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The two most popular peaks in the Sierra is a quiet family resort with one of the finest Madre are Mount Wilson and Mount Lowe. The stretches of hard, level beach on the coast. former is reached by an ideal mountain trail. One of the most characteristic and interestNear the summit is a picturesque camp where ing features of California are her Missions. accommodations are furnished. The crest of San Gabriel Mission, founded September 3, the mountain is park-like, shaded by giant 1771, is twelve miles from Los Angeles, and pines from under which the visitors may look can be reached by railway or tally-ho. It is across a tremendous gorge into the heart of still in a remarkable state of preservation. Its the range on one side and across the valley to chief attraction is the Mission bells and the the ocean on the other. The heights of Mount well-preserved belfry, where at one time hung Lowe are reached by railroad, cable and elec- five bells. This building is mentioned in tric cars, the latter forming an interesting and “Ramona.” ingenious system of mountain railway which San Fernando Mission, founded in 1797, extends to Alpine Tavern, an elevation of twenty-one miles north-west of the city, is 5,000 feet.

Here is situated a picturesque situated in the oldest olive grove in California. mountain hotel, constructed of logs. Half At Santa Barbara, a famous winter resort way up is Echo Mountain, where there is an- 106 miles north-west of Los Angeles, is the other hotel and observatory. A wonderful largest Mission building left by the Francisview of the valley, with Los Angeles and the cans in California. At sunset each evening ocean in the distance, is obtained. The balmy the old bells of the Mission ring the angelus, air of these pine-clad mountain heights is as they have for over one hundred years. very invigorating.

Hardly three hours and a half from Los AnOther popular resorts, at a greater distance geles is Santa Catalina, an island twenty-two from Los Angeles, are Bear Valley, in the San miles in length, a park in the Pacific, a mounBernardino range, and Strawberry Valley tain range at sea; a bit of the world by itself, on San Jacinto Mountain. In this favored which in its climate, natural beauties and opsection the pleasures of the seaside are not portunities for sport, comes as near perfection confined to the summer months. Even at

as one can find. It abounds in beautiful and Christmas it is a common thing to see people lofty mountains, deep gorges, stupendous enjoying a bath in the surf.

rock cliffs and precipices. The summers are The best known and most popular of the equally remarkable. At Avalon a really hot seaside resorts of Los Angeles county is Santa period, as it is understood in the East, is unMonica, situated nineteen miles from Los known, and from May until November there Angeles. Santa Monica is a well improved is a succession of beautiful days without a susand progressive little city, with paved streets, picion of squall or storm of any kind. miles of cement walk, good business blocks, One cannot afford to miss the drive around and many charming residences, surrounded by Riverside, famous the world over for its flower gardens and shade trees. Its climate oranges and beautiful Magnolia avenue. There is as near perfection as could be imagined, are few if any more beautiful cities of its size there being little difference between the sum- in the world. Though the public buildings mer and winter temperature.

and private residences are of superior structure, Two miles north of this city is Santa Monica it is not to them that Riverside owes her promCañon, a picturesque ravine, opening on the inence. It is her miles of beautiful avenues ocean beach, studded with large trees. This and streets, tree-lined, flower-bordered, No is a favorite picnic ground and camping ground. written description can do it full justice. The track of the Southern Pacific Company Through the center of the district in which are runs from Santa Monica to the cañon, and on the oldest and most extensive orange groves, a wharf three-quarters of a mile in length, at runs Magnolia avenue, and to say that it is which steamers and sailing vessels stop. one of the finest driveways in the world is to

The National Soldiers' Home is located give it due praise. As a distinguished writer about three miles from Santa Monica, and can said, after a drive on Magnolia: “A drive be reached either by steam or electric cars. down Magnolia avenue with the balmy morn

Redondo is another attractive seaside resort ing air freighted with the fragrance of the and is also a shipping port. It is twenty-two orange blossoms is a never-to-be-forgotten miles from Los Angeles, and is connected by event in the lifetime of those who have jourthe Southern California Railway and by a nar- neyed across dusty plains and paused to enjoy row gauge line. From two wharves excellent the restful climate and picturesque delights of fishing can be had.

