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UNEQUALLED TEXT-BOOKS

BY

JOHN FISKE, Litt. D., LL. D.
A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES FOR SCHOOLS.

.
With Topical Analysis, Suggestive Questions and Directions for Teachers.
By Frank ALPINE Hill, Litt. D., formerly Head Master of the English High School in Cambridge, and later of the
Mechanic Arts High School in Boston. Crown 8vo, half leather, small pica type, xxi + 561 pages, $1.00, net.

Fiske's History of the Uniied States contains 230 illustrations (including maps not colored), 5 full-page colored maps, and 2 double-page colored maps. With an account by Mr. Fiske of the Spanish-American War.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.

Considered with Some Reference to its Origins. With questions on the text by FRANK A. Hill, formerly Head Master of the English High School at Cambridge, Mass., and Bibliographical Notes by Mr. Fiske. Crown 8vo., 390 pages, $1.00, net.

An Inquiry Relating to Training for Citizenship in the Public Schools, made by Henry W. THURSTON, of the Hyde Park High School of Chicago (see School Review for October, 1898, p. 579), shows that in the 37 Secondary Schools, located in 12 States, which sent in reports, Fiske's Civil Government is used 333 per cent. more widely than any other book. Fiske's Civil Government supplies an irreproachable text by a great scholar, Suggestive Questions by a great teacher, and Biographical Notes invaluable for individual research.

Descriptive circulars, with sample pages and commendations from teachers who have used the book, will be sent on ap. plication.

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & CO.

4 Park Street, Boston.

11 East 17th Street, New York.

378-388 Wabash Avenue, Chicago.

The Albert Teachers' Agency

Central Music Hall Building, Chicago FOURTEENTH YEAR. Largest and best known Agency in the West. Send for our

new circulars and inform yourself as to what we are doing. C. J. ALBERT, Manager.

A NEW BOOK

*ON*

...CIVIL

GOVERNMENT...

By A. O. WRIGHT

NOW READY

Although this book contains much matter taken from the author's well known "Exposition of the Constitution of the United States," it is so greatly changed as to be virtually a new book, and it is called by a different name so as to avoid confusion with the older book.

With an addendum on Local Government in Kansas, written by a leading teacher of that state, and with some changes and omissions the new book has already been

ADOPTED FOR THE STATE OF KANSAS. All the changes in the state government by constitutional amendments and by legislation, up to and including the Revised Statutes of 1897, just adopted (Aug. 21), are embodied in the new

CONSTITUTION OF WISCONSIN, which with the Civil Government", will be designated as "Wright's Civil Government, Wisconsin Edition.”

In ord be careful to send for Wright's Civil Government, as "Wright's Combined Constitutions of the United States and of Wisconsin,” will still be sold.

All orders from Wisconsin for “Wright's Civil Government” will be taken by us to be for the Wisconsin Edition, unless it is expressly stated that the Wisconsin Edition is not wished. But in ordering from other firms it will be safer to designate the book as "Wright's Civil Government, Wisconsin Edition." Price by mail prepaid for the Wisconsin Edition,

$1.00 Price by mail prepaid for the book without the Wisconsin Constitution,

.75 Address

MIDLAND PUBLISHING CO., Madison, Wis.

Journal of Education

Vol. XXIX.

MADISON, WIS., MARCH, 1899.

No. 3

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO

PAGE.

OFFICIAL reports of the last meeting of the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION Wisconsin Teachers' Association are published 208 East Main Street, Madison, Wis.

in this number of the JOURNAL. They are J. W. STEARNS,

unusually late because sickness and death in EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS. A. O. WRIGHT,

the family of the secretary made impossible SUBSCRIPTION PRICE $1.00 A YEAR. the earlier preparation of them. Delay has

not diminished their interest, it may even (Entered at the Madison postoffice at second-class mailing rates.)

have increased it, since now they can be read

in a frame of mind wholly different from that TABLE OF CONTENTS.

of the meetings, and thus the significance of

the discussions may be more clearly seen. EDITORIAL

49-52 Brief Comments—The Bill Changing the Super- The appointment of a committee to formulate vision of Common Schools-Reform in City School

a course of study in English inaugurates a Systems, A Bipartite Division of Popular Education.

movement which we trust may continue until THE MONTH..

