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horizontal black line is: here is the seat of the 9. We now descend to the hard parts of the Will, Affections, Passions or Emotions; also the body, which have the least of life in them. This seat of the Motive power of the body; and from is a very correct representation of the Osseous these proceed the spinal marrow, (me,) enveloped system, or the bony parts which may be aptly in three different membranes, lying in the hollow of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications over every part of the body; pb, the brachial plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, the nerves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots; the front (anterior, one serving for motion, and the back (posterior,) are the nerves of feeling, or sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or working, there should be a perfect harmony and co-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory Nerves, and Motary Nerves; hence, the voluntary effort must be made from the abdomen, where is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connection with those of Respiration.
8. Here is a striking view of the Muscular, or fleshy portions, that form the medium of communication between the Nerves and the Bones: there are several hundreds, acting on the bones ropes on the masts of ships: let them be trained in perfect subjection to the Soul,
called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid through the
temple we live in; which is three stories high; Mind; so that
viz. the cavity below the diaphragm, the one above whatever is
it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, felt & thought,
the situation and attachment of the different bones may be bodied
of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long forth to the life.
ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human Now let us put
frame, there are 250 bones: they afford us the these three
means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy systems, the
between the body and language ? Nerves, Mus.
10. ZOOLOGY—(the doctrine or science of life,) cles and
is a necessary element of education. Whose cuBones, togeth
riosity has not been excited by the innumerable er, and con
living beings, and things, with which we are sur
rounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their template the whole as a
interiors, and see how they are made, and underunit, bound up
stand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, in the skin,
a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone; observe their
differences, in many respects, and their similariand acting in
ties in others: they all have essence, form, use. obedience to its rightful owner, the Mind; while The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms that mind is subservient to the Creator of mind. of nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral,
is to emancipate the human mind from the dark-constituting the nutritive function of which living ness and slavery of ignorance, into the light and bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by evi. liberty of rational humanity. The things of the dences too plain to be misunderstood : may we have Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior power to appreciate them, being assured that all power; those of the Vegetable kingdom grow; truths are in perfect harmony with each other. and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or
12. Here is a representation of the Human grow; they simply exist. 11. Three objects are designed by this engra- of Elocution. But it is necessary to enter more
Form clothed and engaged in some of the uses ving: first, to show the body, clothed in its own beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the continent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism : second, to call attention to the fact, that it is full of pores, or little holes, through which passes out of our systems more than half of what we eat
and drink, in the form of what is called insensible perspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy mist, emanating from every part of the surface; and as our bodies wear out, by degrees, and are renewed every seven years, and the skin being into the particulars of our subject; which is done the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out in the succeeding parts of this introduction : howparticles of the system; the great importance ever, let the reader bear in mind, that only the outof keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy lines of subjects are given in the book, designed condition, by daily washing in soft cold water, for such as are determined to dig for truth and must be evident to every one of reflection, it be- eternal principles, as for hidden treasures ; ing the safety-valve of the body: and thirdly, to whose motto is " Press On." indicate a higher truth, that of the passing off of
Animals and Plants endure for a time, and a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in ac- under specific forms, by making the external cordance with its state ; which is often perceived world a part of their own being; i. e. they have when certain persons are present; also when the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly and when this outward supply ceases they die, wrought affections, and brilliant thoughts; so as having completed their term of duration : hence, to give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive death, to material existences, is a necessary conwith their tones and audible words, ruling im- sequence of life. Not so with minerals: they er. mense audiences with absolute sway, and de- ist so long as external forces do not destroy them : monstrating the power of truth and eloquence. and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtapo
Animals and Plants increase by nutrition : sition of other bodies; and if they diminish, it is Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh by the action of a force, or power, from withbut a few pounds: at adult age, we exceed one out. Has not every thing its circle? How inhundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign sub- teresting must be the history of all things, anistances, are the materials of which our organs mate and inanimate! Oh that we had eyes to see, are composed? In sickness, extreme emaciation and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their around us, within us, and above us! bulk, and give back to the world what was once 13. If we would have the Mind act on the its own. Thus, composition and decomposition, Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an orderly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, all necessary that the body be in a natural and up- the short ribs, from the lower end of the breast. right position. The following engraving repre- bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly toward Bents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the
the spine, so that Heart and Lungs; and reason teaches, that no oro
the liver, stomach, gans should be in the least infringed upon, either
and other digestive by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position.
organs in that vici. The Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which we make sounds, by condensation. All are fami.
nity, are pressed liar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking
into such a small analogy between it and the body, in the act of
compass, that their speaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is
functions are greatlike its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the ab
ly interrupted, and dominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of
all the vessels, course, to blow with ease and power, one must bones and viscera are more or less distorted and take hold of the handles; to speak and sing right, enfeebled. Cease to do evil, and learn to do well. the lower muscles must be used; for there is only one right way of doing anything.
