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2. Control of Atomic Energy

{This resolution takes into account the work of the Atomic Energy Commission, as set forth in its first, second, and third reports, and approves certain recommendations of the Commission as constituting the necessary basis for an effective system for international control of atomic energy. The Assembly expresses concern at the impasse in the work of the Commission and requests its six permanent members (China, France, United Kingdom, United States, U.S.S.R., and Canada) to meet for consultation to determine whether there exists a basis for agreement on the international control of atomic energy and to report on the results of their consultations to the General Assembly at its next regular session. Finally, the Atomic Energy Commission is requested to resume its sessions and to proceed to the study of such of the subjects on its work program as it considers practicable and useful.

This resolution was adopted by a vote of 40 to 6, with 4 abstentions, on November 4.]

The General Assembly,

HAVING EXAMINED the first, second and third reports of the Atomic Energy Commission which have been transmitted to it by the Security Council in accordance with the terms of General Assembly resolution 1 (I) of 24 January 1946,

1. Approves the General Findings (part II C). and Recommendations (part III) of the first report and the Specific Proposals of part II of the second report of the Commission as constituting the necessary basis for establishing an effective system of international control of atomic energy to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes and for the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons in accordance with the terms of reference of the Atomic Energy Commission;

2. Expresses its deep concern at the impasse which has been reached in the work of the Atomic Energy Commission as shown in its third report and regrets that unanimous agreement has not yet been reached;

3. Requests the six sponsors of the General Assembly resolution of 24 January 1946, which are the permanent members of the Atomic Energy Commission, to meet together and consult in order to determine if there exists a basis for agreement on the international control of atomic energy to ensure its use only for peaceful purposes and for the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons, and to report to the General Assembly the results of their consultation not later than its next regular session; 4. Meanwhile,

The General Assembly,

Calls upon the Atomic Energy Commission to resume its sessions, to survey its programme of work, and to proceed to the further study of such of the subjects remaining in the programme of work as it considers to be practicable and useful.

3. Prohibition of the Atomic Weapon and Reduction by One

Third of the Armaments and Armed Forces of the Permanent
Members of the Security Council

[This resolution, which grew out of a Soviet proposal for prohibition of the atomic weapon and reduction by one third of the armaments and armed forces of the permanent members of the Security Council, notes the desirability of making possible a general reduction of armaments but considers such a reduction impossible so long as each state lacks authenticated information concerning the armaments of other states and except in an atmosphere of improvement in international relations, including an effective system for the control of atomic energy. It accordingly recommends that the Security Council pursue its study of the regulation and reduction of conventional armaments through the Commission on Conventional Armaments and requests the Commission to devote first attention to formulating proposals for the receipt, checking, and verification by an international organ within the framework of the Security Council of full information on armed forces and conventional armaments to be supplied by members. The Security Council is invited to report on its action under the resolution to the next regular session of the General Assembly.

This resolution was adopted by a vote of 43 to 6, with 1 abstention, on November 19.]

The General Assembly,

DESIRING to establish relations of confident collaboration between the States within the framework of the Charter and to make possible a general reduction of armaments in order that humanity may in future be spared the horrors of war and that the peoples may not be overwhelmed by the continually increasing burden of military expenditure,

CONSIDERING that no agreement is attainable on any proposal for the reduction of conventional armaments and armed forces so long as each State lacks exact and authenticated information concerning the conventional armaments and armed forces of other States, so long as no convention has been concluded regarding the types of military forces to which such reduction would apply, and so long as no organ of control has been established,

CONSIDERING that the aim of the reduction of conventional armaments and armed forces can only be attained in an atmosphere of real and lasting improvement in international relations, which implies in particular the application of control of atomic energy involving the prohibition of the atomic weapon,

BUT NOTING on the other hand that this renewal of confidence would be greatly encouraged if States were placed in possession of precise and verified data as to the level of their respective conventional armaments and armed forces,

Recommends the Security Council to pursue the study of the regulation and reduction of conventional armaments and armed forces through the agency of the Commission for Conventional Armaments in order to obtain concrete results as soon as possible;

Trusts that the Commission for Conventional Armaments, in carrying out its plan of work, will devote its first attention to formulating proposals for the receipt, checking and publication, by an international organ of control within the framework of the Security Council, of full information to be supplied by Member States with regard to their effectives and their conventional armaments;

Invites the Security Council to report to it no later than its next regular session on the effect given to the present recommendation with a view to enabling it to continue its activity with regard to the regulation of armaments in accordance with the purposes and principles defined by the Charter;

Invites all nations in the Commission for Conventional Armaments to co-operate to the utmost of their power in the attainment of the above-mentioned objectives.

