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high schools has, on the whole, proved to be be swayed by "pulls," or shall it be practicof the same character. The high schools can ally under the control of the educationai head give the literary and scientific training for com- of the school system? When it was reported mon school teachers, and are steadily improve that Dr. Andrewş had sent in his resignation, ing in this work; we can sweep away the third the serious nature of the struggle was fully grade certificate with safety and ought to do apparent. That at length a way was found it; but we should still lack professional train- for his continuance in office without loss of ing for common school work. Perhaps the self-respect, is sufficient evidence that the conOntario system, of which we publish an ac- Alict was not in vain. Clearly some gain has count elsewhere, taken from a book by the been made towards recognizing and applying minister of education of that province, may the doctrine of appointments from educational be the cheapest and most practical way of pro- considerations alone; and we may look to see viding for our need. At any rate it is high this view now gain ground steadily in our time the question were receiving serious and cities. We need independent and able superintelligent study among us.

intendents to battle for it in other centers. A VALUABLE report on Text-books in Amer

DEFECTS IN HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE WORK. ican history, made to the New England History Teachers' Association, appears in the De

It is not surprising that the introduction of cember number of the Educational Review. laboratory work in the high schools has been "The committee are unanimous in favoring attended with defects and failures. Perfecthe largest possible use of collateral reading,

tion is not to be expected in any form of teachand the largest training in methods of histor

ing until after long experience. Discussion ical investigation which time will permit.

of the errors in laboratory teaching must not The old-style text-book, made by a literary therefore be looked upon as unfavorable critihack, on a cut-and-dried pattern, without wide

cism of this kind of work, nor as a severe arknowledge, sound interpretation or apprehen- raignment of those who have not overcome or sion of values, has very little to commend it.

appreciated all the difficulties. Its fancy pictures are, if possible, worse than the text. The new books have some regard of time. Pupils trifle, and loiter, and stray

Perhaps the most common defect is waste to proportion and the historic significance of

from the real purpose.

Considerable skill is events; they develop geographical relations,

required to keep an algebra class, or a Latin emphasize the national period, cut down wars

class from wasting time; indeed many teachand dwell upon constitutional, industrial, and social growth. They attain a more judicial their classes how to work effectively at these

ers do not realize the necessity of teaching view on controverted points, especially slav

tasks; but the temptations to waste are much ery. Pedagogical aids in the way of bibliog- greater in the laboratory, as there are more raphy, topical analyses, suggestive.questions,

distractions, less clearly understood purposes, and topics for further study are now common.

and greater freedom of movement and interTheir chief lack is in vitality, that quality of

Sometimes the waste results from style and treatment which holds and stimulates the reader. The appendix of the report

doing profitless experiments — profitless be

cause they are trivial, or unwisely selected, or contains critical notes upon eighteen different

needlessly multiplied, as are drill examples in texts now in common use, and does not by mathematics. A good laboratory manual is any means include all. The report shows

the best corrective for such waste. It is hardly clearly the progress made in preparing texts,

to be expected that a teacher who is burdened and implies the great advance in scope and

with many classes can lay out a scheme for a significance which has taken place in the teach

year's work in physics, for example, which ing of the subject.

will be as well proportioned and wisely arThe struggle between Supt. Andrews and ranged in details as that laid down in a good the Chicago school board has been watched manual. But waste results also from easy with a good deal of interest all over the coun- going administration, which permits pottertry, because it is recognized that the principle ing and chaffiing in the laboratory, so that at issue is one of grave import to the schools, two or three hours are spent in doing what and the outcome at Chicago sure to influence might easily be accomplished in one. It is to strongly the trend of opinion and practice all be feared that this error is quite common. over the land. The question was substan- Laboratory work, if it is to minister to real tially, shall the appointment of teachers be growth, ought to be earnest, businesslike, and left as hitherto in the hands of committees to vigorous, so as to develop power to deal with

course.

things efficiently and skilfully. It should are to teach. It is the emphasis upon teachdrive to its purpose, as it is not likely to do ing realities in contrast to formal memorizing without definite exactions and constant, vigi- which has brought this about; for books are lant supervision. Laboratory pottering is not but a means of getting at things, guides and laboratory work.