17. This engraving,
of a bell-shaped glass, Larynx,
C, C, shows how the Wind-pipe,
air gets into the lungs,
and some of its effects. Collar bone, ..
A head is placed on Bronchia,
the cork, T, represent
ing the wind-pipe, and Heart & Lungs,
having a hole through
C it. L, represents a 7 Long Ribs, .
bladder, tied to the Diaphragm,
lower end of the cork,
to indicate a lung. At 5 Short Ribs, ..
D, is seen the diaDorsal and
phragm. The cavity
of the bell represents Abdominal
the inside of the thorax, where the heart and lungs Muscles...
are: there is no communication with the external 14. This is a view of a well developed and air, except through the hole in the cork; air, ennaturally proportioned chest; with space for the tering through that hole, can go only into the bladlungs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording der. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm is ample room for the free action of the organs: it is raised to D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid the true model of the form of one who would live of air; but when it is dropped, to the situation of to a good old age.
the dotted line, a tendency to a vacuum will be
the 15. Tight DRESSING. No one can enjoy good only through the hole in the cork; the air expand
consequence, which can be supplied with air, health, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or read, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitual. ing the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the ly compressed. It diminishes the capacity of the dotted circle, around L; and when the diaphragm lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air is elevated again, the air will be forced from the to purify the blood, and prevents the proper action bladder; thus, the lungs are inflated and exhausof the diaphragm. The following engraving shows led by this alternate operation of the diaphragm, the alarming condition of the chest, when com
and of the contraction and elongation of the ab
dominal muscles; hence, the comparison between pressed by tight lacing; a practice that has burried, and is now hurrying, hundreds of thousands the vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellows, is to a premature grave; besides entailing upon the
distinctly seen. offspring an accumulation of evils, too awful to
MUSCULAR ACTION. These contemplate. What is the difference between
two engravings represent some killing one's self in five minutes with a razor, and
muscular fibres in two states : doing it in five years by tight lacing, or any other bad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight laxed nervous filament ramified through the fibres,
the upper one at rest, with a reas to prevent the air from coming between it and as seen under the microscope ; and the lower one in the body.
a state of contraction, and the fi16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or
bres in zigzag lines, with a simithorax of a female, showing the condition of the
lar nervous filament passing over bones of the body, as they appear after death, in
them: apply the principle to all every one who has habitually worn stays and muscles. The subject might be greatly extended; corsets, enforced by tight lacing. But,' says one, but for further information, see the Author's large "I do not lace too tight. If you lace at all, you work on Physiology and Psychology, which will most certainly do, and will, sooner or later, expe- be published as soon as convenient.
18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells viscera and diaphragm upwards: the lungs coin the Lungs, laid open and highly magnified. operate with the diaphragm and abdominal musThe body is formed by Blood, which consists of the cles; or rather, the soul, mind, nerves and musnutritious portions
cles act unitedly, and thence with ease, grace and of our food, and
effect. Observe, the Stomach, Liver, &c. are beis in the form of
low the diaphragm, and are dependent on it, in a very small glob
measure, for their actions. ules, or
núinutes, as a gen-
19. Here are two attitudes, sitting, and stand- 21. Here is a view of the Heart, nearly sur-
vessels going to, and from them: these organs are
stiffness, and too much laxity, of the muscles; be
blood, and each heart has two rooms: 2, right
22. This engraving represents the farynx, or 24. Here is a front view of the Vocal Organs: vocal box, at 1, near the top of the wind-pipe, 2;e is the top of the wind-pipe, and within and a the bronchial
little above d is the larynx, or vocal box, where tubes,
all voice sounds are branches of
made: the two the trachea,
horns at the top, rep3, 4, going to
resent the upper exeach lung; the left lung is
tremities of the thywhole; the
roid cartilage: the substance of
tubes up and down, the right one
and transverse, are is removed, to
blood-vessels: beshow the ra
ware of having mifications of
anything tight the bronchial
around the neck, twigs, termi
also of bending the nating in the
neck much, impeding the free circulation of the air-cells, 7, 7,
blood, and determining it to the head.
ORATORICAL AND POETICAL ACTION.
POSITIONS OF FEET AND HANDS.
23. Here is a horizontal view of the Glottis : N, F, are the arytenoid cartilages, connected with the chordæ vocales, (vocal cords, or ligaments,) T, V, stretching across from the top of the arytenoid to the point of the thyroid cartilage : these cords can be elongated, and enlarged to produce lower sounds, and contracted and diminished for higher ones: and, at the same time, separated from each other, and allowing more condensed air to pass for the former purposes; or brought nearer together, to favor the latter: there are a great many muscles attached to the larynx, to give variety to the modifications of voice in speech and song.