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care of a physician with whom I was ac- firm my original experience—but they would quainted, and then I found that the little one be almost meaningless had it not been for the was almost entirely deaf. The trouble then few minutes each day studying a child's vowas easily explained: in oral work the pupil cabulary face to face with the child. sat upon the recitation seat near the teacher, 2. In studying the definitions given I found and so heard the words fairly well, but when all the various degrees of abstractness and acthe words were written, she sat in her seat curacy. I found it usually profitless to insist back of the center of the room and so did not on or to give full or accurate definitions, and hear distinctly.

for the first time I realized readily that the That happened fifteen years ago, and I child-mind sees superficial whole thoughts, never see a so-called “dull” class but what I and that it is hostility to his very being to be have a desire to find out how far some physi- always insisting on accuracy and completecal defect is acting as a predisposing cause, ness. and what remedies can be suggested for it. Here I rewrite a sentence quoted from This can hardly be called an experiment in Commissioner Harris: “It [child-study] will child-study, but it was an experience in the learn how to prevent that mischievous arrest realm of the actual, and it has left me with a of development which is produced at present kindlier disposition toward children ever since, by too much

by too much thoroughness in mechanical and I trust a better teacher for it.

methods.” How many times I have seen The heart power, the humanity of the teachers in an elementary reading lesson fritter teacher, is not the froth and foam of senti- away the time in a vain attempt after mementalism, but is the product of observation chanical thoroughness. The child-mind cares and thought--they will feel deepest and act little for the fine distinctions in ideas; he wisest who most rightly think, and so I be- thinks in large superficial units; he gathers lieve child-study is destined to help the child thoughts he can neither analyze or define; and because it sets teachers to thinking, predis- while poor teaching all along the line is reposing them to openmindedness and progress. sponsible somewhat, I believe that the de

Let me illustrate the point still further: ficiencies in mathematical subjects shown by When my little girl was six years old I began students who enter our secondary schools, is a study of her vocabulary: it was my custom due to the lack of concrete experience on the to take the academic dictionary, and run side of the child and on the part of the through the nouns in their order, asking her teacher, of forcing analysis and explanation to define them in her own way or to use them where there is none to give. A certain learned in a sentence. It was about six months in doctor prepared an edition of Pilgrim's Procompleting the text, and during its continu- gress with very elaborate notes; a simple ance I found out specifically: that she knew peasant read the work and said he understood the meaning of 1,247 names of things. That every thing but the notes. So the children then was the specific result of my study, and follow through the mazes of our interrogatories it is interesting to know that a little child and with their lips say “yes,” but with their knows the names of 1,247 things.

whole intellectual natures saying, "I do not But let us consider the side reflections that understand.” came to me during the study:

In our normal schools and training colleges 1. So many names of things! 1247! how teachers are told how a child thinks, and how well fitted little children are to hear about its mind grows, and happy the student teacher many things-how unwise then to limit the who knows; clothe the truth in abstraction, conversation of the primary school to the dry and it falls dead and useless, clothe it in the details of the reader from which the child is celestial robes of concreteness and seeing is learning the symbols. That small experience to worship, follow, and obey." set me to thinking, and a varied experience 3. Of my little daughter's interest in her since then has fully convinced me of the lessons” as she called them, I had no doubt; thought that almost any thing brought to the she was a child of fair ability and was full of child in a simple way will be welcomed and desire to do as I wished her to, but after I had understood by him.

reached the limit of from ten to twenty words, In a fourth grade not long since I saw a I could get neither interest nor attention. Inteacher telling the story of the Merchant of stead of following the words pointed out as Venice, and heard the pupils appreciatingly she was wont to do, her eyes would be fixed recite quotations from it, and in a second on the metallic tip of the pencil, and tried I grade I saw children sitting in open-eyed in- never so hard the lesson was ended. terest at the tale of Evangeline—these con- This may seem a very simple experience, but it forced upon me again and again the

OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT. reality of "fatigue" and the necessity of rest and change.


TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. Here was a little child able to learn, interested to learn, and willing to learn, and yet,

Superintendents' Section. beyond a certain point, unable to learn. We Meeting called to order at 2:30 o'clock P. M., by the may profit, I think, even if we come to real

president, Sup't John Zimmerman.

Prof. W. H. Shultz, of Spring Green, Wis., read a paper ize so general a truth as this; for every human on "The Common School Lyceum." The leading points being there is a point of fatigue beyond which presented were as follows:

The history of the Lyceum movement. it is idle to explain, blame or exhort.

Objects of the work-educational and social. The Ly. Not long since I observed a lesson in ele- ceum is a help to the farmer in his private business and mentary geography. The pupils were gath- public life. The Lyceum educates for citizenship.

An interesting discussion of this paper was opened by ered in a large semi-circle about the teacher; Sup't J. H. Nattrass, of Shullsburg. as I watched the class I thought that about ten Sup't Emerence Walters, of Neillsville, Wis., read a minutes would be their limit of live attention

paper on "Our Common School Course."

The central thought of this paper was the necessity of a to the lesson being taught.

more definite course of study to secure desired results. Ability and willingness characterized most The discussion of this paper resulted in the passing of a

motion directing the chairman to appoint a committee of of the pupils; the first half of the lesson was

three to confer with the members of the state department uneventful, but the latter half was filled with on needed changes in the common school course, tending sharp words of "attention" and the snapping

toward definiteness.

Sup't. L. D. Roberts, Shawano, Wis., read a paper on of fingers.

"Needed Changes in Our School Laws." The following I could see that the teacher doubted the changes were recommended: right-mindedness and the right-heartedness of

Fix the minimum age of teachers at 21 years, by legisla

tive enactment, said law to take effect, July 1, 1900, the class, for she worried her pupils and her- 2-Let the graduates of the four years' free high school self with frequent nervous complaints. The courses, after having taught successfully in the public children got nothing after about the first ten

schools for one year on a first grade certificate, have their

diplomas countersigned by the state superintendent, making minutes, but a distate for the lesson, while the them life certificates for the state, and qualifying their teacher found another illustration of the gen

holders as teachers of public schools below the free high

schools. eral "cussedness" of boy and girl nature.

3. —Teachers' examinations. Let there be two or more In a conversation with her at the close of regular examinations yearly in each superintendent's disthe day she gave a ready assent to a number

trict, said examinations to be conducted simultaneously

throughout the state in accordance with regulations preof pedagogical platitudes, any one of which, if scribed by the state superintendent. realized, would have kept her boat off the Let the grades of certificates be as at present, but let it

be nnlawful to make the minimum less than 65 per cent. in rocks; but it was the assent of the lips, not

any branch or the general average less than 75 per cent., the assent of realizing reason.

also make it unlawful to refile papers, except those of the How idle method and device when the second grade and those only within eighteen months of

writing, and for successful candidates for first grade certifiteacher has not a breathing experience with

cates. the nature of the child upon which they are Let third grade certificates be issued to those only who tried, while to those that know whereof they

have taught less than six months, and limit the life of said

certificate to one year; let second grade certificates be isteach, question, illustration, and device, be

sued for three years to those who have taught successfully come like clay in the hands of the sculptor, to in the public schools for six months, and to others let the be moulded into forms of use and beauty.

time be limited to one year; let first grade certificates be

issued for four years to those who have taught successfully In many such ways as this is the study of in the public schools for eight months, but substitute a the life of the child to make teachers more

suitable branch in the place of higher algebra.