helps to seeing for yourself and thinking for Further, the mere performing of experi- yourself; and in proportion as this is recogments, however vigorously done, is not satis- nized will the need of instruction in the ways factory laboratory work. An experiment of using them be also recognized. We can must be accurately done if it counts for any- remember when it was an offence against good thing; and it must be clearly interpreted, so order to be found using any other than your that the principles involved are satisfactorily text-book in schools; and then to know the exhibited. The device for securing this is text was the highest ideal of school attainthe laboratory note-book, which ought to show ment. Now we insist upon school libraries as not only what was done, and what resulted, a necessary part of the equipment for acceptbut what the result means, how it is to be in- able work, and in many subjects speak with terpreted or what it shows. We have seen depreciatory tone of “a mere text-book exnot a few note-books froin which this obvious ercise." Not only the high school but also requisite was entirely wanting. The record the grammar school must seek to introduce did not anywhere show that the experiment the pupils to the larger world of books, and to had any purpose or any significance. Such give them some skill in discriminating therein note-books are of very little worth, and leave what is of worth from what is worthless. All one seriously in doubt whether the laboratory this is as yet but imperfectly understood. The work itself means anything to the pupil. old ideal lingers, and interferes with the new, Nothing but observation of many cases of rep- and the teacher who wishes to give definite rehensible negligence in such things would and accurate knowledge sometimes questions lead us to add that the note-book ought to be whether the new drift is not incompatible neatly kept and written up, with due regard with his aims. The answer comes thru recogto spelling and grammatical and rhetorical cor- nizing more clearly the need of teaching how rectness. Criticism of such defects is some- to use books. times met with a look and tone of resentment, It is necessary for pupils—even young puas tho the science teacher had nothing to do pils—to learn how to use books as a means of with these details, which makes it all the more investigation. They should be taught how to necessary to insist upon attention to them. run down a topic by means of the tables of

One other obvious remark seems to be nec- contents and the indexes; how to pluck out of essary; no teaching of physics, for example, a paragraph or a chapter what is pertinent to can be accounted satisfactory from which the their purpose; how to collate and compare pupils do not derive some knowledge of phys- different authorities; even how to value in

We have found one school in which the some sort the different authorities they may laboratory was closed up, on the ground that consult. To this end they must give some when it was in operation the classes did not attention to the book as well as to their learn anything of physics; they knew no defi- topic, so much at least as to know who is its nitions, they understood no general principles, author and who are the publishers. It is surthey did not even comprehend what was meant prising how many young people fail to attend by physics. A wide-spread experience akin to these details, even of the texts they are folto this led to the reaction now general against lowing daily-it is “my history” or “my the exclusively laboratory method of teaching, literature,” and beyond this they do not know. instead of which we insist upon both text-book In the larger world of books one who proand laboratory work. Vague impressions, which ceeds thus heedlessly is soon lost, whereas cannot be formulated into tolerably accurate knowledge of them grows almost without verbal expression, cannot be accounted satis- effort when a correct habit has been formed. factory scientific knowledge; neither can des- The history classes and the science classes, ultory, unorganized facts and principles. Our especially the former, and in the elementary elementary training in science ought to pre- schools the geography classes, afford the best pare a basis of definite, organized knowledge opportunities for this sort of training, and to serve for further acquisitions.

S. such classes can hardly be pronounced satisBOOKS IN SCHOOL LIFE,

factory unless it is done.

But it is quite as important that pupils should How to use books—that is one of the arts grow in their appreciation of works of literawhich our schools are slowly learning that they ire. Two means of promoting this are especially valuable. First we place the well- besides sculptures, illustrations of the orders directed school study of literary works. We of Greek architecture and forms of Greek have advanced so far as to have included in ornamentation. our courses of study certain classical writings, - The high school at Neillsville has a new and the publishers have issued them in suit- laboratory fitted up in a room finished off for able forms and well edited; but we have much it in the attic. The school is full to overflowto learn yet as to how this work should be

ing, and the erection of a new building to acdone. The dreary oral reading of them, with commodate it cannot be deferred many years. dreary questions as to the meanings of some of the words and the figures of speech, are well

