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English ideals of school differ very mate- uary, they originally appeared. Principal rially from those prevalent among us. Many Ray's deduction from the experiment is that Americans will read with surprise the state- pupils soon learn to identify themselves with ment made in the Educational Review by Mr. the government instead of being indifferent or William Cunningham, of Trinity College, Cam- hostile to it, and this of course is the vital bridge: “The whole of the English school matter in preparation for citizenship. system and the whole of the college system really turn on this extraordinary conception
NEW EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION. that neither a school nor college is primarily
Probably the most salient fact in regard to concerned with teaching." He defines the
educational legislation in the late session is English conception of their duty to a boy to
the failure of the so-called Harvey bill for the be “to make a man of him.” This he re
revision of our plan of school supervision. solves into two elements, the boy must learn
After considerable interchange of views in to do what he does not like, and he must learn
regard to it, and repeated modification of deto take responsibility. The first is taught tails in order to meet as fully as possible him by compulsory requirements which take
prominent objections to it, the bill was sufno account of his likes and dislikes, and in
fered to die in committee since there was no clude Greek and Latin on one hand, and foot
prospect of its passage. It is not difficult to ball on the other; to develop the second "the
see the reasons for this; they may be summed boys have a great deal of supervision of one
up in the statement that the measure was felt another, and learn never to shirk responsibil
to be a radical one, and many feared that pubity, and especially, what seems an element of
lic sentiment was not ready for so strong a it, not to care a rap what anybody says of
movement. The agitation of the reform was him, so long as he feels he is right himself.
very useful; it has called public attention to Those are the things that a boy is sent to
the inadequacy of present plans of supervision, school for.” This effective presentation of the
to the undesirable influences which surround case may perhaps be toned down a little in
the superintendency, and to the unsatisfactory the interest of exact statement, but what it
conditions of our rural schools under it, and brings to the fore deserves attention here. To
such an agitation is never without its value. convert the schools into mere scholarship The work of the superintendents will be more mills is certainly a great mistake. Our ideal,
carefully watched than hitherto, and they to prepare for life, is only too apt to let “mak
will themselves realize more fully the possiing a scholar of him” crowd out “making a
bilities of their office. It is not at all imman of him.”
probable that this effort initiates a movePREPARATION for citizenship consists first ment which will ultimately bring about most in learning self-government and second in of the results which that measure sought to learning the principles and forms by which attain. The legislature certainly cannot be our people accomplish self-government in state said to have been indifferent to education; for and nation. That the first is learned slowly in addition to providing liberally for the mainand learned best by trial under continually tenance of our educational institutions, it lessening external direction is a familiar truth, passed a series of important measures for the and yet we have been slow to apply it in our further development of our school system. schools. The abolition of corporal punish- Among these we must give a prominent ment, and the removal of principals and teach- place to the doubling of the fund in aid of our ers who develop too much friction in their free high schools. The yearly appropriation management are the sub-conscious ways of for this object is now one hundred thousand bringing about this discipline that forms for dollars, and the aid to each school will now be freedom. Last month we gave two accounts about four hundred and eighty dollars. of experiments towards the conscious realiza- impossible to escape the conviction that the tion of this sort of discipline in our schools. time has come for a general strengthening of They seem to have awakened a good deal these institutions. More thoroughly prepared of interest. Following Principal O'Hanlon's teachers are now available for conducting letter we published part of a circular setting them; we must seek more intelligent and forth the principles of these experiments, a specially trained supervisors for them; and considerable part of which should have been fuller equipment may be reasonably exacted in credited to the author of the other article, the laboratories and libraries. This increase of Prin. John T. Ray, in whose paper on “Dem- state aid ought to be the occasion of elevation ocratic Government in the Schools," pubof work and ideals. The increase of the fund lished in Home and School Education for Jan- in aid of manual training, doubling the
amount and the number of schools which the conveyance of children to and from school may share it, ought to give impetus to the was passed in 1869. The secretary of the movement already so well initiated. Two Board of Education at that time said: "This other acts deserve mention, one permitting act was introduced into the legislature thru school boards in cities to add one mill to the the efforts of a practical man from one of our school tax, and one permitting districts in a rural towns of large territory and sparse poputown or city to unite in maintaining a com- lation.” The first general statement of the mon high school.