Let all examination questions be furnished by the state thoughtful and readier to think, not only of the

superintendent, but make it the duty of the various superknowledge to be taught, but of the living soul intendents of public schools throughout the state to make to whom it is to go. In a limited way child

out and forward one complete set of questions, annually,

for a first grade certificate to the state superintendent, and study will impress upon our normal trained

also to mail a copy of this set to each of the county superteacher that there is more to do, and better to intendents. do, than to absorb the principles of even so

Allow each county superintendent a committee, not to

exceed three members, each member of which shall be good a book as Laurie's Institutes," or De

igible to the office of county superintendent of schools, to Garmo's Essentials;" and with all its vagar- assist in inspecting and marking papers written by the va

rious candidates for certificates to teach. ies, I believe this first-hand study of the ma

Make the expenses of such committee a charge against terials upon which teaching is to act, will not the county for which the examination was held, the per only carry the spirit of true science into things diem of each member not to exceed dollars, and the

number of days that said committee may be employed, not pedagogical, but that it will bring to our com

to exceed days. mon schools everywhere a spirit more humane Allow private examinations to be given, at the discretion and methods more intelligent.

of the county superintendent of schools, to persons having

previously passed at a regular examination, certificates so Oshkosh, Wis.


granted to be limited to the first regular examination; but


teacher. It was deemed advisable to make the subject of drawing compulsory for all high school students expecting to become teachers.

Paper-The Need of a Supervisor in City Schools, by Ida M. Cravath, Madison.

In the general discussion it appeared that the feeling that city teachers need a supervisor was universal. Much emphasis was placed upon the need of drawing in the high schools as well as in the grades.

In case there should be any opposition to this, it was sug. gested that the Ladies' Clubs might be asked to co-operate with the teachers in furthering the good work.

Paper-The Need of a State Director of Drawing, by Harriet Cecil Magee, Oshkosh.

In the discussion it seemed wise to have provision made for the teaching of drawing in all schools; that is, rural as well as city schools.

A motion was made and carried to the effect that some steps should be taken toward the securing of a state director of drawing

Miss Magee, of Oshkosh, was appointed chairman of a committee of three, the other two members to be appointed by the chair, to further this work. The meeting adjourned.

Milwaukee State Normal School,

Secretary, pro tem.

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make a second private examination unlawful until the applicant has first received a certificate from a regular public examination.

Empower the county superintendent of schools to apoul any certificate, countersigned diploma, or any form of license authorizing or qualifying the holder as a teacher in the schools under bis jurisdiction, such annullment being for the causes and in the manner prescribed by the statutes; but make such annullment to be operative only to the end of the term he is then serving, and for the territory within the superintendent district for which he was elected.

4-A law requiring the approval of plans for public schoolhouses by the county superintendent of schools within his jurisdiction, subject to appeal to the state superintendent.

The superintendent should have absolute authority in the arrangement of the stationary school furniture, and the arrangement of all buildings on the school grounds.

The superintendent should be empowered within specified limits to purchase apparatus, make alterations, and repairs, the same being chargeable to and payable by the district for which the expense was incurred, on presentation to the district of an itemized, verified statement by the superintendent, showing to whom payments are due.

5—Substitute the following, or its equivalent for section 4862. of the township library law: The treasurer of each town in this state shall withhold annually from the money received from the school fund income, for the several school districts and parts of school districts the territory of which is located in the town of which he is treasurer, an amount equal to ten cents for each person of school age residing in such territory lying within his town, paying the pro rata portion so withheld for children of any or each district or joint district to the town clerk of the town in which the schoolhouse of said district or joint district is located, for the purchase of books as hereinafter provided; and it is further provided that the town treasurer of any town in this state in which there is a joint school district with its schoolhouse located in another town, shall immediately on withholding the ten cents per capita library money, forward the pro rata sum withheld for the same, by mail, less postage and exchange, to the address of the town clerk in whose town the schoolhouse of any such joint district is located; but the town clerk of his own town shall apply in person,

This paper brought forth a spirited discussion, and it was moved and carried that Supt. Roberts' paper be printed and circulated among the superintendents for further consideration.

Business Meeting. Moved and carried that the officers for the ensuing year be elected by acclamation.

The officers so elected are as follows:
President-Sup't Frank W. Bixby, Hammond.
Vice-President-Sup't J. H. Nattrass, Shullsburg.
Secretary-Sup't Anna E. Schaffer, Chippewa Falls.

Moved and carried that the expressed wish of the superintendents be, that the state superintendent hold but one superintendents' meeting at a place selected by himself.

Moved and carried that all superintendents pay a membership fee, of 25 cents each, to the secretary of the association for the purpose of defraying the expenses of the association.