-We note with regret that Prin. A. R. calculated to give a decided distaste for such

Hager, of Fond du Lac, has been obliged to books. There is truth as well as satire in the

give up school work on account of a serious

affection of his eyes. The management of the question, "Can literature survive its introduction as a school study?" It is beside our pur

school has been given to the first assistant,

Miss Elizabeth Waters. pose here to discuss how literature should be taught, but no teaching can be called good

- The Beaver Dam high school recently which does not develop a genuine appreciation

had an “Army and Navy" evening, with a for great masterpieces and an earnest desire program of appropriate essays and recitations, after the best. But besides the slower and concluded with the singing in chorus of Mrs. more critical reading of the class, pupils Julia Ward Howe's "Battle Hymn of the should be stimulated to read rapidly and for Republic.” Kipling's Recessional very apthe enjoyment of them, really strong and ar- propriately made one of the recitations. tistic books. An occasional exercise in which -The constitution of the force in the office they give some account of a book which they of the state superintendent under Superinhave enjoyed, and even some appreciation of tendent Harvey is as follows: Assistant suit, its characters, its management, its mean- perintendent W. N. Parker; high school ining, its art, is of very great value and will re

spector W. D. Parker; chief clerk C. A. sult in their helping each other to work into Harper; library clerk Mae E. Schreiber, typenew fields. Beyond this even they must be writers Miss Merrick and Mrs. Hayner. allowed to browse freely in the fields of good literature without any necessity of giving an

- Columbus was not the only one of the ac

credited schools which failed by oversight to account of themselves. What Dr. Holmes

be marked with an asterisk. Neither Fort called “rolling about in a library" has been the

Atkinson nor West Bend has been dropped making of some of our best writers and

from the university list, altho not marked. speakers. Time so spent is not wasted, but expands the mind and cultivates the taste

We regret the mistakes, but our readers will

appreciate the difficulties of avoiding them. even tho it seems to give little definite and abiding knowledge.

-This year's Directory of the state univerMany more topics might be suggested, such sity shows a total enrollment of 1,479 as as morning talks about some great books, or against 1,423 the year previous. This does some suggestive essay, or some current theme not include the school of agriculture, nor the with sources of information, and so on; a dairy school, in which there are now over library half hour followed by accounts of three hundred students. The chief increase what was learned; instructions as to the classi- is in the College of Letters and Science, which fication of the library and its resources, how enrolls fifty more students than it did a year to handle books; library experiences as to the ago. reading habits of people and what they teach; -At the examintion for teachers' state cerand so on. There are many ways besides the tificates, seven were granted, two limited and regular class work in which a school guided by five superintedent's, as follows: LIMITED: G. broad and enlightened views of its purpose A. Collins, Capron, Ill. ; Charles L. Newberry, may promote the real broadening and refine- Kenosha. SUPERINTENDENT'S: Kate Finnement of its pupils.

S.

gan, Manitowoc; Leo P. Fox, Holland, Wis.;

Charles A. Kading, Lowell, Wis.; Frida THE MONTH.

Krieger, Kiel, Wis.; Elizabeth A. Young,

Chicago, Ills.
WISCONSIN NEWS AND NOTES.

-The appointment of Prin. W. N. Parker, -The Manual Training school at Menomi- of Neenah, as assistant state superintendent, nie has recently added to its means of in- left a vacancy in the principalship at that struction a fine collection of casts, containing place which has been filled by the election of Q. J. Schuster, who reluctantly consented to resemble the new Wausau building, a cut of defer for the present completing the course of which was published in the November numgraduate study he had undertaken at the uni- ber of the JOURNAL. The building will have versity to accept the position. Mr. Schuster a hall for lectures and public gatherings, sciis well known in the state as a successful entific laboratories, a library room, and assemteacher and principal.

bly room to accommodate upwards of two -Our advertising columns have already in- hundred pupils. The erection of the building formed those who have eyes to see it that

will be begun in the spring. the long established and trusted teachers'