4. The Problem of the Independence of Korea

[After referring to the previous action of the General Assembly on Korea, the report of the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea, and the report of the Interim Committee regarding its consultations with the Temporary Commission, this resolution approves the conclusions of the reports of the Temporary Commission; declares that a lawful government has been established in Korea as a result of the elections observed by the Commission and that this is the only such government in Korea; recommends withdrawal of occupation forces from Korea as early as practicable; establishes a Commission on Korea, with head

quarters in Korea, to continue the work of the Temporary Commission, carry out the provisions of this resolution, and in particular lend its good offices to bring about the unification of all Korea and the integration of all Korean security forces; and calls upon the Members and Koreans to afford assistance to the Commission, to refrain from any acts derogatory to bringing about the complete independence and integrity of Korea, and to take into consideration, in establishing their relations with the Government of Korea, the fact that the Government of the Republic of Korea is the lawful government.

This resolution was adopted by a vote of 48 to 6, with one abstention, on December 12.]

The General Assembly,

HAVING REGARD to its resolution 112 (II) of 14 November 1947 concerning the problem of the independence of Korea,

HAVING CONSIDERED the report of the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea (hereinafter referred to as the “Temporary Commission”), and the report of the Interim Committee of the General Assembly regarding its consultation with the Temporary Commission,

MINDFUL of the fact that, due to difficulties referred to in the report of the Temporary Commission, the objectives set forth in the resolution of 14 November 1947 have not been fully accomplished, and in particular that unification of Korea has not yet been achieved,

1. Approves the conclusions of the reports of the Temporary Commission;

2. Declares that there has been established a lawful government (the Government of the Republic of Korea) having effective control and jurisdiction over that part of Korea where the Temporary Commission was able to observe and consult and in which the great majority of the people of all Korea reside; that this Government is based on elections which were a valid expression of the free will of the electorate of that part of Korea and which were observed by the Temporary Commission; and that this is the only such Government in Korea;

3. Recommends that the occupying Powers should withdraw their occupation forces from Korea as early as practicable;

4. Resolves that, as a means to the full accomplishment of the objectives set forth in the resolution of 14 November 1947, a Commission on Korea, consisting of the following States: Australia, China, El Salvador, France, India, the Philippines, Syria, should be established to continue the work of the Temporary Commission and carry out the provisions of the present resolution, having in mind the status of the Government of the Republic of Korea as herein defined, and in particular to:

(a) Lend its good offices to bring about the unification of Korea and the integration of all Korean security forces in accordance with the principles laid down by the General Assembly in the resolution of 14 November 1947;

(b) Seek to facilitate the removal of barriers to economic, social and other friendly intercourse caused by the division of Korea;

(c) Be available for observation and consultation in the further development of representative government based on the freely expressed will of the people;

(d) Observe the actual withdrawal of the occupying forces and verify the fact of withdrawal when such has occurred: and for this purpose, if it so desires, request the assistance of military experts of the two occupying Powers; 5. Decides that the Commission:

(a) Shall within thirty days of the adoption of the present resolution, proceed to Korea, where it shall maintain its seat;

(b) Shall be regarded as having superseded the Temporary Commission established by the resolution of 14 November 1947;

(c) Is authorized to travel, consult and observe throughout Korea; (d) Shall determine its own procedures;

(e) May consult with the Interim Committee with respect to the discharge of its duties in the light of developments, and within the terms of the present resolution;

(f) Shall render a report to the next regular session of the General Assembly and to any prior special session which might be called to consider the subject matter of the present resolution, and shall render such interim reports as it may deem appropriate to the SecretaryGeneral for distribution to Members;

6. Requests that the Secretary-General should provide the Commission with adequate staff and facilities, including technical advisers as required; and authorizes the Secretary-General to pay the expenses and per diem of a representative and an alternate from each of the States members of the Commission;

7. Calls upon the Member States concerned, the Government of the Republic of Korea, and all Koreans to afford every assistance and facility to the Commission in the fulfilment of its responsibilities;

8. Calls upon Member States to refrain from any acts derogatory to the results achieved and to be achieved by the United Nations in bringing about the complete independence and unity of Korea;

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