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that the ends to be sought on these matters may be briefly summarized as follows:
A Palestine free from strife and the threat of strife, with both the Jews and Arabs assured the peaceful development envisaged by the actions of the General Assembly and the Security Council; an early demobilization of armed forces to permit the return to conditions of peace and normal living in Palestine; the repatriation of refugees who wish to return and live in peace with their neighbors; economic aid to Jews and Arabs to restore and strengthen their economic wellbeing; the admission of Transjordan and Israel to membership in the United Nations.
A unified and independent Korea, accepted as a Member of the United Nations, acting under a constitution and a government selected by the Koreans themselves through free elections, and receiving the economic and political encouragement which it will need as it embarks upon its new life as a Korean nation.
A Greece made secure from aggressive and unlawful interference from without, ordering its political life by the democratic process and by respect for law, enabled to rebuild its economy and to provide its people the essentials of a decent life which they have been without for so long.
A negotiated settlement without further bloodshed in Indonesia, along the broad lines of the Renville agreement, providing within a brief period both the sovereign independence sought by the people of Indonesia and continued cooperation between them and the people of the Netherlands.
Continuation of the mediation and negotiation between the great nations of India and Pakistan with respect to Kashmir, in order that the processes of peaceful settlement may bring to a conclusion an issue which has been charged with great dangers.
The early adoption of an international system for the control of atomic energy, providing for the elimination of atomic weapons from national armaments, for the development of atomic energy for peaceful purposes only, and for safeguards to insure compliance by all nations with the necessary international measures of control.
Under adequate and dependable guaranty against violation, a progressive reduction in armaments as rapidly as the restoration of political confidence permits.
Other situations or problems might be mentioned, but if constructive steps are taken toward the settlement of those which have been indicated, new hope would arise among men and new confidence among
the nations of the world. It will be readily seen that the above pattern is toward peace. No governments or peoples who work toward such ends can be held to be seeking war, or imperialist expansion, or disorder and strife.
We have noted with particular interest the report of the SecretaryGeneral on the work of the United Nations relating to the millions of people who are not yet fully self-governing. We are mindful of the obligations undertaken in the Charter for the political, economic, and social development of these peoples. We believe that all possible assistance and encouragement should be given to them, to the end that they may play their full part in the family of nations either as independent states or in freely chosen association with other states.
In our efforts toward political settlement we must continue to improve the functioning of the machinery of the United Nations. We hope that the Security Council will proceed to recommend during this session of the General Assembly the admission of additional new members. There are a number of fully qualified states, now awaiting admission, whose election has been supported by the United States but has been blocked for reasons not consistent with the Charter. The most recent applicant, Ceylon, one of the new states to emerge in southern Asia, has been denied the membership to which it properly aspires.
The report of the Interim Committee on the problem of voting in the Security Council represents the first comprehensive study of this vital problem since San Francisco and contains the views of an overwhelming majority of the members. The work of the Security Council would be greatly facilitated if the recommendations of the Interim Committee could be accepted by the members of the Council. The Interim Committee itself has worked usefully and effectively
ng the past year and can continue to render an important service to the General Assembly. We hope that the General Assembly will agree to its continuation for another year in order to give us more experience before deciding whether it should become a permanent part of our organization.
The United States joins in expressing great appreciation to those individuals who have served on United Nations missions during the past year, either as members of national delegations or of the Secretariat. These representatives in the field have served with courage and devotion to duty. Their service has been rendered under conditions of great hardship and personal danger. We have been given a particularly solemn reminder of these conditions by the tragic death of Count Folke Bernadotte and Colonel Serot at the hands of assassins. The people of the United States join in tribute to the man who worked
brilliantly and courageously as the United Nations Mediator in Palestine. We pay tribute also to those who have lost their lives in the service of peace.
We believe that the General Assembly should give sympathetic consideration to the suggestions of the Secretary-General for the establishment of a small United Nations guard force to assist United Nations missions engaged in the pacific settlement of disputes. The fate of the Mediator in Palestine and the experience of the several commissions already working in the field have already demonstrated the need for such a group. This great world organization should not send its servants on missions of peace without reasonable protection. The guards would be entirely distinct from the armed forces envisaged under article 43 and would not carry out military operations. They could, however, perform important services in connection with United Nations missions abroad not only as guards but as observers and as communications and transportation personnel.
SELECTED RESOLUTIONS OF THE
A. Resolutions Adopted at the First Part of the Third
Regular Session 1. Appeal to the Great Powers To Renew Their Efforts TO
Compose Their Differences and Establish a Lasting Peace [After noting in its preamble the purposes and aims of the United Nations, observing that these aims cannot be attained so long as World War II remains in process of liquidation and so long as the peace treaties have not been concluded, and directing attention to the concern of the peoples of the world at the existing disagreements among the Great Allied Powers, the resolution recalls and endorses the Yalta declaration and recommends that the Powers signatory to the Moscow agreements of December 24, 1945, redouble their efforts for a speedy conclusion of all the peace settlements, associating with them the states which adhered to the Washington declaration of January 1, 1942.
This resolution was unanimously adopted on November 3.)
1. WHEREAS it is the essential purpose of the United Nations to maintain international peace and security and to that end it must coordinate its efforts to bring about by peaceful means the settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach
of the peace,
2. WHEREAS the United Nations should be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of this common end,
3. WHEREAS the United Nations cannot fully attain its aims so long as the recent war remains in process of liquidation and so long as all the peace treaties have not been concluded and put into force,
4. WHEREAS the Great Allied Powers, which bore the heaviest burden in the war and whose common sacrifice and effort were the prime cause of victory, have reaffirmed, on many solemn occasions, their determination to maintain and strengthen in the peace that unity of
purpose and of action which has made possible the victory of the United Nations,
5. WHEREAS the aforementioned Allied Powers, which undertook at the second Moscow Conference responsibility for drafting and concluding the peace treaties, have not been able, after three years of effort, to obtain the full realization of their high mission by building a just and lasting peace,
6. WHEREAS the disagreement between the said Powers in a matter of vital importance to all the United Nations is at the present time the cause of the deepest anxiety among all the peoples of the world, and
7. WHEREAS the United Nations, in the performance of its most sacred mission, is bound to afford its assistance and co-operation in the settlement of a situation the continuation of which involves grave dangers for international peace,
The General Assembly
1. Recalls the declarations made at Yalta on 11 February 1945 by Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin, in which the signatories
“reaffirm our faith in the principles of the Atlantic Charter, our pledge in the Declaration by the United Nations, and our determination to build in co-operation with other peace-loving nations a world order under law, dedicated to peace, security, freedom and the general well-being of all mankind”,
and proclaim that
"only with continuing and growing co-operation and understanding among our three countries, and among all the peace-loving nations, can the highest aspiration of humanity be realized—a secure and lasting peace which will, in the words of the Atlantic Charter (afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want'”;
2. Endorses these declarations and expresses its convictions that the Great Allied Powers will, in their policies, conform to the spirit of the said declarations;
3. Recommends the Powers signatories to the Moscow Agreements of 24 December 1945, and the Powers which subsequently acceded thereto, to redouble their efforts, in a spirit of solidarity and mutual understanding, to secure in the briefest possible time the final settlement of the war and the conclusion of all the peace settlements;
4. Recommends the aforementioned Powers to associate with them, in the performance of such a noble task, the States which subscribed and adhered to the Washington Declaration of 1 January 1942.