52-57

the present amorphous condition of this very Wisconsin News and Notes-A Bit of Confession important department of work is corrected. and a Word of Warning - The New Boscobel High School Building--Cuban Educational Asso

The subject is one of much difficulty, and it ciation--Growth of Our High Schools—The Sa- may require several years of continuous effort moan Islands.

to work out a satisfactory change here as well THE SCHOOL Room...

57-59 as in the matter of rural schools, in regard to What He Should Know--Every-Day Science-A Word Exercise - Questions on the Zones—The

which provision was made for further study British Empire--Pat and the Kindergartners.

and effort. CONTRIBUTIONS

59-64 The Problem of the Small Town - President's Ad.

From the Biennial Report of State Superdress at the Wisconsin Association—The Value of intendent Emery we derive an encouraging History.

view of the growth of our educational work. OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT.

64-71 Report of the Forty-Sixth Annual Session of the

Elsewhere we publish some paragraphs reWisconsin Teachers' Association.

lating to our high schools, which speak for Book Table....

71-72 themselves. The showing regarding prepara

tion of teachers is especially encouraging. The EDITORIAL.

county superintendents report fifty-eight more first grade and four hundred and forty-six

more second grade certificates issued in 1898 COMMENT on attendance at the Wisconsin Teachers' Association was, it appears, wholly less were granted.

than in 1894, while of the third class 1,759

It thus appears that the uncalled for. The report of the treasurer shows a total enrollment of 906, which is just standard of qualification is advancing even in

our rural schools, and little room for doubt is sixty-four less than the year preceding, a difference too small to have any significance left that the greater portion of the state is about

. The comment that it was due to lack of adver: prepared for an elevation of standards. The

number of persons holding state certificates, and tising, made by interested parties, of course falls to the ground with the charge. It is countersigned diplomas which have the same

value, is of course increasing every year, and made ridiculous by the further showing that the attendance from outside Milwaukee was

within a few years this increase has been rapid actually larger than the year before. The en

in consequence of the great development in rollment of men from Milwaukee was also

size of the graduating classes from our collarger, the falling off being in the attendance leges and normal schools. of women teachers in the city. That these EXPERIENCE counts for too much at presdid not know of the meetings is not credible. ent in securing positions to teach in the public The treasurer's report also shows that the cash schools. What has the experience shown? is the balance was considerably increased by the important question. If merely power to keep judicious management which characterized the out of trouble, that may be accompanied with last administration.

incompetence, torpidity, and general useless

ness.

Superintendent Andrews, of Chicago, visor of common schools who acts as its secreputs the case well in replying to a proposal to tary. The board is to appoint district award principals' certificates to all head assist- inspectors with qualifications not less than tants of fourteen years standing. He says: now required for superintendents, to hold "The proposal seems to rest upon the assump- office for two years, and to be paid by the tion that mere time spent in an office qualifies state out of the mill tax income, a salary of for promotion, whereas the most cursory ex- one thousand dollars and five dollars addi. amination proves that this is not true. The tional for each school or department in his chief fault of our system at present is the per- district. nicious power with which it endows mere time Thus the bill aims (a) to secure more effito push teachers, the incompetent, the medi- cient supervision by limiting the number of ocre, and the indolent, along with the bril- schools in charge of one inspector, so that it liant, the progressive, and the industrious, on may be possible for him to look after them and on to higher salaries. It seems clear to effectively, as is wholly impossible now in me that a head assistant, to secure promotion, many counties, since they have completely should be required to do something more than outgrown the present long-standing arrangesimply to remain in his or her position. Study, ments; (b) to take the office wholly out of poliprogress, new accomplishments, should be in- tics by placing the appointments in the hands of sisted upon, to be ascertained and certified a board constituted of educational men, who partly by the superintendent's merit record owe the appointments giving them a place on from year to year, and partly by a successful the board to educational considerations; (c) examination."

and to organize school supervision as a state INSINUATIONS that religious ties were

function by making the salaries as well as the

Inasplayed upon to secure the election of presi- appointments to come from the state. dent at the last meeting of the Wisconsin

much as nearly all the county superintendents Teachers' Association, will be resented by

have signified in writing their approval of the every right-minded member of that body.

measure, it is impossible to represent it as in The election was a perfectly fair and straight

any way antagonizing them; and the charge forward one, determined by considerations of

that it “takes power away from the people" a wholly different nature from the one sug

will seem rather specious than serious to those

who are familiar with the conditions at present gested, and it honored the county superin

Demotendents by giving the presidency to one of affecting nominations to that office. their number who has been longest in the

cratic government is not merely a machinery service of any one in the state. The associa

of caucuses and ballotings, but a spirit maktion is an educational body which has always ing the real will of the people efficient in inbeen remarkably free from incongruous influ

stitutions, and it does not seem likely that

that will be less efficient in the proposed arences, and there is no reason whatever for supposing that it has changed or done violence

rangements than in those which they are into its well established character.

tended to supercede. It will be noted that the state superintendent is not a member of

the board of supervision, and does not apTHE BILL CHANGING THE SUPERVISION OF COMMON SCHOOLS.

point its members, so that he cannot control

its action if he desires. Thus the bill does Readers of the JOURNAL will be interested, not create a centralized, autocratic power.