Music Section. The session of the music section was well attended. It opened with a paper on “The Value of Unison Singing and Comparative Value of Part Singing in the Grades," by Belle Phelps, of Columbus. She said that unison singiog should be practiced in all grades up to the seventh. In the discussion, Miss Lillian Watts, of Racine, said that unison singing trained the voice from above, down. It was also the best method for child training. "The Co-relation of Music and Physical Culture," was treated by Marjorie McCawley, of Oshkosh. This was followed by a discussion by Emily Brooks, of Beloit. Miss McCawley said there was a decided relation between physical culture and music, and that every teacher ought to be able to read music. The discussion was mainly on the position of the person singing, which Miss Brooks said had considerable to do with the purity of the tone. Lola Herbert, of Ishpeming, Mich., who was to read a paper on “Light Reading in Public Schools," was not present, and Miss Laurene Corbin was substituted. Her subject was "The Relation Between the Supervisor of Music and the Regular Teacher."

Child-Study Section. At 5:00 o'clock the meeting of the Child-Study section was called. The purpose of the session was purely business, and the time was devoted solely to the reports of the retiring officers, and the election of the new. Chairman John J. Jegi, of the Milwaukee normal school, called the meeting to order. Mr. Jegi pointed out the increasing interest in the work of child study becoming more evident throughout the state, and he dwelt upon the plans of the section for the future. Miss Kate C. Mavity, of the Whitewater normal school, read the secretary-treasurer's report, The election of officers followed, the following named being chosen:

President-M. V. O'Shea, Madison.
First Vice-President-F. A. Bolton, Milwaukee.
Second Vice-President- J. Lough, Oshkosh.

Secretary-Treasurer--Mrs. M. D. Bradford, Stevens Point.

Executive Committee-J. J. Jegi, Milwaukee, chairman; G. A. Tawney, Beloit; J. B. Esterbrook, Racine.

A meeting of the Executive Committee has been called for this morning at 9:00 o'clock.

Drawing Section. A well-attended and interesting meeting of the drawing section was held. The meeting was called to order by the chairman, Miss Loula S. Gerke, of La Crosse, and a brief address outlining the work of the past year was listened to with a great deal of interest.

*Drawing in the High Schools for Those Expecting to Be Teachers," was the title of a paper presented by Miss S. Helen Rogers, of Beloit, who pointed out the advisability of securing uniformity in teaching drawing in the preparatory schools, owing to the difficulty which arose after the normal course was reached.

In the general discussion which followed · blackboard drawing was advocated as being very helpful to the future

Grammar and Intermediate Section. The stand which President Eliot, of Harvard college, has taken in regard to the shortening of the common school course formed the basis of a most animated discussion at the meeting of the grammar and intermediate section, held


in the assembly hall of the normal building. The question was warmly debated from every standpoint and finally the chairman, Supt. R. B. Dudgeon, of Madison, was empowered to appoint a committee of three which is to report at the

meeting of the State Teachers' Association on the practicability of shortening the grammar school course, making it possible for pupils to enter the high schools at the age of 13 or 14 years. It was suggested that President C. K. Adams, of the state university, serve as chairman of the committee, but no appointments were made, .Mr. Dudgeon preferring to make the announcement later.

The question was brought up by an address by Prof. Charles Smith, of the University of Wisconsin, who gave a resume of President Eliot's views on the necessity of decreasing the number of years children spent in the common schools. He agreed with President Eliot in believing that the age of 13 was not too early to enter the high school.

In the discussion that followed, ex-Supt. Anderson, of Milwaukee, took a prominent part, criticising President Eliot's stand and declaring that his views were visionary and impracticable. President Salisbury, of Whitewater, declared himself to be no admirer of the precocious child, which generally turns out a failure in the end, and Julius Howard Pratt, of the Milwaukee academy, made a plea for individual work.

President C. K. Adams, of the state university, then took the floor, saying that he personally knew of Mr. Eliot's point of view, which was that 19 was too old for the average man to enter college, since, when he had four years of collegiate and two, three, or four years more of technical or professional training, he was scarcely ready to marry and settle down at thirty.

