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There should be no connection between ex- grammar he has just been dusting out, while amination and the institute. I have seen the I have been dusting somewhere else. When practical workings of a law appointing four the examination looms before us we can dust stated times during the year for examinations our own pigeon-holes, and there is no need for while institutes were held at any time conven- us to assemble in line of institute and wave ient for most of the teachers of the county. our dust cloths to slow music.

This entire divorce of institutes and the ex- But if we have so much against the instiaminations has worked to the advantage of tute what do we want of it? Should it be both and to the satisfaction of both teachers dropped as a dead thing that has served its and officers.

time and is now useless? If such a thing In that state the requirements for a first- could be done, I believe we would discover a class certificate have always included English vacuum, unless the place was filled by our asliterature, algebra, and physics. The examin- sociations. ations are more severe than ours. No assist- There is an element of life in the institutes ance is given the teachers in institutes, or in that we have entirely ignored. It is strong, the shape of summer normals, yet jthere are could be made stronger, and is of importance plenty of teachers with the necessary certifi

to each one of us. cates. These certificates have been gained It might be called in one sense the social by actual examinations, for a diploma or cer

element. The friendships, the acquaintances tificate from another state is of no more worth among the teaching fraternity of the county, there than so much blank paper.

the relations of trials and successes, the pointNow this simply proves that teachers can ers in regard to positions, the chances to do take this examination, do their reviewing one another kindnesses and to appreciate the without any outside help whatever, and gain kindness of a thoughtful superintendent, and their certificates, if they must.

the chance to talk shop all we want to withAnything else is absurd. A teacher who is out being ill mannered are things worth savnot an independent student! His profession ing.--Ida A. Baker, in Midland Schools. is to teach his pupils how to study, and yet he himself is unable to study and master what

INTERPRETATIVE READING IN LITERATURE. the law requires.

There is no excuse for our admitting so low The January meeting of the Principals' Asan estimate of our own or our co-workers' sociation was addressed by Prof. R. G. Moulabilities. Given a reasonable amount of time ton. His subject was “Interpretative Readand there isn't a teacher, who has done suc- ing as a means of Teaching Literature." The cessful work in the past, but can prepare him- professor had little use for elocution or the self for examinations, even in all the new, if elocutionist in teaching literature. Nor did he must.

he think the stage very 'effective in imparting The ten dollars' expense of attending insti- an understanding of even dramatic literature. tute--and several have told me that it is too The teacher of literature must do for his pulow an estimate —will buy all the new text- pils what neither the elocutionist nor the stage books and several classics besides; and then can do, no matter how artistic their work. they have something to show for their money. They merely present the words with the slight I wonder how many teachers of four years accessory of gesture, emphasis, and scenery. have a hand-full of knowledge that they can But to the hearer who has not already enshow as the fruit of each institute. Knowl- tered into the real meaning of the literary edge gained is something that you have never production and who is of only ordinary caliknown or thought of before, not the remind- ber, these agencies accomplish something, to ing you of something that you have known

be sure, but very little in comparison with but forgotten.

what the efficient teacher ought to accomWhat matter it if I don't remember how to plish. solve that problem in interest; if I don't re- The speaker also discounted annotation and member that grammar definition; that date in explanation. They are both a dilution. history, or the location of that cape in geog- They tend to weaken the effect. They do raphy? I knew it all once. It is pigeon- not allow the author to come directly to the holed somewhere in my brain, but there is a reader or hearer. He has to work thru a whole universe of knowledge for us to com- medium. But by interpretative reading on prehend, classify and pigeon-hole. The only the part of the instructor, if he does his work difference between the instructor and myself wisely, the learner is admitted at once into is that the pigeon-holes for arithmetic and the very spirit of the piece. By interpreta

a

tive reading Professor Moulton means this: character than he would get by reading her The teacher has become thoroly familiar by part as given by the great dramatist. In fact, most painstaking study, — by means of anno- there was such a contrast between the profestations and like helps, be it remembered, - sor's theory, as he explained at the beginning with the piece he is going to teach. Then in- of his lecture, and his practice, as shown by stead of reading it to the class line by line his illustrations, that one could hardly believe either with or without explanation, or allow- he had spoken with due comprehension of his ing the class to read it, the teacher makes own practical advice as to how to teach literwhat might be called an artistic paraphrase of ature. A literary masterpiece cannot be enthe production. That is, he makes up in as joyed if it is not understood. If it is not uncondensed a form as possible his own account derstood it must be explained. When exof what the piece means, weaving into it as planation is necessary to comprehension, how he proceeds the salient sentiments and lines absurd to talk about its being a dilution. — of the production. It is not a commentary. Intelligence. It is really a free translation in condensed form. Its efficiency wholly depends upon the power of the teacher. This was well shown

BOOK TABLE. by the illustrations given by Professor Moulton. He first took the impressive scene in

Henry Holt & Co.

