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Views. 1, Court of Honor.

2. Peristyle.

3. World's Fair by Moonlight.
1898. Spanish-American War.
Views. 1. Cuban Flag.

2. Gomez.
3. Reconcentradoes.
4. Maine in Havana Harbor.
5. Explosion of the Maine.
6. Columbia to the Rescue.
7. President McKinley.
8. The White Squadron.

9. The Oregon.
Declamation, "Our Gallant Commodore,"

. Ida Williams
10. Commodore Dewey (now Admiral, 1899).
11. Olympia
12. Dewey's Victory at Manila Bay.
13. Battle of El Caney.
14. General Miles.
15. Destruction of Cervera s Fleet.
16. Sampson (now Rear Admiral).
17. Schley (now Rear Admiral).

18. American Flag.
1899. Expansion Maps of U. S. from 1700 to 2000.

Outcome of the Growth of Monopoly.
Charts, showing Industrial Greatness of United

Address, "The United States in Relation
to Foreign Power".

Walter Curtis
Salute of the Flags of the Nations.
Solo and Chorus, "Washington,"

.F. W. Kickbusch, Jr
Tableau, "International Peace."

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1000. Chorus, "Song of the Vikings'

.Faning Declamation, 'I am a Viking Bold,'

Lawrence Liljeqvist View. Vikings on Their way to America. 1492. Life of Columbus. Views. 1. Columbus Before the Council at Sala

manca. 2. Columbus at the Court of Ferdinand

and Isabella.
3. Ships of Columbus.
4. Dawn Revealing New World to Colum.

Tableau. Columbus Discovering America.

5. Columbus Received by Ferdinand and

Isabella on His Return. 6. Columbus in Chains.

7. Death Bed of Columbus. 1620. Chorus, “The Pilgrim Fathers''

Wade View. Landing of the Pilgrims. 1673. Tableau, “Marquette and Indians at Green Bay." 1759. French and Indian War. Views. I. Braddock's Retreat.

2. Death of General Wolfe.

3. Death of General Montcalm. * 775. Declamation, "Patrick Henry's Speech on Liberty''

Mitchell Stewart 1776. Call to Arms.

Tableau. Spirit of '76.
Solo, “Yankee Doodle''

. Johonie Anderes
Revolutionary War.
Views. 1. Battle of Bunker's Hill.

2. Washington Taking Command of the

3. Declaration of Independence.
4. Washington Crossing the Delaware.

5. Birth of the American Flag. 1777. Flag Drill to Commemorate the Birth of the American Flag

6. Surrender of Burgoyne.
7. Washington at Valley Forge.
8. Franklin at Court of France.
9. Surrender of Cornwallis.
10. Constitutional Convention.

11. The Inaugural Address of Washington. Tableau. George and Martha Washington. 1812. War with England. Views. 1. Battle of Tippecanoe.

2. Perry on Lake Erie.

3. Battle of New Orleans. 1830. Declamation, "Webster's Reply to Hayne''

Walter Flieth 1848. War with Mexico. Views. I. Capture of Chapultepec.

2. General Scott Entering Mexico. 1850. An Incident in the Settlement of the West. 1861. Civil War.

Tableau. Columbia Weeping.
Views. 1. Bombardment of Fort Sumpter.

2. Battle of the Merrimac and Monitor. Tableau. The Emancipation Proclamation.

3. Battle of Lookout Mountain.

4. Siege of Vicksburg. Tenting Scene. (Just Before Taps). . Boys of Co. G

5. Farragut at Mobile Bay. 1864. Illustrated Song, “Marching Through Georgia." Views a. "Bring the Good Old Bugle.'

b. "Hurrah, Hurrah, We Bring the Ju

bilee." c. "How the Darkies Shouted." d. "Yes, And There were Union Men." e. "Sherman's Dashing Yankee Boys."

f. "So We Made a Thoroughfare." 6. Surrender of Lee.

7. Assassination of Lincoln. 1877. Declamation, "The Flag After 100 Years''

. Will Scholfield 1880. Era of Prosperity Chorus, "The Miller's Wooing,

Faning 1893. World's Fairs (400 Years After Discovery of America).