"The age at which our boys enter college is so advanced that comparatively few receive a collegiate education," he said. “Io Germany and France you will find boys at 16 and 18 farther advanced by two or three years than American boys of the same age. Our foreign population has lit. tle to do with it. When the foreigner gets to our college he is quite as advanced as the American born. I think that there should some way be found by which the brighter students may finish their studies and get out into life earlier than they do now.

Mr. Anderson, of Milwaukee, then moved that a commit. tee of three be appointed to make a report on this question at the next meeting, and in the discussion that followed a test was made of those in the room, showing that a large proportion had been through the country district schools, while comparatively few came from grammar schools. President Adams suggested that a vote be taken on the spot as to the practicability, but Mr Anderson objected to hasty action and the question was dropped.

The only other question discussed in the meeting was that of teaching English. Miss Nannie Gray, of the Stevens Point normal school, advancing the theory that grammar and language were best taught in the acquiring and expressing of other studies. Miss Sarah Devlin, of Whitewater normal, who followed her, said that the success in teaching English depended largely upon the teacher's knowledge.

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Indian School Section. The Indian school section held a short session, and after concluding its business accepted an invitation extended by Mrs. S. S. Merrill, to visit the Industrial School for Girls. The meeting opened with a paper by Axel Jacobson, the superintendent of the Indian school at Wittenberg, in which he made a strong argument in favor of manual training. Mr. Jacobson deplored the fact that the government extended financial support to the Indians instead of teaching them useful occupations. He said that the Indian was not averse to working, but he became discouraged when he saw the better results attained by his white neighbor. In conclusion, the speaker urged the investment of the annuities granted to the Indians in such a manner that it would result in teaching them some industry in order that they might become equal to the emergency of taking care of themselves.

Leslie Watson, of Keshena, read a paper on the ''Indus. trial Organization of the School,' which was along the same line as the paper read by Mr. Jacobson. Mr. Watson pointed out the need of teachers for the Indian school journment to one of the dining rooms was taken. The program proved an exceptionally interesting one, and it called forth much discussion. The session was unusually long, in spite of the attempt to limit the time for discussion, and it was nearly 6:00 o'clock when the last paper was completed.

who would impress upon the pupils the belief that work was honorable. There was no discussion of the papers.

The Indian section continued its regular session at 9:00 A. M., in the parlor of the Kirby House, Supt. Charles F. Peirce, of Oneida, presiding. A few interesting papers were read and were discussed by the members of the section.

A paper on the subject of primary work in Indian schools, written by Miss Bertha Dreyer, of the Keshena school, in her absence was read by Miss Olive Lysne, of the Wittenberg school. The paper dealt with the difficulties that had to be overcome in the primary work of lodian schools.

Miss Dreyer said that the change of the pupil from his home to the school was so radical that it was hard for him to adapt himself to his new surroundings. The first duty of the primary teacher was to help the pupil to become accustomed to his new life. She spoke of the many ways that the teacher could help the pupil, and discussed the value of the kindergarten in Indian education.

G. A. Brenninger, an Indian, who is a teacher in the Tomah school, told of the good results of a musical education. Supt. L. M. Campton, of the Tomah school, spoke of the characteristics of ihe old Indians and the relation of the home-life of the old Indian to the school. He showed that the hereditary conditions and the superstition of the Indian were difficult elements to be overcome in the education of the children. The old Indian had no desire, and saw no good reason for educating his children and, therefore, frequently objected to having thom leave home to at. tend school. All these difficulties could only be met by the patient, untiring efforts of the teachers of the school. He gave some valuable methods of dealing with such difficul. ties.

Organize Permanent Society. The papers were discussed by the superiotendents and teachers. The meeting voted to make the section a perma. nent organization, to be known as The Indian School Employees' Association of Wisconsin. Officers elected are:

Chairman--Supt. Charles F. Peirce, of Oneida.
Secretary-Supt. R. Perry, of Lac du Flambeau.