-ELEMENTS OF RHETORIC, a course in Plain Prose ComMarlowe's Faustus, where the hour of doom

position, by Alphonso G. Newcomer (382 pp.; $1.00) athas come to the man who has sold his soul to tacks the problem of teaching how to write-for that is

what the book was written to do—from the common sense the devil. There is no question but that the

standpoint. In order to write, the first necessity is to have professor's interpretative reading of the pass- something to write about; considerations of language and age was much more thrilling and impressive style are obviously, second to this. Prof. Newcomer ac

cordingly begins with the finding of the subject and of mathan would have been the reading of the terial, and the general arrangement of this; then he passes words as given in the play. He put in the to the paragraph, next to the sentence and its management; connecting and explanatory thots, using the

next to words and phrases; and finally to such mechanical

processes as chirography, punctuation, use of capitals, etc. words of the speaker when they came in with This practical plan is supported by a very practical treatmost telling effect, so that the ordinary lis- ment, clear and simple in its expositions, copious in its tener got a clearer comprehension of the

illustrations, supported by useful teaching devices and

driven home by interesting and valuable passages from passage than he would have got from his own many writers. He has, in short, made a teachable book, reading of it.

and a fresh and interesting book, and we cordially com

mend it to teachers in our high schools. Professor Moulton also "interpreted” the sleep-walking scene and the banquet scene

--French Lryics, selected and edited by Arthur Graves

Canfield (382 pp.; $1.00); contains selections from more from Macbeth. It is impossible to do justice than sixty French poets, mostly of the present century. to his effective rendering of these famous Beyond the selection of the poems, the work of the editor

has been to furnish belpful information to the reader, thru passages, and it must have filled every teacher

a general introduction, which traces briefly the developof literature with despair who heard him, to ment of French poetry and discusses the principles of think of being advised to attempt to do that

French versification, thru brief notices of the authors and

their works, and thru explanatory and critical notes. The kind of work before his class.

book is very attractive in appearance, and deserves to be. While Professor Moulton discounted the elo- come a favorite with students of French. cutionist and the actor he put them both to --PAUL ET VIRGINE, par Bernardin St. Pierre, edited by the most exacting service in his interpretative

Oscar Kuhns, (160 pp.; 50c.), is everywhere known as a

charming ideal creation, a trifle sentimental and lacking in reading. In fact, his use of the dramatic art

plot and in character painting, but withal entitled to hold made his position in discrediting elocution and that place in popular estimation which it has maintained acting seem ironical, to say the least. So

now for more than a century. It is in many ways well

suited for a reading book in French for beginners, and the also his renderings made his preliminary po- editor's introduction and notes well equip it for such use. sition seem wholly illogical, that explanation -THE HUMAN BODY,—briefer course, -by H. Newell and annotation should be avoided in the Martin, fifth edition, revised by George W. Fitz, (408 pp.; teaching of literature. His whole interpreta

$1.20), has obtained such general use in our high schools

that the appearance of a revised condition cannot fail to tive reading, as he choose to call it for want

awaken interest How much bas it been changed? The of a better term, amounted in real essence to editor says: "The changes in the first nine chapters are nothing but the very highest form of annota

largely verbal; in the tenth and in some succeeding chap

ters, however, considerable alterations and additions have tion and explanation. There was no dilution been made; chapter twenty has been entirely rewritten, and about it. It was more intense than the orig- chapters 23 and an Appendix on Emergencies have been inal.

added. The chapter on Narcotics, transferred to the ApIn fact, it took away all excuse for the

pendix, is retained against the best judgment of the reviser, original existing, excepting for the benefit of who believes that the questions involved are ethical and not the interpretative reader. His listener had a

physiological; it stands as Professor Martin wrote it, except

that the paragraphs on certain drugs have been omitted. better idea of Lady Macbeth's condition and The directions for demonstrations and and experiments

have been greatly enlarged and collected into an Appendix." The twentieth chapter treats of the nervous system, and the twenty-third of growth and nutrition. American Book Company.