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How the Program Went. When the curtain rose the high school chorus of over fifty voices came forward and sang a stirring chorus, "Song of the Vikings. At the end of the song the chorus broke ranks and a high school boy in Viking costume stepped out and spoke “I am a Viking Bold.”

The next event commemorated was the discovery of America. Seven views of the life of Columbus were thrown upon the screen, which had been dropped behind the speaker. Dawn revealing the new world was followed by a tableau showing Columbus and his sailors in the new world, with the Indians gazing in awe-struck wonder at the newcomers.

The year 1620 marked the landing of the Pilgrims. A chorus, “The Pilgrim Fathers," and a view, The Landing of the Pilgrims," represented this event.

The work of the Jesuit priests in the west was brought to the minds of the people by a tableau showing Marquette surrounded by Indians, who are eagerly listening to his words.

The French and Indian War was shown by the three views indicated in the program.

The number that seemed to arouse the most enthusiasm was the peroration of Patrick Henry's speech on liberty, delivered by one of the high school boys. He had scarcely finished when the roll of drums and the music of the fife were heard, and a moment later the curtain rose showing an old man playing a fife, and two boys, one beating a drum, the other

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bearing a flag. This tableau was modeled showed views of the World's Fair of 1893, the after the famous painting, “The Spirit of '76.” other, pictures of the Spanish-American war.

Pupils from the grades also assisted. At this Then a declamation, Our Gallant Commopoint a little seventh grader came out and dore.” Of course the name of Dewey is all that sang “Yankee Doodle." Very few people had is necessary to bring American people to their heard the whole song, and the little fellow in his feet. white trousers and old-fashioned suit captured Eleven maps showing the expansion of the everyone's heart. Then came the views of the United States through successive acquisitions Revolutionary War. Following the views was of terrtiory, were thrown on the screen. They a “Flag Drill Commemorating the Birth of the showed our country from the time it was a American Flag.” This was given by eighteen little strip along the Atlantic coast to the bright little girls from the lower grades. After present date, with the additions lately made, more views of the Revolutionary War, a very and then, taking a peep into the future, the miniature George and Martha Washington ap- United States was shown to have grown until peared (represented by a kindergarten boy and it covered the whole globe. It is not a bad girl), looking exactly as if they had stepped stroke to let an audience laugh occasionally, out of an old picture and did not quite under- even at school entertainments, provided the stand how they happened to be here.

occasion is skillfully manufactured. Three views of the War with England in To add variety to the program, and bring 1812, refreshed the minds of the people as to out a fact as well, another little "quip" was the principal events of this war.

given. A stout figure immaculately dressed, To indicate the growth of the spirit of na- was discovered trying to carry away the earth. tionalism, and to foreshadow the struggle of The name of the stout lad, "Standard Oil the Civil War, the closing lines of Webster's Co.,” was printed on his back. Uncle Sam reply to Hayne were given.

discovered the danger, and coming to the resAfter two views of the War with Mexico, a cue put the monopolist to shame, telling him little humor was added to the program. An to drop that earth as it belonged to the peoIndian chief, giving his blood-curdling war- ple. Needless to say, the audience saw the whoop, chased a white man across the stage. point. The tables were soon turned, however, and in The chart showing the industrial greatness a few. minutes back came "the noble red man of the United States gave graphically the of the forest” pursued by the white man. Such relative amount of the productions of our is the change that has taken place in the set- country and those of the rest of the world. lement of the west.

The address on "Our Relation to Foreign Two interesting tableaux and several views Powers” gives an opportunity to unify the of the Civil War came next. The first tableau program and to express the spirit of the avshowed “Columbia Weeping” for her slaves. erage high school boys. She soon became a rejoicing Columbia, the Perhaps the most elaborate, and one of the change being brought about by the appearance most pleasing numbers of the program was of Lincoln bearing in his hand the Emancipa- the "Salute of the Flags of the Nations.” tion Proclamation.