results of the law was made in a pamphlet The law increasing the minimum period prepared in 1893 for the Massachusetts public during which a school must be maintained in school report at the World's Columbian Expoorder to participate in the distribution of the sition. Sup't Eaton, of Concord, was chosen state school fund from six to seven months, to prepare this, because the consolidation in must be accounted of a good deal of import- the schools of Concord was probably more ance in the development of our rural schools. complete than in any other town in the state. The addition of a month considerably increases He said: “At first the authority was used the importance of the school and its power to mainly to convey pupils to the high school. contribute to the intellectual growth of the Within a few years, however, many communichildren. In line with this is the provision ties have used this authority to increase the for beginning the establishment of county educational advantages of the children, connormal training schools. Two only are con- stantly decreasing in numbers, who live in distemplated at present, and the bill provides tricts at a distance from the center of populastate aid to the amount of $1250 to each pro- tion. This has been accomplished by closing vided suitable accommodations are afforded many district schools and transporting, at and the school with properly qualified teach- public expense, their pupils to the neighborers is maintained not less than ten months ing public schools or to the village. Of
As is well known, movements course all sorts of objections were put up looking to the establishment of such schools against the plan, and numerous supposed have already been made in two counties, and dangers dwelt upon, long, cold rides, contait seems reasonable to anticipate that they will gion in public conveyances, cold dinners to now be realized; while success with two would impair digestion, long absence from home, doubtless bring aid for others as they are de- and so on. These imaginary evils had to be manded. The addition of four thousand dol- proved illusory by slow experience before the lars to the state institute fund means added plan could become general; the advantages in efficiency in this kind of training, already larger and better equipped schools, with better considerably strengthened by the creating of organization and better teachers had also to the county institute fund four years ago. be made evident by trial; and that the actual
One or two other measures must be briefly expense of using better schools was less than mentioned. School districts are now author- half that of the old small district schools, had ized to borrow from the trust funds of the to come to light slowly in town after town state, not only for new buildings but also for before the public would credit the statements. refunding indebtedness, and the rate of inter- The statistics show that since 1888 the money est is reduced from four to three and a half expended for conveyance has about doubled per cent.
The provisions of the township every five years. Thus the scheme has passed library law are now made applicable to villages from its experimental stage. A good deal and to cities of ten thousand inhabitants and has yet to be done before all the small schools under.
S. of the state disappear or even all that clearly
ought not to continue, but no compulsion has CONVEYANCE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN.
yet been used and the movement is a purely
popular one. The last Report of the Massachusetts Board The movement has spread to other states. of Education, 1897-8, is just received, and Maine entered upon it in 1897; New Hampamong its interesting papers presents a careful shire a year or two earlier; Vermont followed; study of the conveyance of children to school Connecticut authorizes transportation; New in that state. This has been really a growth, York, in 1896, provided by law for local taxaand until late years not a rapid growth. The tion for the same purpose; New Jersey, Neconservatism of the people is shown by the braska and Wisconsin have followed suit. -cautious manner in which they have felt their The plan has even spread to Australia, where way to this great reform. The original law the minister of public instruction of Victoria authorizing any town to make provision for
says: "Under the system of conveyance two
hundred and forty-one schools have been
THE MONTH. closed. The saving in closed schools amounts to about £14, 170 per annum. The attend
WISCONSIN NEWS AND NOTES. ance is so regular and the system so popular that applications are constantly made for its - The Columbian Catholic Summer School extension."
will hold its fifth annual session in Madison, This report summarizes nearly two hundred July 12th to August 3d. replies to circulars of inquiry addressed to
-The summer school in connection with school officials of towns and cities.
the Oshkosh normal school, will open July 3d, pears from these that more than fifty per cent.
and hold its sessions to August 4th. of the towns report changes in population and property valuation that have affected school -The report of Supt. Flavin, of Dodge conditions. More than sixty-five of the towns county, shows that during the past year reporting have found it necessary or advanta- eighty-seven graduated from the rural schools geous to close and consolidate some schools.
of that county. Consolidation is generally partial, in a few -The summer school at the Oshkosh nortowns complete; most frequently it has been
mal school, July 3d-Aug. 4th, this year emaccomplished gradually; in some instances at ploys eleven teachers, nine of whom have colone stroke.
More than fifty per cent. of the lege training. towns report that they 'convey all the way from the home to the school.' Other towns
-At Evansville, the entire corps of teachsay that, unless the conveyance, carriage, or
ers was recently re-elected for another year.
Here is an instance of a school without a car passes their homes, the children walk to the main street, or to designated points, or to
change in the board of education, corps of
teachers, or janitor for two years. the closed schoolhouse, or to the streets through which the electric cars run, etc. In -Attendance at the University of Paris has a few towns the carriage goes to every home increased in a way that rivals the growth of in stormy weather, to take and leave the chil- our American institutions since 1885. In letdren. In some towns conveyance is furnished ters, 928 students at that date have become only in winter or in stormy weather. In some 1,989; in medicine, 3,696 have become 4,494; cases children are conveyed to school, but not and in law, 3,786 have grown to 4,494. from it unless the weather is stormy or the -The program of the N. E. A. at Los traveling bad."
