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BY DR. A. E. F.

Eu-Minister of Commerce in Austria, and Late Professor of Political

Economy at the University of Vienna.



Μάλλον γαρ δεί τάς επιθυμιας ομαλίζειν ή τας ουσιας.

ARISTOTLE POLIT. II. vii., 8, Congreve's Ed.

[All rights reserved.]


The primary object in the publication of this volume was the desire of making English and American readers acquainted with the author of the work of which this is only, so to speak, a popularized epitome with additions and alterations to adapt it for English readers. The calm, candid and comprehensive manner in which Dr. Schäffle deals with the great social questions of the day deserves the most attentive consideration of political economists and social reformers. But the present volume is intended for others also who have an interest in the social movement of these days. On the one hand it is addressed to the great middle class, the capitalists, against whom the international and kindred affiliations are directing their open attacks and dreaded secret combinations. On the other hand, it is addressed to those “enlightened” leaders of the labouring classes who can see no other means of salvation for the working man except the destruction of the capital and influence of the hated moneyed middle and upper classes.

A careful perusal of the following pages, if conducted without prejudice and unhampered by foregone conclusions, will teach both, not how they may defeat each other's plans and purposes, but rather how they may mutually


advance their own interests, and so the common interests of civilization and humanity. It is also hoped that a thoughtful study of this volume will show the former that, after all, the writings of German economists are not quite so dangerous to property or revolutionary in theory as some suppose them to be.

And as to the latter (the working man's friends) the present attempt will add another item, however subordinate in importance, towards the vindication of the clergy from the charge often brought against them of neglecting the material interests of the labouring classes. There are some men in the church who study diligently, and weigh carefully, those problems the solution of which must lead to the elevation of the masses and the temporal prosperity of the working classes. But their number is not as large as perhaps it ought to be. May this humble contribution aid in some measure to promote the conviction that the temporal as well as the spiritual welfare of the people deserves alike the attention and fostering care of the national church. If Christianity is the gospel of peace, and the Founder of our religion, Himself the great Mediator, has pronounced His blessing upon the peacemakers not in vain, it evidently becomes the ministers of His religion to follow in the Master's steps and to act as mediators between those whom self interest and class hatred have severed. Taking an independent standpoint, the clergyman may see the merits and demerits of modern theories for the improvement of the working classes, and also the extravagant claims of the

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