Each country was represented by a boy and a The tenting scene was given by several girl dressed in native costume, carrying the boys who had been in the Spanish-American flag of their nation. Each couple advanced war. They made the scene quite realistic. to the national air of the country they repreDuring the time they were on the stage, a sented, marched around the stage, and then male chorus back of the scenes sang “Tenting took places at the side.

The last to appear to-night" which added very much to the im- were Uncle Sam, with the globe under his pressiveness of the scene. This was followed arm, and Columbia, protecting Cuba. Columby an illustrated song “Marching through bia was represented by the tallest girl in the Georgia,” the chorus standing behind the high school, and Cuba by a smaller girl. These screen and out of sight.

three immediately became the center of atThe next declamation was “Our Flag After traction. After a rousing chorus, “Washing100 Years," taken from Henry Ward Beecher's ton,” the tableau, “International Peace" oration on the flag.

was shown. In the center of the stage were After the stormy scenes of the civil war Uncle Sam, Columbia, and Cuba, and grouped came the era of prosperity. A chorus enti- around in various attidues of respect were all tled, “The Miller's Wooing” with love and the foreign nations, and the various personprosperity for its theme, marked this period. ages represented in the entertainment.

Two series of views followed. One set This tableau closed the program. Every

one felt he was a better American for having neglect this opportunity, or rather duty, and attended the entertainment. The work of conduct our schools as our grandfathers didgetting up the program was so evenly di- except the rod. vided, and each one did his part so faithfully, We still have little monarchies, with the that no one felt as if he had been overtaxed. teacher for monarch, and the children the unA HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATE. willing subjects. The monarch is responsible

for law and order and must enforce it. The PUPIL GOVERNMENT AS A MEANS OF TEACHING CITIZEN- chief study of the little subject is to "escape SHIP.

the law" by avoiding detection; by banding

together against the monarch the teacher. The experiment in a number of Chicago This kind of teaching of civic duties will be schools in the better teaching of the practical

sure to fail, as it is failing in our large cities. duties of citizenship, through the introduction,

Instead of making citizens who are interested to a greater or less degree, of pupil govern- in seeing law enforced and wrong exposed, ment, has, within the last few months, at

they continue the tactics taught them for long tracted wide attention among educators.

years in the schoolroom, of letting those in About 15,000 children in large grammar authority detect wrong, and enforce law, order schools in Chicago are now working under

and honesty if they can. what is known as the Citizen" and "Tribune"

As in school he was either a passive cipher Plan, first adopted three years ago in the John in influence or an active conniver at disorder, Crerar school, of Chicago. The success that

so he continues what he was taught in school, has attended it in this school began to attract

in his civic adult life. The writer firmly beattention, and for the past four months the

lieves that to the wrong teaching of civic duwriter has found it impossible to answer all

ties in our public schools is due most directly, the inquiries that have come from all parts of

the cause of the lamentable failure of governthe country, asking for details of the plan.

ment, and honest administration of law in our This inquiry has come from the most distant

large cities. states as freely as from near localities. The

Let the teacher begin by having a talk with pin manufacturers are receiving orders for

her pupils about their school life and their re“Citizen” pins from all parts of the country, lations to each other in the school community. particularly is the movement active in Cali

Let her lead them to see that a school comfornia and Oregon.

munity, like any other community, is just In Wisconsin the plan has been put in force

what the citizens of that school or community in quite a number of schools in

see fit to make. That each is affected by the Racine, Milwaukee, and in many

conduct of others, and should therefore be small towns. It is in the hope concerned in what the individual or the whole GITIZEN & of more generally helping the


do. If a majority are for order, polite JOHN CRERAR 2 SCHOOL teachers of your state to an in

and considerate conduct, and honest work, telligent understanding of the

then the school can have it. If good pupils plan that I send this brief ac

hide from the teacher the wrong conduct of count for publication in your valued paper.

others and leave it to the teacher, then the How to Introduce It.

teachers must introduce, or rather continue, The duties of citizenship have too long an espionage over the pupils at all times, been taught theoretically from books. Indeed that makes the school a prison, and teaches in our elementary schools it is scarcely taught the pupils to cultivate habits of dishonesty and at all, unless to a few pupils in the seventh deception, and leaves a weakness in all moral or eighth grades.