Riverside.” Long Beach, a few miles east of San Pedro A mile distant and running parallel with Magnolia avenue is the new Victoria avenue, method to different kinds of work. This leads 130 feet wide, and on each side are ornamental to the first suggestion: there ought to be trees and roses its entire length.

some way of bringing teachers of different All will be delighted with a visit to Pasa- grades together. Those who supervise and dena, the “Crown of the Valley,” a city of direct education should understand the relabeautiful homes, situated nine miles north-east tions which exist between successive grades of of the City of Los Angeles, at the foot of the work, and make the transition in both method Sierra Madre Mountains, and connected with and content the proper one. the city by four lines of railway. Here you State Superintendent said that he agreed can visit the Ostrich Farm, one of the rising with the inain conclusions of the speaker who industries of Southern California, which con- had preceded him. He believed it to be the duty tains over 250 birds of all sizes.

of each of the three departments to do the A trip down the coast to San Diego is work for which the pupil was there. The child among the delights to be enjoyed. Hotel del and not the school should be the chief conCoronado, across the bay from San Diego, is sideration. There is room for change, but the largest hotel on the coast, and one of the every modification must consider actual conlargest in the world. Special N. E. A. rates ditions, and the interests of the great majority have been made by the management.

of the pupils in any one department should It is impossible, in the brief space allotted prevail. There is too much isolation. Printo this paper to do more than merely outline cipals and superintendents should not only some of the main features of this section, know what ought to be done, but also how it which is attracting so large an immigration ought to be done. There exists neither suffrom all parts of the world.

ficient knowledge of nor interest in grade Those desiring further information' will re- work, on part of principals. The high school ceive prompt and courteous attention from should make its impress on the grades through the managers of the Chamber of Commerce of the principal or superintendent. Courses need Los Angeles. Visitors are always made wel- modification, not so much in what is put in as come here, where is found a magnificent dis- in what is put out. play of the products of this section, Principal Parlin, of Wausau, outlined their pains will be spared in giving full information systems of interchange of work between concerning any points of interest in this glori- grade and high school teachers. ous land of which the Southern California peo- Professor Haskins opened the discussion of ple are justly proud.

the second topic: “The latest movement in MRS. ALBERTINE SMITH. regard to the teaching of history in high schools

and academies." He pointed out that history THE ANNUAL CONFERENCE AT THE UNIVERSITY. is comparatively a new comer in courses of

study in high schools ånd academies, followThe meeting was called to order by Presi- ing by considerable periods of time the endent C. K. Adams, who, after introductory trance of the natural sciences into school curremarks in which he pointed out the import- ricula. The discussion which accompanied ance of the questions to be considered, and of the growth of the feeling that a man should the significance of conferences such as these, know something of the subject which he inintroduced Professor M. V. O'Shea, the first tends to teach, led to the appointment of the speaker on the program.

Committee of Ten of the N. E. A., and of Prof. O'Shea said that the better co-ordina- the Committee of Seven of the American tion of grammar schools and high schools was Historical Association. The latter committee only one phase of a larger question. Begin- took up the problem much more broadly than ning with the kindergarten, during which the the question of requirements for admission. child constantly tends to repeat impressions of Only one member of this committee being his environment, followed by a more philo- actually engaged in teaching in secondary sophic period and a reaction against authority, schools, although three others had previously the child passes through a regular cycle of de- had such experience, the committee hestitated velopment. Great physical and mental changes to act on its own knowledge, and sent out take place simultaneously. Prof. O'Shea carefully prepared circulars to each of a large showed charts to illustrate this. There is a number of well selected schools throughout lack of articulation all along the line from the country, all of which responded. These kindergarten to the university. Teachers

reports showed that more attention is paid to meet different attitudes of mind, in different history in the West than in the East. One kinds of work, and tend to apply the same year courses in General History" appear to



be on the decline. Methods indicate a variety weakness in our high schools,” was discussed of work. The committee set forth that the by Professor Scott and Principal McLenegan. teaching of history should not have for its aim Professor Scott's discussion was centered about the cramming of facts nor so-called laboratory the following points: I. Elements of weakwork on short periods, but some ability to do

1 Teachers are often not sufficiently historical thinking and to acquire a compre- familiar with the subject they are teaching, hensive knowledge of some field of historical This is not confined to any one branch. study. The committee outlined a four years' Teachers sometimes have no definite aim. course, embodying its idea of a course in They do not see clearly what they attempt to "general history," submitted plans for con- accomplish. 2. Teachers are overloaded with

. densing this into a briefer course, but it could diverse kinds of work and excessive instrucsee no way of telescoping these courses into tional duties, leaving little or no energy for a one year's course without destroying much general reading, special and broad preparation. of the value of historical study. The com- 3. Teachers frequently waste their energy mittee asserted the claim of history to a in attempting to teach too many unrelated or reasonable amount of space and a fair chance slightly related subjects. Teachers are often in competition with other branches of study, selected in a hap-hazard manner, with little and felt that every school should be able to or no reference to what they are to teach. provide for a two years' course in history. II. Elements of strength. 1. Teachers usuThe report of the committee will come from ally recognize the difficulties involved in the The Macmillan Press in a few days.