Executive Committee-Supt. Charles F. Peirce, of Oneida; Supt. A. Jacobson, of Wittenberg; Supt. L. Watson, of Keshena.

Kindergarten and Primary Section. The kindergarten and primary teachers listened to a number of papers on topics pertaining to their work, but there was no open discussion. The first speaker was W. ). Pollock, of Milwaukee, who took up the subject of the value of kindergarten training in the effect it had upon pupils in higher grades. He expressed himself as heartily in sympathy with the kindergarten movement. E. E. Carr, of Two Rivers, differed from Mr. Pollock in believing that less depended upon the previous training, and more upon the teachers who had charge of the child in his later school life.

A paper on practical child-study in the kindergarten, prepared by Miss Alma Binzel of the Milwaukee Normal, was read by the secretary, Miss Fannie Bell Miss Biozel pointed out that the dangers of such study lay in making the child prematurely self-conscious. She enlarged upon the necessity of drill exercises, and upon the urgency of heeding the law of rhythm in the development of the wbole child.

Miss Clara W. Garner, of Oshkosh believed in the repetition rather than drill exercises, and spoke against the suppression of physical activity.

As to drawing in the primary grades, Miss Charlotte C. Schroeder, of Sheboygan, stated it as her conviction that the place to begin the study of drawing was in the kindergarten. In this Miss Mary E. Tanner, of Stevens Point, agreed, making a point, however, that the teacher herself should know how to draw, and that it was possible for her to acquire such knowledge by sticking to practice.

Normal Section. The meeting of the Normal section, which was called in the club room of the Plankinton at 2:30 o'clock, was so well attended that larger quarters had to be secured, and an ad

A short address on the work of the past year was given by Chairman N. A. Harvey, of Superior, and Miss Nappie R. Gray, of Stevens Point, read the secretary's report. A. H. Sage, of Oshkosh, discussed the question whether Normal schools can properly prepare one for teaching in high schools, and the speaker was of the opinion that such preparation, if thoroughly done, would be sufficient. The discussion was opened by C. H. Sylvester, of Stevens Point.

"The Normal School Policy' was ably treated in a paper by Prof. Sims, of River Falls, the general discussion being opened by Miss Fannie J. Holcomb, of this city. The proper scope of the Normal school with its limitations was touched upon, and general rules for the further development of its progress were offered.

The last subject for discussion was contained in the title, "History and Prospects of the Normal School," the paper being presented by Duncan McGregor, of Platteville.' The growth of the institution from an almost insignificant beginning to its present important position was traced, and many interesting facts were brought forth. A short business meeting concluded the session.

Library Section. The Library Section of the Wisconsin Teachers' Association was held in the arcade of the Plankinton house, Mil. waukee, Wis, on Thursday, December 29, 1898, at 2:00 o'clock, P. M. One hundred and eighty persons were in attendance. The key-note of the meeting was Popular Education After the School, and the various agencies at work in the state were represented.

The following program was carried out:

Township Library Extension, by L. D. Harvey, President State Normal School, Milwaukee, Wis.

The Lyceum, by W. H. Shultz, Spring Green, Wis.

University Extension, by Prof. j. C. Freeman, of the university.

The Woman's Club, by Mrs. Arthur C. Neville, President State Federation of Women's Clubs.

Summer School Assemblies, by Rev. Jenkin Lloyd Jones, of Chicago, Ill., and Tower Hill, Wis.

Farmer's Institutes, by George McKerrow, Superintendent of Agricultural Institutes.

Free Traveling Libraries, by F. A. Hutchins, Secretary Wisconsin Free Library Commission.

Owing to the absence of George W. Peckham, the talk on "The Public Library" was omitted. An informal discussion followed, at the close of which R. C Spencer, of Milwaukee, moved that a committee consisting of F. A. Hutchins, Madison; Senator J. H. Stout, Menomonie; and Prof. W. A. Henry, Madison, be appointed with power to increase their number, to consider the organization of an association of the various interests represented on the afternoon's program. The motion was carried unanimously. The meeting then adjourned.