Angeles, this summer, appears in a long broThe conveyance extends to four, six, or
chure of twenty pages, with purple covers, eight miles as the case may be. Arrange- and gives a strong impression of the number ments for transportation are sometimes made
of topics, the opportunities of travel, and the by the school committee, sometimes by a sub- various attractions of this great organization. committee, and sometimes by an individual. Of course amounts paid for service vary in lo
-Miss Elizabeth F. Simpson, librarian of calities. No inconvenience as to health of
the Stevens Point normal school, issues a neat children, exposure to weather, or parental dis
little twelve page manual, “Days we Celesatisfaction. In fact the evils apprehended brate-Arbor Day, Bird Day, Memorial Day,” have not been realized in practice.
with reference lists for readings and music
It will certainly It is obvious, therefore, that an experience suitable for such festivals. of thirty years has fully confirmed the feasi
be very useful to such teachers as may posbility, freedom from special dangers and educational and social advantages of the plan of
-The institute list for the coming season conveyance. This experience justifies a more
provides for sixty-four institutes, one in each rapid expansion of the plan in other states county of the state except Florence, Pierce, which are just beginning to adopt it. What Forest, Fond du Lac, Winnebago, Vernon, is necessary is dissemination of information re- and Portage. In only one county, Shawano, garding the experience had and the financial are there two appointments. The sessions are and educational advantages of the plan. Su- longer than in last year's list, four lasting four perintendents and teachers are the natural weeks each, nine lasting three weeks, thirtymeans for disseminating such information. It one lasting two weeks each, and twenty of one seems not unreasonable to assume that with
week. None shorter than a week appear on a little intelligent and concerted effort Wis- the list. consin might in a decade by this means alone - The Chippewa Falls high school has sedo much to overcome the deplorable condition cured, by competitive examination, the cadetof her rural education.
ship for both West Point and Annapolis from
this congressional district. Elam J. Raymond four should be employed. He also expresses
- The Orange Judd Co., of the American In the examination for the naval cadet this
Agriculturist, addressed a circular of inquiry school had three competitors—one stood first,
to 360 universities and colleges in this counone third, and the other fourth.
try, asking the total enrollment of students, -Of the short periods of service of country and the enrollment of persons belonging to teachers Supt. Keats, of Fond du Lac county, the "agricultural classes” as shown by the resisays: “I maintain that the practice of hiring dence or occupation of their parents. Replies teachers term by term largely nullifies the were received from 178 institutions, with a value of their services, and subjects competent total enrollment of 62,012, of whom 21,060, or teachers to the indignity of appearing at fre- almost 34 per cent., are from the agricultural quent intervals as supplicants for positions, to classes. In the central west 40 per cent. of the permanent holding of which they are en- the students come from the farms. In maka titled, in all equity and fairness. I submit ing the figures a few city colleges, like Harthat the best interests of our schools demand vard, Pratt Institute, University of Rochester, the establishment of the custom of guarantee- Detroit College, Fisk University, etc.,” were ing to those teachers who have proved them- excluded. selves worthy of such recognition, permanent
—The Rock county teachers' association tenure of position, but so qualified as to pre
was held at Evansville on Saturday, May 6th. vent incompetent persons from taking ad
There were more than 100 teachers in attendvantage of this protection."
ance and much interest was manifested. Mr. -The following changes of school princi- Levi Leonard gave an account of the school pals for the coming year have come to our he taught in Evansville in 1841.
His comknowledge: G. H. Landgraf goes from Wat- parison between the old and the new school erloo to Menasha; O. E. Rice, who has had aroused much enthusiasm. In the afternoon charge of the grammar grade at Washburn, all the grades were in session for an hour and becomes principal of the high school at Ne- later each teacher's work was commented on cedah; from Necedah C. H. Maxson goes to by some one previously appointed for that Tomah; Walton H. Pyre takes the high school purpose. Reports were made by Grace Potat New Lisbon; S. E. Pearson that at Viro- ter, of Madison; Maggie Woodruff, of Janesqua; J. A. Hagemann that at Ft. Atkinson; ville; Alice Gregory, of Stoughton; Jennie F. F. Showers goes from Sheboygan Falls to Kelly, of Edgerton; Lettie Janes, of MagnoAntigo; F. A. Leverenz becomes superintend- lia; Mr. C. Henningway, of Brodhead; Robent at Sheboygan; H. A. Simonds leaves Ste- ert Rienow, of Whitewater; and Supt. David vens Point to assume the superintendency at Throne. The school session proved to be a Oshkosh; H. A. Whipple, of Whitewater, be- very profitable feature. State Supt. L. D.