-The Department of Superintendence of agency of Albert and Clark has become two the N. E. A. is to meet in Columbus, Ohio, separate agencies. Both of them deserve suc

February 21st, 22d, and 23d. A railroad rate cess, and either will serve you efficiently and

of one and one-third fare for the round trip on faithfully we believe.

the certificate plan has been arranged for. -A new collection of sixty-five pictures The Great Southern Hotel has been selected beautifully framed has just been added to the as headquarters. Places on the program have art materials furnished by Senator Stout to be been accepted by Drs. Harris, Mendenhall, loaned to the district schools of Dunn county. White, Tompkins, Russell, and Winship, and This enterprise, which is as yet, so far as we by Supts. Maxwell, Soldan, Goss, Martin, know, without a rival in this country, is one and others. The Herbart Society and the of great interest, which ought to do much for Educational Press Association of America will the refinement and intelligence of the pupils hold meetings in connection with this body. of the common schools.

-One of the last publications issued by -Dr. A. F. Nightingale·led the Republican Supt. Emery was the Report of the Commitstate ticket at the recent election in Illinois

tee of Twelve on Rural Schools,” with the apand received 2,000 votes more than any other pendices. Its issuance as a bulletin of the candidate on the ticket. He was elected as

state department of education is fully justified trustee of the university of Illinois. Dr.

by its importance to our rural school teachers Nightingale occupies the position of superin- and superintendents, who have hitherto found tendent of the high schools of Chicago, fourteen considerable difficulty in procuring copies. in number, and which are attended by nearly The thoro study of both the report and the 10,000 pupils who are under the instruction of appendices will prove a valuable means of proover 300 teachers.

moting that forward movement in rural educa- The new issue of the school laws of the tion which seems likely soon to follow the state, which was prepared and published under present agitation of the subject. direction of Sup't Emery, is the most con

—The program of the Conference of the venient and satisfactory we have seen. The

West Wisconsin Traveling Library Associaintroduction of full face headlines aids much

tion, which meets in the high school at Chipin finding any desired article; the use of two

pewa Falls, January 6th, is as follows: sizes of type clearly separates the comment

AFTERNOON SESSION-2:00 O'CLOCK. from the text of the law; and a full and excellent index, now for the first time provided,

Purposes of the Association.-President J.

H. Stout. makes it easy to consult the law on any point. The paper is good and the print excellent.

Three-minute reports from representatives

of libraries. - The preliminary announcements of the

District Libraries and the work they are doNational Educational Association for next

ing.–Miss A. E. Schaffer. summer are received. The meetings occur at The Relation of Women's Clubs to TravelLos Angeles, July 11-14th. Railroad fares

ing Libraries.-Miss E. D. Biscoe and Mrs. will be $50 for the round trip from the Mis

W. J. Brier. souri river, with privilege of going by one

How may Village Libraries Help the Farroute and returning by another; if, however,

mer?-Miss L. E. Stearns, Mrs. G. H. Lusk the northern routes via Portland are chosen

and Mr. F. F. Morgan. $12.50 must be added to cover the 1,254

How Social Clubs help the Farmer.-Mr. miles from Los Angeles to Portland. To this

F. A. Hutchins and others. must be added the $2.00 membership fee.

Traveling Pictures. - Miss M. E. Tanner -Marshfield is to have a new high school and Mrs. W. K. Galloway. building Plans are already nearly perfected Some Methods for Clubs to assist in increasfor a structure to cost, when finished, twenty ing the Material for Traveling Libraries and thousand dollars, in outward appearance to Traveling Pictures.—Mrs. G. A. Barry.

EVENING SESSION—7:30 O'CLOCK.

PROGRAM OF EDUCATIONAL PRESS ASSOCIATION OF AMER

ICA, FEB. 22, 23, 1899. Traveling Pictures as an Educational Factor.-Miss K. T. Murphy.

John MacDonald, President.

Topeka. Views of Public Library Buildings and

William G. Smith, Secretary.

Minneapolis Traveling Library Stations. — Miss L. E. Geo. P. Brown, Treasurer.

Bloomington, Ill. Edward L. Kellogg.

. New York. Stearns.