L. E. STEARNS, Chairman and Secretary.

trigonometry. Its point of view is properly philosophical rather than industrial, and large laboratory practice and experimental demonstrations must be added by one who aims to prepare for the latter kind of work. To secure that clearness of view which the book everywhere aims to develop, the first 160 pages is devoted to mechanics, which lays the sure foundations for later progress. This part of the book is made more extensive than usual for this purpose, and the problems in it for solution are numerous. Thus the book is admirably adapted for the position it seeks to fill in college instruction.

—The Sir Roger de Coverly Papers from the Spectator, edited with introduction and notes by Mary E. Litchfield, (178 pp : 500.), has in its introduction a most satisfactory discussion of the political and social conditions of the times of Addison, of its literary characteristics and of the writers of these papers.

This is followed by a full chronological table, and by suggestions for students for further reading and study. The notes are sufficient and good and the form of the book that of the well known Standard English Classics Series.

-SAPPHO; tragedy in five acts by Franz Grillparzer edited by Charles C. Ferrell, (143 pp.; 65c.), brings to the school one of the best dramas of the great Austrian play writer whom his people rank next after Goethe and Schil. ler among German authors. The Greek setting which comes of the title serves well for the real theme--the conAlict between art and life, a conflict which the author bitterly knew. An excellent biographical sketch and critical estimate has been furnished by the editor.

-The Seventh Book of Homer's Odyssey, edited by Chas. W. Bain, (123 pp.; 45c.), is intended for beginners in Greek, and is a small, handy volume, equipped with abundant notes and a full vocabulary. The introduction summarizes the poem up to the beginning of this book. The H. P. Smith Publishing Co., N. Y., 11 East 16th St.

-The GRADING OF Schools, including a full explanation of a rational-plan of grading, by William J. Shearer, (220 pp.), deals with a most important practical subject in connection with public school work, and one on which we have as yet very few books. Its author is superintendent of schools at Elizabeth, N. J., well-known by his article in the Atlantic on "The lock-step in education,'' and by his introduction of a different plan of management in the schools of which he has charge. The grades of a year's interval have worked much mischief, and half and quarter year intervals have been tried in large cities as a remedy. Mr. Shearer's plan is more radical. He believes that the school exists for the pupils, and that good management consists in bringing together those who can best work together, making as many groups as may be necessary for this purpose. This plan is set forth in detail in the volume before us, which deals also with the rise of grading, its benefits and evils, the plans for overcoming the latter, conditions of promotion, programs, and so on. These subjects are vital and the discussions stimulating, altho leaving much to be desired in historical and in critical treatment. It is the practical aim of the book, a certain directness and earnestness of treatment which comes of contact with the problems discussed and strong convictions which give it its value and hold upon the reader. It will prove a useful book, leading to more general study of the subjects involved, and at length to the development, we doubt not, of considerable literature on the subject. We cordially welcome and commend to our readers this pioneer volume in an important field of educational study and practice. D. C. Heath & Co.

-Our Feathered Friends, by Elizabeth Grinnell and Joseph Grinnell (144 pp.), describes the ways of many birds most sympathetically, so as to interest young readers in bird life, and bring them to studying it instead of plundering nests or killing the birds. The authors are competent guides in such studies, and the publishers have put out their book in attractive form, with decorated covers and many engravings.

--The Sir Roger de CoverLEY Papers from the Spectator, with introduction and notes by William Henry Hudson (208 pp.; 40C.), has the handy and beautiful form of Heath's


Ginn & Co.

-A Text-BOOK OF General Physics, for the use of colleges and scientific schools, by C. S. Hastings and F. E. Beach, (768 pp.; $2.95), studies transferences and transformations of energy, and studies them quantitatively. Hence its four chief parts bear the titles heat, electricity, sound, light. This of course is the modern view of physics; what then are the chief characteristics of the present text? It is a college text, and therefore much fuller and more thoro than those prepared for high school classes. Altho quantitative and hence mathematical in its general treatment it does not involve the use of the calculus, having in mind students whose mathematical training has not gone beyond

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