-The RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP, by W. W. Willoughby (336 pp.), deals rather with the principles of civil government tha an interpretation of our constitution, clause by clause. It therefore begins with an account of society and the state, and how government arises among men. This leads to a general view of its duties, forms, and functions and the nature of law. When the constitution of the United States comes to be treated of, an historical view constitutes the introduction, the practical workings of our institutions are kept to the fore, the reasons justifying each power given are brought out and practical problems of the present time are made prominent. The book is therefore not a commentary on the constitution, but a discussion of the principles and practices of our government. It is very clear in arrangement and presentation, practical, stimulating to thotfulness and well devised to teach how to think out the problems of government. We believe it will prove a valuable text-book in civics.

-A COMPLETE LATIN GRAMMAR, by Albert Harkness (448 pp.; $1.25), has been entirely re-written and re-constructed to represent the present status of Latin scholarship, and is therefore a new book, and not merely a new edition. Not only the advances of scholarship but the changes of aims and methods of instruction make necessary the recasting of texts. Dr. Harkness's books have had a long and extended popularity in this country, which opens the way for the ready introduction of this one, in making which he has had the cooperation of some of the best Latin scholars now live ing. Tbe book is both a school text and a manual for reference by the advanced student. It has been made as practical as possible to aid the beginner in his efforts to cope with the intricacies of the Latin, and full enough for the uses of graduate students. We believe it will be found a convenient and satisfactory manual. Silver, Burdette & Co.

—THE ART OF Accounts, an elementary treatise on Book-keeping and the nature and use of money, by Marshall P. Hall, (120 pp., 4 to.; cloth, introductory price foc.). made by an expert accountant who has had a long experience with schools, is a plain and practical treatise adapted to modern methods. It conducts the pupil from easy personal accounts thru enlarging relations to the management of an extensive business. It aims to acquaint thoroly with general principles and teach the pupil to think correctly. A notable feature of the book is the part devoted to money, which treats clearly of the essential problems, as standards, bullion and coin, paper money, depreciations, etc. The last part gives an account and illustrations of business forms, correspondence, banking, etc.

-PRACTICAL Tests in COMMERCIAL AND Business ArithMETIC, by Ernest L. Thurston, (68 pp.; cloth, 42c.), gives twenty lessons composed each of mental exercises, discussion of principles, problems for analysis, written exercises and book-keeping work, followed by problems in estimating carpentry, masonry, etc. The book commends itself at once as exceedingly practical and well planned to fit one for actual business experience. D. Appleton & Co., N. Y.

-OUR COUNTRY'S FLAG AND THE FLAG OF OTHER COUNTRIES, by Edward S. Holden, (165 pp.), presents more that is of interest than its title suggests; for besides the story of the origin and growth of our national emblem- -an interesting story-its account of the various flags and pennants of different officers, of signalling by flags, of ancient standards, banners, and emblems, and of the flags of the leading countries of the world and what they mean will be found full of attractiveness and value. The book is abundantly illustrated and many of the illustrations are in colors.

-UNCLE Robert's GEOGRAPHY-PLAY-TIME AND SeedTIME, by Francis W. Parker and Nellie L. Helm, (152 pp.; 35c.), might appropriately be called nature study, but its charming little stories, in which insects, birds, flowers, and animals are so entertainingly studied, aims to awaken the first conceptions of social organization and the relation of

man to his surroundings. How valuable such a book would be in the hands of country school children we find ourselves saying as we turn the pages, and we hope it may find a place in our school libraries, where it has a work to do for little readers. It is the first in the series of which sev. eral later volumes have been published before it. The Macmillan Company.

-COLERIDGE'S ANCIENT MARINER, KUBLA KHAN, AND CHRISTABEL, edited with notes and an introduction by Tuley F. Huntington (109 pp.; 25c.), belongs to the very attractive 16mo. English Classics Series. The editor is English instructor in the south side high school in Milwaukee. He has written a very interesting introduction, and his notes indicate wide reading

and a true appreciation of the literature he interprets. They are, indeed, valuable helps to a study of the poems.

-NATURE STUDY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS FIRST Reader, by Lucy L. W. Wilson (253 pp.; 35c.), makes reading follow upon the nature lesson, and the little pupil from the beginning reads to get the thot; but also the book aims to cultivate his taste and artistic instincts. The lessons are arranged in months from September to June, and accompanied with many useful teaching devices.