Silas Y. Gillan...

Milwaukee.
LIBRARY NOTES.

Wednesday, Feb. 22d, 3:00 o'clock P. M.

[Address of Welcome-O. T. Corson, Editor Ohio EducaWithin the past few weeks new free public tional Monthly, Columbus, Ohio. libraries have been established in Algoma,

Address of Welcome-Miss Margaret W. Sutherland,

Associate Editor Ohio Educational Monthly. Ripon, Lake Geneva, and North Freedom.

Paper: "Thirty Years of Educational Journalism-ReIn Ripon and Lake Geneva large collections of flections and Reminiscences''—W. I. Bell, Editor Indiana books which had been used in public and school

School Journal, Indianapolis, Ind.

Subjects for Informal Discussion: libraries were given to the new libraries so "Relation of Circulation to Rates" — "Uniformity in that they start under very favorable auspices.

Commissions to Subscription and Advertising Agents'' — "Is

Uniformity in the Size, Form and General Style of EducaThe new West Wisconsin Traveling Library

tional Periodicals Desirable?" Association is to hold its first annual confer

Miscellaneous Business. ence at Chippewa Falls on Friday afternoon

Thursday, Feb. 230, 3:00 o'clock P. M. and evening, January 6th. Teachers are

Subjects for Informal Discussion:

"What Space Should Educational Journals Give to the especially invited to attend this gathering. Proceedings of State Educational Meetings?"- "Do Sample Hon. J. H. Stout, of Menominie, is president Copies Bring Adequate Returns?''—"Rules Governing Disof the association.

continuances of Subscriptions''-"What are Objectionable

Advertisements?”' — "The Premium Question"-"Is AdverMrs. E. E. Vaughn, of Ashland, who was

tising on the Exchange Plan Profitable?"

Miscellaneous Business. recently married to a gentleman from Chi

Note. --All persons, whether members of the E. P. A. A. cago, has deeded to the city of Ashland the or not, are invited to be present at the opening exercises, library and building which she has maintained

and during the reading of Mr. Bell's paper. The discusfor a number of years.

sions of the other subjects on the program are for members

The property is val- only. ued at about $40,000.

REVOLUTION IN PRIMARY TEACHING. Chas. Yule, of Kenosha, has recently given $500 to the public library of that city for

The revolution that is taking place in the books.

primary teaching of this country is based at

the outset on this fact. When children start A beautiful new library building which Jos. Dessert, of Mosinee, is erecting for his home

to school, they are already interested in nature town, will be dedicated in the latter part of

-in the bugs, butterflies, grasshoppers, birds, January. The teachers of the upper Wiscon

trees, plants, and flowers with which they are sin valley will be especially invited to attend

familiar. They are also interested in such

stories as come within the range of their comthe exercises.

prehension-stories about animals; fairy storThe faculty and students of the Platteville

ies, stories of adventure and the like. The normal school have recently organized the

business of the primary teacher is to work Duncan McGregor Traveling Library Associa

these interests for all they are worth—to gradtion to work in southwestern Wisconsin. The

ually develop the interest in nature into an officers and members of the new association

interest in science, and the interest in stories are enthusiastic in their work, and have a

into an interest in literature and history, and number of libraries already in the field.

also to connect these interests with the other At the request of Mr. A. O. Wright, the Wis- work of the school in such a way that it may consin Free Library commission is sending be done in the most economic manner possiboxes of reading material to the Indian schools ble. To this end, the reading, writing, spellin the state. The government maintains good ing, drawing, number, and language work schools on the reservations in this state, but should be connected with the study of nature makes absolutely no appropriation for any and stories to as large an extent as possible. books for the schools except for text-books. Reading for the sake of pronouncing words is Children's books and periodicals are greatly a stupid task—suitable only to a parrot. But needed. The commission will be much pleased reading for the sake of acquiring information to receive suitable reading matter for these about something the pupil is already interested schools at its office in Madison and will for- in is a delightful labor. Writing for the sake ward it without cost to the sender.

of imitating a copy is uninteresting. But wriF. A. HUTCHINS. ting for the sake of giving expression to inter

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