britain.

Act of July 12, 1870 (16 Stat. 251, sec. 9): President authorized to send one or more expeditions toward North Pole; $50,000 appropriated. (See also act of March 3, 1871; 16 Stat. 526, 534.)

Act of June 23, 1874 (18 Stat. 226): Secretary of the Navy authorized to make, out of any available appropriation, “sufficient and appropriate compen

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sation and acknowledgment" to British seamen, etc., for rescuing survivors of Polaris expedition.

Act of June 23, 1874 (18 Stat. 614, c. 516): Secretary of the Navy to pay widow of Charles F. Hall, commander of Polaris expedition, balance of salary due, also not over $15,000 for purchase of manuscripts of Charles F. Hall, relating to Arctic explorations. Total appropriation, $16,936.

Act of March 3, 1875 (18 Stat. 409): Appropriation of $15,000 “for printing illustrations of the results of the Polaris expedition.'

Act of March 3, 1875 (18 Stat. 664, c. 225): Payment of one year's additional pay to survivors of Polaris expedition; also $360 to each of two Esquimaux for assistance to the crew.

Act of December 15, 1877 (20 Stat. 12): Appropriation of $5,000 for preparation of “narrative of Hall's second Arctic expedition. (See Senate resolution of February 6, 1877, Congressional Record, vol. 5, p. 1276.)

Act of March 18, 1878 (20 Stat. 31, c. 38): American register to be issued to Jeannette; detail of not over 10 Navy officers authorized.

Act of June 14, 1878 (20 Stat. 132, c. 197): Printing and sale of copies of narrative of Polaris expedition.

Act of February 27, 1879 (30 Stat. 323, c. 109): Secretary of the Navy authorized to accept charge of Jeannette expedition.

Act of May 1, 1880 (21 Stat. 82, c. 72): Establishment of temporary observation station north of 81°; use of H. W. Howgate's steamship Gulnare, authorized.

Act of June 16, 1880 (21 Stat. 238, c. 234): Appropriation of $8,000 to complete report on results of Captain Hall's expedition.

Act of March 3, 1881 (21 Stat. 447): Appropriation of $25,000 for continuing observations and explorations in and near Lady Franklin Bay.

Act of March 3, 1881 (21 Stat. 448): Appropriation of $175,000 for dispatch of vessel to search for Jeannette.

Joint resolution of June 27, 1882 (22 Stat. 384, No. 36): Appropriation of $33,000 for continuing observations and explorations in and near Lady Franklin Bay.

Act of August 7, 1882 (22 Stat. 735, c. 455): Allowance of full pay, etc., to Lieut. Frederick Schwatka, commander of Franklin search expedition, 1878-1880; Secretary of War may require him to deposit scientific reports, etc.

Act of March 3, 1883 (22 Stat. 616): Appropriation of $33,000 for completing observations and explorations in and near Lady Franklin Bay and at Point Barrow; also $8,052 for commutation of rations to enlisted men and $8,000 for subsistence stores.

Joint resolution of February 13, 1884 (23 Stat. 267, No. 10): Dispatch of expedition to bring back Lieut. A. W. Greely and his party; indefinite appropriation.

Act of April 17, 1884 (23 Stat. 11, c. 23): Offer of $25,000 reward for discovery of fate of Greely expedition.

Act of March 3, 1885 (23 Stat. 478, c. 360); Appropriation of $8,000 for testimonials to Russian officers, etc., for relief of Jeannette expedition.

Act of January 3, 1887 (24 Stat. 882–883): Payment of various amounts to survivors of Jeannette expedition; total amount not specified.

Act of October 3, 1888 (25 Stat. 1194, c. 1073): Payment of $703.75 for commutation of fuel and quarters and extra-duty pay to certain persons on duty with Lieut. A. W. Greely.

Act of September 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 562, c. 1128): Advancement of Chief Engineer George Wallace Melville, of Jeannette expedition; presentation of medals to survivors of expedition; indefinite appropriation.

Act of February 21, 1891 (26 Stat. 1367, c. 263): Payment of certain amounts to owners and crews of various whaling vessels for rescue of 900 seamen in Arctic Sea; total amount, $125,000.90.

Act of May 27, 1902 (32 Stat. 237): Payment of $23,500 to owners of Arctic for rescue of 176 seamen in Arctic Sea; also $1,000 to Albert C. Brown for rescue of crew of C. G. White, wrecked on Kodiak Island April 13, 1895.

Act of June 21, 1902 (32 Stat. 1455, c. 1141): Certain survivors of Lady Franklin Bay expedition to be placed on Army retired list as first-class sergeants.

Act of June 28, 1902 (32 Stat. 492, c. 1311): Appropriation of $1,000 for medals to certain officers of Revenue Cutter Service for relief of whaling fleet in 1897 and 1898.

Act of January 5, 1927 (44 Stat. 933): Providing for the promotion of Lieut. Commander Richard E. Byrd, United States Navy, retired, to grade of commander, United States Navy, retired, with highest pay for that class; also author

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izing the President to present congressional medal of honor to Commander Byrd in recognition of his flight over North Pole.

Act of December 21, 1929 (Private, No. 1, 71st Cong.): Authorizing the President to advance Commander Richard E. Byrd, United States Navy, retired, to grade of rear admiral, United States Navy, retired, with pay and allowances of that class, in recognition of his successful Antarctic expedition and flight over the South Pole.

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