problem, and show that they have devoted Mrs. Grace Darling Madden, in continuing some time to the serious consideration of the discussion, also referred to the committee them. Teachers are anxious to strengthen of seven and to the growing interest in the themselves. 2. School Boards are open to study and a growing efficiency in the teaching suggestions, and show a ready inclination to of history. In her judgment some of the lead- respond to reasonable requests. Inspection ing errors in respect to work as often planned of schools during successive years has generfor the study of history are the following: ally shown progress. The progress could be (1) There is much teaching of facts for facts' accelerated if there existed more harmony sake. (2) A distaste is often acquired in the among the various factors which control eduelementary school for the study of history, cation. with which the secondary school must contend. Principal McLenegan stated that elements (3) Insufficient preparation is made in the ele- of weakness should be discussed more than mentary school to fit the students for work of elements of strength. He referred to his exa higher character in the secondary school. periences as pupil in a district school and in a (4.) The text-book is given so prominent a denominational college, and as a teacher in place that it is often used to the extent of too schools of different grades, all of which had led great an exclusion of well-chosen reference him to feel proud of our public high schools. books of history. (5) Following the order of He compared the give-and-take policy of our facts as marked out by the text-book is a fetish public schools with certain classes of private with many instructors. (6) History is often schools. Mr. McLenegan spoke chiefly of the given a very subordinate place in the curricu- problem of attendance.

problem of attendance. There are pupils in lum of the secondary school, when we con- our public schools who have no right to be sider that, if wisely taught, it gives direct there—the "saturated" children, the scattertraining for intelligent citizenship. (7) The brains, baseball and football cranks.

These student is expected to commit to memory cut- should be made to give way to others who can and-dried generalizations which many a text- profit by the teacher's instruction. Some of book supplies. (8) The course of history as these points were raised in connection with planned deals with the study of nations in iso- the “war” which broke out in the Schoolmaslation. (9.) Events and topics are frequently ter's Club, of Boston, over the question of too selected to be taught with no definite aim or many pupils in the high schools. The speaker purpose in view, guiding their selection, then applied the Spencerian doctrine of free

Students of different ages should be required dom to the right of attendance at school, and to do work of different character. The order the relation of this question to the tax-payer. of this work should be as follows: First, ac- Pupils who will not work should, as an act of cumulation of facts; second, their classifica- mercy rather than of punishment, be excluded tion; third, independent research; fourth, orig. from school. inal investigation. Mrs. Madden then outlined the work best adapted to high schools.

"Elements of strength and elements of SUBSCRIBE FOR THE JOURNAL.

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1. From Timbuctoo to Morocco and Fez. 2. From Timbuctoo to Tripoli. 3. From Timbuctoo to Mourzouk and Tunis.

4. From the lower cataract of the Nile to Central Africa.

Great Railroad Routes.


1. From Alexandria to Cairo and Suez.


1. Bombay to Madras. 2. Bombay to Calcutta.

Chicago, among other departures in the educational field, has school gardens. In them practical lessons in floriculture and farming are taught. In this country no such teaching, outside the agricultural colleges, exists to any extent in our public schools.

In Europe school gardens are common, Germany especially having fine ones. Poisneak, an industrial town in the Duchy of Meininger, Thuringia, according to Prof. Herman T. Lugeus of the State Normal school, California, Pa., has the model school garden in Europe. It is ten minutes walk from the school itself. An hour a day is spent there by each child in learning practical agriculture. Each child has a patch and tools. Some family tables are daily in season supplied with vegetables as the results of the labors of the children.

Chicago school children do not grow vegetables for their home table at the school; but at the Auburn Park school, Wright and Eightieth streets, a practical course of nature study is given at this time of the year. A large garden and vacant lot give plenty of room for planting and growing, and the teacher backs up her class-room work with actual garden lessons as soon as the soil is fit. The School Weekly.

EUROPE. 1. Liverpool to London. 2. Glasgow to London. 3. Edinburgh to London. 4. London to Dover. 5. London to New Haven.

6. Lisbon to Reggio via Madrid and Marseilles.

7. Brest to Otranto via Paris and Turin. 8. Brest to Bucharest via Paris and Vienna.

9. Brest to Berlin, Moscow, Orenburg, Ural River, Irkutsk, and is being pushed on to China.

10. Cadiz to St. Petersburg.




Canada. 1. Canadian Pacific from St. John, N. B., to Montreal and Victoria, B. C.

2. Grand Trunk from Portland Me., to Chicago.

3. Intercolonial from Halifax to Levis, opposite Quebec.

United States.

Commerce is carried on over the continents in various ways:

1. By porters, as the negro carriers in Africa.

2. By dogs, as the dog-trains in Greenland and Siberia.

3. By llamas, as in the Andes of South America.

4. By camels (caravans), as across the deserts of Africa and Asia.

5. By horses (sleighing on snow or ice), as in Russia.

6. By railroads.

The following routes should be traced on the maps, and afterwards drawn on large blackboard outline map by the pupils.