S. we believe, in a brief statement of the chief provisions of the bill, "To abolish the county

REFORM IN CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS. superintendency, and provide for a more efficient supervision of our common schools,' Active legislation for improved methods of now before the legislature. In place of the control of city school systems seems now to superintendents it provides for the division of be fairly under way. Ohio was the first state the state into “not to exceed one hundred to move in it by giving, in 1887, to the suand ten inspection districts," observing county perintendent of schools of Cincinnati the right lines so far as possible, by a state board of su- to nominate all teachers of the city schools, pervision of common schools, made up of the and to him or the board the power to remove. professor of pedagogy in the university, the This measure obviously begins the separation board of examiners for teachers' state certifi- of purely educational control from that over cates, and the institute conductors from the business affairs. Five years later Cleveland normal schools. The only salaried officer con- was provided with a school council of seven nected with the board will be a state super- members, with a director who has a veto power

1

over its legislation and is the executive officer The Chicago measure, as is well-known, has of the system, and who must appoint a super- met with considerable opposition among the intendent with authority to appoint and dis- teachers of that city, and one organization charge all teachers and assistants. The super- with a membership of 2,500 has formulated intendent holds office during good behavior, its objections thru a report made by a combut may be removed by the director for mittee of seventeen, all of whom are women. cause, which must be certified in writing to Many of these objections are such as one outthe council. The most significant feature here side of the system would hardly venture a is the concentration of responsibility in a judgment upon, but two at least go to the small board and the chief executive. These very heart of the proposed reform. The general features are repeated with additional committee objects to the cutting down of the safeguards in the law of St. Louis and in that board to eleven members, favoring rather the of Toledo. Detroit is now moving to secure present plan of twenty-one members, and oba board of eleven members, elected at large, jects to “the centralization of power in the which creates an educational department with superintendent in the matter of hiring his asa superintendent at its head, empowered to sistants, principals, supervisors, teachers, and appoint and

remove teachers, determine other officials, and the selecting of text-books. courses of study, and select text-books and We feel that the idea of democracy should be apparatus; a business department with a busi- encouraged. It is necessary in a city like

. ness manager at its head; and a board of ex- Chicago for the people to be in close touch aminers, the educational division of which is with the work of the school, made up as it is under the superintendent, and the other under of a mixed population.” etc. The tone of the business manager. This measure in its gen- that is a little unpleasant, and its substance eral provisions is very like the one proposed unhappily suggestive of an effort to “take the for Chicago by its educational commission, starch out” of the measure. Sup't Andrews and now before the legislature at Springfield. is quoted as admitting that such power would

The evils which these measures are de- be dangerous in the hands of a bad or weak signed to correct are “the pull” in securing superintendent, but claiming that legislation positions in the schools and in retaining them, should not always be made for bad men. the manipulations of the text-book agents, It is not, of course, to be expected that a and the lack of business responsibility and perfect remedy can be found for the evils at knowledge in the management of school prop- present complained of, but the principles unerty and finances. How considerable these derlying these various measures commend evils are, has been effectively shown by vari- themselves as correct; that authority must be ous reports and publications during the past so concentrated that some one stands clearly

The theory underlying the meas- responsible for blunders and evil-doing; that ures is that better service is secured by defi- the educational aspects of school control nitely locating responsibility so that mis- should be separated from the purely business management may be properly punished. It is aspects; that each should be placed in the clear that the simple plan of organization hands of competent experts of proved force of which has done service for so many years is no

character.