. comes supervising principal at Baraboo; Ezra Harvey then delivered a very instructive adT. Towne takes charge of the Sharon schools; dress on practical school problems. C. H. Dietz goes to Waterloo; H. L. Van
-Supt. Keats, of Fond du Lac county, says Deusen goes to Centralia.
of schoolhouses: "In our cities and villages
“ -The list of institute conductors approved the school buildings and grounds are generally by the institute committee contains 125 names. a credit to the good taste and the public spirit They are all citizens of Wisconsin, and for the of the communities in which they are situated. most part-indeed with few exceptions—are But away from these centers many of the teachers in the normal schools or in the high schoolhouses are
schoolhouses are a blot on the landscape. schools of this state. We note in the list Built without reference to architectural effect, twenty-one names of women. Superintend- or to the health, comfort, and convenience of ents are expected from this list to secure such teachers and pupils, they bar the progress of aid as may be necessary beyond the conduc- school work. Some of our buildings are in a tors appointed by the committee and to pay shameful state of dilapidation, and when new them from the county institute fund. The ones are built it is thought unnecessary, or too state superintendent suggests for an enroll- expensive, to employ professional help, and ment between fifty and a hundred two con- so the defects of the old school buildings are ductors are needed, between that and one perpetuated in the new. •All this is evidence hundred and fifty three, and above the latter that it is still needful to arouse and educate
public sentiment upon this subject; to tell the enter Harvard college without Greek will no people that the comfort and health and eye- longer be forced to substitute for Greek only sight of teachers and pupils are worth caring subjects in advanced mathematics, physics, or for; to insist again that neat and attractive chemistry. But according to the new scheme buildings and grounds are important contribu- Greek may be replaced by both advanced tions to the mental, physical, and moral well- French and German or by an advanced modbeing of the children.”
ern language and advanced history. -The new list of books for township libraries, which is just issued from the state super
POINTS OF INTEREST IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. intendent's office, is a pamphlet of 148 pages.
No section of the United States in proporIt contains nearly three hundred new books, and a good many new and valuable features.
tion to its size and population, has aroused so The library law is given on the first pages,
much interest all over the world during the which was so amended by the last legislature
past fifteen years as Southern California, and as to extend the provisions to incorporated
particularly the city and county of Los Anvillages and cities of the fourth class, to make geles. The nar
geles. The name of Los Angeles is probably the purchasing time from May first to Septem
more widely known throughout the United ber first, and to make selection from the
States than any other city of 100,000 popula
tion in the country. superintendent's list imperative. Reference lists are added to many of the titles indicating
This interest is partly due to the remarkatopics by pages to aid in using the books and
ble attractions of scenery and climate, which
are characteristic of this section; partly to the following up subjects in which pupils may be interested. The notes on books are so made
marvelously rapid growth of Los Angeles, as to aid teachers in directing the reading of
from an obscure Mexican pueblo to a metropupils. The educational and ethical values are
politan city, and partly to the energetic and pointed out and the things which will interest
persistent publicity given to those attractions pupils. All these things add greatly to the
through the efforts of the enterprising people
of the section. value of this list. There accompany it for the use of officers labels for the books, an
Variety is one of the most noteworthy fea
tures of Southern California. It is a succesorder blank for purchasing, and full directions how to do the library business.
sion of mesas and valleys, each possessing dis
tinctive features of soil and climate, shut off -The requirements for admission to Har- from each other by rolling hills, dotted with vard university, adopted by the faculty, have oak and walnut trees and backed by the mabeen approved by the board of overseers, ex- jestic Sierras, pine clad toward the summit cept that they ask that history be added to and capped with snow in winter, when oranges the list. The overseers say:
"It is not be- are ripening and the heliotrope and lilies are lieved that an educated man can safely regard blossoming in the gardens below. himself simply as a horizontal slice of the Some of the most picturesque scenery in present, but rather should be taught to realize the world is found along the foothills of the that he is deeply rooted in the past, and that
Sierra Madre range.
Higher up on the sumnearly every opinion and prejudice that he is mits of these mountains are groves of magnificalled upon to encounter to-day has had.at cent pines which shade attractive camping least its prototype in the past, and for a grad- grounds. uate of the college to properly discharge his Making headquarters at Los Angeles, a duties of citizenship, some knowledge of his- dozen or more interesting mountain trips can tory comes next in importance to a knowledge be made with facility, each of them taking in of how to write and speak English correctly an entirely new section of country. and with force." If the faculty concurs in the A picturesque range of mountains is the last amendment of the overseers to the effect Sierra Madre, the “Mother Mountains.” It is that history also be prescribed for admission the link which connects the Coast Range to Harvard college, then the new requirements
with the Sierra Nevada. Though only for admission may go into effect as soon as the seventy miles long, some of its peaks raise faculty vote is passed. The new definitions
their snow crests
to ten thousand are found in the catalogue of the present year. feet. Streams of pure sparkling water rush The most importance difference in principle down its many cañons. The tourist who between the new requirements for admission misses exploring this grand range of mountains and the old, a difference which the board of has missed much that is interesting in Southoverseers has approved, is that students who ern California.