Yet this is the day of prac- conduct that relates to community life. tical "laboratory methods.” The teacher Let pupils be appealed to, to stand for good with his school, whether it is the little red conduct and right actions in their schoolschoolhouse,” with a dozen pupils, or an over mates. Encourage the rightly disposed chilgrown city school with a thousand children, dren to make their influence felt. They are has the material at hand for the most practi- always in a majority and if they will but ascal kind of teaching in this subject. From sert themselves they can make their influence the first day the child enters school till the felt in the school. Appeal to them to learn to day he graduates from the high school, the govern themselves out of the presence of the child can, and should be taught to become an teacher and to help to govern others by their active part of a democratic government in personal efiorts to influence them for right. school that he may be fitted for citizenship Have the pupils see that there is a wide in a great democracy in adult life.

Yet we difference between idle tattling and a manly




exposure of wrong conduct that a pupil is un- Dearborn street, Chicago, who will answer inwilling to correct.

terested parties making inquiries. Under no Now, how shall this be accomplished, how conditions should the pupils be allowed to own can a teacher so organize his school that he the pins. They should be the general propcan bring to his support that majority of chil- erty of the room. dren in every school that want to do right The rules given below are the outgrowth of themselves, and who can, if rightly approached, three years of experimenting, and are given be as influential as the teacher in controling here in the hope that they may be of assistthe thoughtless minority for right conduct. ance to those studying this interesting prob

lem of pupil government. Tribune and Citizen Plan.

JOHN T. RAY, In the John Crerar school, Chicago, the plan

John Crerar School, Chicago. in successful operation for the last three years is very simple and direct. Pupils are not ex- MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN A GRAMMAR SCHOOL. pected to make rules or to deal out penalties to offenders. They are expected simply to do My Dear Dr. Stearns: In reply to your right themselves, and to try to have their favor of March 19th, asking for a general acschoolmates do right.

count of the attempt we have made to teach The Tribunes" elected every month in each civics—the nature of the American governroom are not monitors, or captains, or bosses. ment in its relation to every day life—to the They are simply protectors of the rights of the pupils of all the grades in our school without childcen, the official representatives of the room the use of text-books, I submit the following: on all questions relating to good order and We believe that text-book instruction in proper conduct. They are to warn offenders, civics in a grammar school can at best only to listen to complaints, to protect the weak supplement the lessons which must be learned against the strong by kindly admonition. If by performing faithfully the duties which deall this fails they then must report the matter volve upon the children in their relation to to the teacher, who then acts when the pupil's their fellows at school and upon the street. influence fails. The only punishment admin- By making pupils conscious that they are a

. istered is the separation of the offender from part of the civic body, and that they must the other children, and the withdrawing of the prepare to take upon themselves the burdens privileges he has abused until he is ready to which citizenship carries while at school, a go voluntarily to the pupil officer and pledge more intelligent attitude towards the body proper conduct in future. The teacher then .

politic may be established, which will last forrestores it on request of the tribune.

ever and better prepare these young people “Citizens” are those persons whom the pu- for the real duties of life and make them betpils and teachers compliment for faithful ter citizens. (See pamphlet for further ideas, school duties by electing to the honor. They etc.). wear a pin to designate them, and this pin is We have used this plan more than a year forfeited and removed whenever an act un- and instead of interest lagging the pupils have worthy of a good pupil takes place.

become more and more interested from month ward of continued good influence, and con- to month. The number of citizens has induct by making pupils citizens is the most creased greatly and the quality of the work powerful incentive to self-control we have in done by officers has steadily improved as a the school. The keenest rebuke that can more thorough knowledge of the powers and come to a child is the removal of the citizen duties has been gained. pin and the privileges citizenship confers.

It will be noticed that partisan politics can New citizens are made in a formal manner not possibly result from this method of teachat the time of the installing of the Tribunes, ing in which office-holding is a reward of merit

а the first of every month. Parents and pupils and not the result of personal ambition, party

, alike are proud of this distinction.