Caravan Routes.

1. Northern Pacific from Duluth and St. Paul to Portland, Ore., and Olympia on Puget Sound.

2. Union Pacific from Chicago to San Francisco.

3. Atlantic and Pacific from Kansas City to San Francisco.

4. Southern Pacific from New Orleans to San Francisco.

5. New York & Erie from New York city to Buffalo and Chicago.

6. Pennsylvania Central from New York to Philadelphia, thence to Pittsburg, Chicago, and St. Louis.

7. Baltimore & Ohio from Baltimore to Washington, thence to Wheeling and Chicago or to Cincinnati and St. Louis.-Canadian Teacher.


1. From Pekin and Vladivostok to Kiachta and Lake Baikal, Irkutsk, Ekaterinburg, NijniNovgorod, Moscow, and St. Petersburg. This is essentially the course of the projected Russian trans-Asiatic railway.


may be obtained with one in which only a lim

ited portion of the subject is covered. It is PHYSICAL LABORATORY WORK IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS.

much better to cover one department of the

subject well than to attempt to cover the whole At the suggestion of several of the teachers

in a fragmentary and disjointed way. But in of physics of the state, I have attempted in all courses the importance of accuracy ought the following article to set forth certain ideas

to be insisted upon.

The student should be concerning the physical laboratory work in the taught how to measure small lengths with achigh schools. These ideas which I realize not

curacy, how to weigh, how to read a scale to be entirely in accord with those of some of

without errors of parallax, to take account of our teachers of physics, are as follows:

the error of the zero of an instrument, and in The function of the physical laboratory in

general to understand the possible sources of its broadest sense is double. First, it must

error in the experiments "he performs. He acquaint the student with the most common should also understand and have much pracsimple instruments and methods of physical tice in the use of cross-section paper in plotmeasurement and give him training in accu- ting results. racy of observation. This is by far the most

Another point on which stress ought to be important work of the laboratory. Second, it

laid is the importance of teaching thoroughly may be used for the illustration and verifica

the use of the metric units. All the measuretion of the principles which have been taught ments ought to be made in centimeters, grams, in the classroom. This last, which is made and seconds, since the metric units are practhe principal part of the work in many schools, tically the only ones now used in scientific seems of minor importance since while it is in

work. The high school offers the best possia way useful for students to go through the il- ble field for teaching the desirability of the lustrative experiments for themselves, they general introduction of these units into every understand the principles nearly as well if day life and any step toward that end ought they see them performed in the classroom by not to be neglected. I cannot say that I fathe teacher, and it is my belief that most of

vor the making of measurements in both Engthe experiments of this type are either too lish and metric units as is recommended in difficult or too simple to be of much use in the

many laboratory manuals unless it is done in laboratory, and in addition I believe it diffi

one or two experiments to show the superiorcult to make most students do good work on ity of the latter. experiments which give no definite quantitative

From the accompanying list suitable exresults. If the teacher of physics has a large periments for quantitative laboratory course amount of time at his disposal it may possibly may be selected, the directions for all or nearly be worth while to attempt to carry out both all of which can be found in Chute's Laborathe demonstration and the measurement por- tory Manual and in other text-books. tions of the laboratory work, but with the Below is also given an estimate of the cost limited time which is alloted to the laboratory of apparatus for the whole of the above course, in most high schools, there seems to me no and also for a shorter course in density and room for doubt that all of the illustrative work heat for those schools which have little laborought to be confined to the recitation room

atory apparatus and do not feel able to purand the whole of the laboratory period chase the instruments necessary for the more devoted to quantitative measurements. extended course. Viewed from this standpoint the physical laboratory becomes a place not so much for teach

List of Experiments. ing physics, as for teaching the methods of Measurement of Length with the Vernier physical work, and above all for teaching that Gauge; with the Micrometer Gauge. accuracy of observation and exactness of Use of the Barometer. measurement which will find their uses in Use of the Balance to Determine the Zero; after life. These are of especial importance to Determine the Sensibility; to Perform a to the students who are looking forward to do- Weighing. ing work in the university. For them a few Density of a Regular Solid from its Mass experiments which teach accuracy in the and Dimensions; with the Specific Gravity Botfundamental measurements are worth more tle, Solids and Liquids; by Immersion, Solids than any amount of work of the illustrative type. and Liquids.

If a high school, either on account of lack Acceleration of Gravity with the Simple of time or lack of means, finds it difficult to Pendulum. arrange a quantitative course covering the Modulus of Elasticity by Stretching a Fine whole of the field of physics, excellent results Wire.

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