S. longer adequate to our new conditions. Everything has been controlled by the school board, A BIPARTITE DIVISION OF POPULAR EDUCATION. which has grown with the growth of our cities until it is unwieldly and irresponsible, and in Some months since we referred to the prethe development of politics is becoming more valent practice of making a tripartite division and more a set of pieces” to be played by of education below college grade, into primary, the intriguers. How difficult the positions of grammar, and high school. This gives a four superintendents and business managers are to years' unit of measurement, which reappears be under the new system can be properly esti- in the traditional college course of four years. mated only by those who are familiar with the It is not merely a matter of nomenclature forces which have brought into discredit the but has had the remarkable effect of setting school board. Strong and intelligent men can off the high school by itself as a peculiar instifill them satisfactorily, but the difficulty is tution, especially since the practice of making going to be to find a way of having them al- a grade for each year became established in ways filled by men of this stamp. That is a the elementary work of our cities. By this arproblem which will have to be worked out as rangement the primary and grammar grades the development of the new system brings to remain mere technical names, while the high light its difficulties.

school is a distinct institution, with special

ten years.

plans of management and instruction, chiefly outlook, a greater degree of self-direction. formulated upon college precedents. Its man- Nature demands this, and will not be refused. agement as a unit by a single principal, the Up to this point it has been an advantage for growth of departmental in place of grade teach- him to have all his work under one teacher, ing, and the consequent arrangement of reci- who could thus know the child and minister to tation rooms or a class room for each teacher his needs. Now the youth is better for comare the most obvious peculiarities of manage- ing under several teachers who stimulate him ment, to which must be added the formal in different ways. His discernment is already graduation with a diploma at the end of the sufficient to make valuable to him the greater four years' course.

Thus has arisen the prac- range and thoroness of the department teachtice of speaking of the first eight years of pub- ers each in his own field. He is ready for the lic instruction as “the grades" in contrast with larger seriousness and deeper meaning of such “the high school,” comprising the last four instruction. His ways of asserting that he is years.

Such is the scheme which has gradu- no longer a child sometimes provoke a smile ally grown up in the management of popular in older people, but it is wiser to heed this education in this country.

voice of nature, separate him from the chil'Is it the wisest and best scheme? The ques- dren and foster the new life in him by approtion becomes practical and important because priate treatment. of the remarkable educational development Other considerations also support this biwhich is now going on. Some years ago, partite plan of organization. At this age the Pres. Eliot, of Harvard University, spoke of pupil enters upon the rational study of lanthe necessity of enriching the grammar school guage, mathematics and history, and it is of course, and the phrase has gained wide cur- great value to have each course under the manrency He showed the meagreness of the ex- agement of a single head, who directs the isting grammar school courses, and the nature whole plan of it and secures unity and steady of the dreary formal drills which were wasting advancement. The lack of outlook on the the time of the pupils. The enrichment has part of the grade teacher now hampers high been progressing ever since, and to one who school work, in which much time is wasted in looks behind names to see things as they really curing the defects of grammar grade teaching, are it seems as if the old high school work were In most cities building expenses would be deactually slipping back two years in the scheme. creased by gathering the work of six years to In a good modern school a boy will now learn such centers as now must be created for that in “the grades” nearly as much history and of four. Probably more pupils would be carcivil government as he would have got fifteen ried on by such an arrangement to ten or even years ago in the high school; in science he will twelve years of school life than at present. learn perhaps as much altho probably not in Certainly the development of industrial trainexactly the same lines; the more elementarying in combination with literary and scientific work in algebra and geometry has moved in would be facilitated. Wiser, stronger, and the same direction; and even Latin and Ger- more valuable work could assuredly be done in man are being pushed back into the earlier the seventh and eighth years of school life than years. No overpressure is necessary to ac- seem possible under the existing arrangecomplish this, no undue working of the pupils, ments.

S. but only wiser views as to school work and better teaching. The question almost inevit

THE MONTH. ably arises, ought not the plan of management. to move back also? This really comes to the

WISCONSIN NEWS AND NOTES. same thing as asking is not a bipartite wiser than a tripartite division of popular educa

Marinette now has a school for the deaf, tion?

of which Miss Fannie O. Ellis is teacher. It may be assumed that the regular school course usually begins when the child is six --The Stevens Point schools recently introyears of age, and six years of “the grades" duced the plan of semi-annual promotions bring him to the period of adolescence. Mod- without difficulty or the increase of teaching ern studies are making more and more clear

force. how great the change in him is at this period. - Part of the crediting of the excellent artiHe breaks the bonds of childhood and becomes cle on The Recitation, contained in the last a youth. Different management, new ambi- issue of the JOURNAL, was in some way accitions, new motives, are called for by the dentally omitted. It should have been M. L. change. He must have more variety, a larger Townsend, in School Journal.

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