It is a

or personal preferment—the list of officers bereward that is a perpetual compliment to the ing virtually a "roll of honor." This teaching wearer. Neither money, brilliancy of intel- must necessarily result in higher ideals in govlect, nor any other virtue, except moral worth ernment, leading to a reform of our method and personal self-control can procure it. of municipal government and purer politics.

These pins were originally designed for the Children have become awakened in a wonderJohn Crerar School, but there has been such a ful degree to the idea of the duties of citizendemand for them that the cuts have been ship and the methods by which a city is govturned over to A. O. Walworth & Co., 327 erned. From a knowledge of the machinery

The re

fluence goes.


of city government, state and national gov- guarantee its continuance and its success. It ernments have been easily understood by chil- means much increase of labor to me and longer dren who have not reached the upper gram- school hours, but it means a better class of mar grades. More than half our boys leave citizens in the next generation as far as its inschool without reaching the eighth grade in which formal lessons in civics are given. It is Sorry my time does not permit me to arprincipally for these less fortunate pupils that range this in the form of a finished article for this method of instruction is employed, and publication. Trusting it may be of some it is so interwoven into the school life outside value, I beg to remain, of class-room work that no interference with

Yours sincerely, other branches of study is noticed. All meet

R. J. O'HANLON. ings of the different departments of government take place after the close of school.

The Mission of the Public Schools. Self-government is aimed at as far as possible The primary aim and end of the American at all times and in all places in and without public school system is the training of the the school, and the machinery of government youth of our land for higher ideals of citizenis as simple as possible, and yet as nearly like ship. the Milwaukee municipal government as cir- This public school system is supported by cumstances will permit.

the government and education made compulDifficulties.

sory for the express purpose of improving the

general civilization of the masses of our citiThe great majority of the parents of our

Millions of dollars are spent annually pupils are foreign born and (as far as their ed

for education, and many more millions for the ucation goes) of foreign school training. The

prevention, suppression, and punishment of idea of a public school conducted according to

crime, which the proper education of our democratic principles of government was at youth should tend to eradicate or lessen. first very greatly condemned. However, after considerable agitation which led these The Government of a School Should be Democratic, Not

Autocratic. parents to investigate, they have concluded (most of them) that the idea is a very excel- We boast of living under the banner of the lent one for the proper training of their chil- best government ever devised and established dren, who will be the best kind of American by man—a government whose fundamental citizens. Y You will find many points in the principle is liberty and equality; a governpamphlet which contains my views of the plan, ment deriving its just powers from the conits results, etc., and the charter in full.

sent of the governed; a government by the I have not prepared a set article for your people, as well as of and for the people, in paper since I prefer to have you select from which the people delegate to their representathe matter sent such ideas as best suit your tives the power to govern. purpose in putting this scheme before the Such is the government of our nation, state teachers of the state. You will see from the and city; but how do we govern in our Sentinel of Monday April 10th (editoral col- schools? The greatest weakness of our schools umn) that it has some friends.

to-day is found in the administration of their Pres. Hoyt of the Milwaukee School Board government, which is diametrically opposite says “it is an extremely good and practical in theory and practice to the fundamental plan of teaching civics.” The Municipal League principles found in the American constitution most heartily endorse it, calling it a “great and in the declaration of independence. idea" to be perfected for the reform of munici- "It is the height of absurdity to make the pal government. Robert C. Spencer speaks school an autocracy and to substitute an exof it as the best plan he has ever heard of for ternal conscience for the right of self-control. teaching practical civics. Most of the mem- Our schools must be broad, enlightened, and bers of the Milwaukee School Board speak en- American in the fullest sense of the word, or thusiastically in its favor. I have printed they have no right to be supported by the 2,500 copies of this enclosed pamphlet for free public funds." distribution so as to explain the plan and pur- In the arena of public life the great lever pose of the idea. I do not know of a single of action for good and suppression of wrong English speaking man or women in Milwaukee is public opinion. In the schools of our land who speaks of it other than in terms of ap- it is the will of the autocrat, call him or her proval and praise.

what you may-principal, superintendent, or The plan is only in its experimental stage

teacher. After treating our pupils for eight but enough good results have been secured to or ten years as subjects in a little monarchy in

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