-UNITED States HISTORY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, by L. L. W. Wilson (53 pp. ; 30c.), is a teacher's manual, outlining a succession of topics, with hints for teaching them and lists of books useful in the preparation of them. Work for one school year is outlined for third or fourth grades. Miscellaneous.

-D. C. Heath & Co. have recently added to their Modern Language Series a charming anonymous French story, La Main Malheureuse (106 pp.; 25c.), edited by H. A. Guerber, full of pathos and humor and capital as a French reading book; and one of Frau Johanna Spyri's little tales, ROSENRESLI, edited by Helen H. Boll, who has chosen it as a means of teaching a German vocabulary, and has arranged her vocabularies for each page separately that they may be the more easily learned.

-Seed DISPERSAL, by W. J. Beal (Gion & Co.; 87 pp.; 40c.), prepared for teachers and young botanists, will surprise those who have given no attention to this subject by the range and interest of its material. Just the main groups of methods of dispersal are seven, by roots, stems, water, wind, by cattle, and by men, and by shooting off their seeds. The many devices under these are well presented in this attractive volume, which is abundantly illustrated.

-Text-BOOK OF ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE, by E. Franklin Smith (William R. Jenkins, 851-853 Sixth Av., N. Y.; 198 pp.; $1.00), has been prepared by a doctor long employed in tutoring young men for examination in this subject. It differs from the common texts most in its condensation, compressing its information into briefest form and rendering it clear and effective by abundant illustrations and thoroly systematic arrangement.

--We are indebted to J. Fischer & Bro., 7 Bible House, N. Y., for a copy of The Juvenile ENTERTAINER, a collection of humorous choruses, action and tableaux songs, suitable for class and concert, compiled by G. Burton, (75c.) The collection can be heartily commended to teachers who are looking for interesting numbers for an entertainment by the children. The compositions are simply arranged and have piano accompaniments.

-To the Academy Series of English Classics the publishers, Allyn & Bacon, of Boston, have lately made two interesting additions: Three Narrative Poems, edited by George A. Watrous, (107 pp.; 30c.) containing Coleridge's Ancient Mariner, Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum, and Tennyson's Enoch Arden; and, Emerson; Select Essays AND Poems, edited by Eva M. Tappan, (120 pp.; 30c.) which contains three essays, Compensation, Self-Reliance, and Manners, and nine poems. The questions at the foot of the pages of the essays are an interesting feature of the editor's work. They are in general very stimulating.

-The second volume of the Report OF THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION for 1896-7 has come to hand. Some of its topics are: Federal and State Aid to Higher Educa

tion; The First Common Schools of New England; The Learned Professions and Social Control; Educational Matters of General Interest in Various States; Foreign Univer: sities; The Teaching of Geography in Certain Foreign Countries; Consular Reports on Educational Topics; Current Questions, etc.

- COMMISSIONER Hume, a story of New York Schools, by C. W. Bardeen, (C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y.; 210 pp.; cloth, $1.25), makes a lively and entertaining story. It was written, as we learn from the preface, more than twenty years ago, and part of it published serially, but withdrawn to be rewritten. This was never done. It depicts New York schools a quarter of a century ago, and those whom current criticisms of educational work incline to pessimism will be cured by this sketch of the inefficiency, politics, and humbug of the ''good old times."

LITERARY ITEMS.

-From the many interesting announcements of the Macmillan Company we note the following: Charles Egbert Craddock's new book is The Story of Old Fort Loudon, a narrative of the life of the pioneers of Tennessee and their fortunes at the hands of the Cherokees in the spring of 1760.-Prof. Geo. B. Adams for the use of high schools European History, an Outline of its Development, brief and yet full enough to be graphic, with abundant bibliographic references, and fully illustrated. The Development of Thrift, by Mary Wilcox Brown, general secretary of the Henry Watson Children's Aid Society, Baltimore. Don Quixote, edited by Clifton Johnson, will contain the famous illustrations by George Cruikshank. - The Evolution of Plants by D. H. Campbell, Professor of Botany in Leland Stanford University, gives a sketch of results of investigations in as untechnical a way as possible, and is prepared for general readers as well as for students. — The Principles of Agriculture, for schools and rural societies by L. H. Bailey, Professor of Horticulture in Cornell University, is a text with references to such literature as teacher and pupils may be able to secure. - Naturalism and Agnosticism will contain the much talked of Gifford Lectures by James Ward, Professor of Mental Philosophy at Cambridge University.-The Dawnof Reason by James Weir, treats of mental traits in lower animals, especially insects.

-Several features of striking interest will be found in the opening numbers of The Living Age for the new year. The number for January 7th contains, among other things, a pungent and wholesome lecture on Art and Morality, by M. Ferdinand Brunetiere, which is translated for the magazine and copyrighted by it; the first instalment of The Etchingham Letters, which are attracting wide notice in The Cornhill by their cleverness; and the beginning of a short serial. The number for January 14th, gives the full

text of Lord Rosebery's recent address on Literary Statesmen, which has been the subject of general comment; an article from Blackwood's on The Ethics of Conquest, which relates to the Phillippines; and a bright paper on The Madness of Mr. Kipling.

-The February Atlantic contains the first of Prof. James' interesting and valuable "Talks to Teachers on Psychol. ogy," defining the relations of the subject and the necessity of approaching it from the point of view of the practical purpose for which man's mind was given him, namely, to adapt him to his terrestrial environment. Jane Addams discusses "The Subtle Problems of Charity' in a sensible and often pathetic paper, enlivened with many quaint and humorous experiences and incidents. Prince Kropotkin narrates his graduation from the Military School of Pages and his five years' experience in Siberia as a Russian military officer.

-D. C. Heath & Co. announce a new text-book in sci. entific German, Walther's Meereskunde, edited by Miss S. A. Sterling, instructor in German at the University of Wiscon. sin.-Baumbach's Waldnovellen, six easy little stories, edited by Dr. Wilhelm Bernhardt. – Lamartine's famous Jeanne d'Arc will appear in a new edition, with illustrations and maps.-- The Young Citizen's Reader, by Charles F. Dole, for children nine to twelve years of age, is a manual of intelligent patriotism.

-Houghton, Mifflin & Company, of Boston, Mass., the publishers of the Atlantic Monthly, announce a special rate to new subscribers of fifty cents for a trial subscription to the Atlantic Monthly for three issues. The Atlantic never was stronger or better than it is to-day, and this offer affords an excellent opportunity for new readers to become acquainted with the magazine.

--Scribner's for February is full of interest. Col. Roosevelt's Rough Riders get to Daiquiré, and their story is finely told; Robert L. Stevenson's Letters are as delightful as in the January number; Senator Hoar writes reminiscences of Four National Conventions; and William C. Scully, whom Kipling vouches for, tells a vigorous African story, The Lepers.

--Henry Holt & Co. will issue an edition of Rossegger's exquisite novel of out-door life, Die Schriften des Wald. schulmeister, edited and abridged by Prof. Fossler, who has written ingenious summaries of the omitted portions. --Also an elaborate edition of Lessing's Minna von Barnhelm, with illustrations.

-Ginn & Co's. list of new books to appear soon contains in the Classics for Children Saintine's Picciola-a charm. ing story translated and edited by Abby L. Alger, and a new text on Physics, by Professors C. S. Hastings and F. E. Beach, of Yale.

OUR NEW BOOK OF 144 PAGES, giving Lists of SENT FREE!

POSITIONS FILLED THROUGH US. We have each year from 4,000 to 6,000 vacant positions. Many times more than the number of teachers who register. We place more teachers each year than all Western agencies combined. A careful reading of the above named book will convince you of this fact. Any successful teacher seeking a better position should write at once for this book and our Register blank.

Now is the time to register, and no teacher should be satisfied unless registered in the best and most successful Agency. We have hundreds of testimonials like the following:

“I have secured three positions through you—the only from $700 to $1000 ($300) because of an offer received agency through which I have gotten a place.”

through us,)

M. S. WALKER, H. A. SIMONDS,

Teacher of Science, High School, Racine, Wis. Supt. of Schools, Stevens Point, Wis.

"I am personally acquainted with Mr. Orville Brewer, "I have registered with the Teachers' Co-operative As- and, in my opinion, more teachers get positions through sociation three times, and have twice secured positions his Agency than through any other. Offers of situations through it. I have always found the Association both are frequently made on his recommendation alone." efficient and honorable." (Salary in Racine just raised

EDGAR J. SWIFT, Stevens Point, Wis. CIRCULARS SENT ON APPLICATION.

Teachers' Co-operative Association

Address

101 The Auditorium, CHICAGO

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