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than $3 for each person of school age. In Minnesota no district may receive from the apportioned fund a greater amount than that appropriated by such district from its special and local 1-mill tax, unless it has levied the maximum amount allowed by law for school purposes. In Missouri no school district which fails to levy a tax of 40 cents on the $100 property valuation, unless the assessment of a less amount together with the moneys received from the public funds shall amount to $350 for school purposes, may receive any part of the public school moneys. In New Mexico no portion derived from the 3-mill State levy is apportioned to any school district which fails to levy a special tax of not less than 3 mills. In Rhode Island no town may receive any part of the $120,000 State appropriation unless it raises by tax for the support of schools a sum equal to the amount it is due to receive from the State for the same purpose. In West Virginia no share of the general school fund may be received by a district until it has made the required levy. In Wisconsin no appropriation is made from the school fund to any city or town which fails to raise by tax for school purposes a sum equal to the amount of its share of such school fund.

In Maine no apportionment of State school funds is made to any city, town, or plantation as long as any State tax assessed upon such places remains unpaid. In New Jersey, in case any district fails or neglects to pay the full amount of State school tax in the time required, the full amount apportioned to such district out of the reserve fund and out of the proceeds of the State school tax is withheld. In New York the controller may withhold the payment of any moneys to which any county may be entitled from the incomes of the school fund and of the United States deposit fund for the support of schools until all moneys required by law to be raised as a State tax have been collected and paid or accounted for to the State treasurer.

CARE AND EXPENDITURE OF SCHOOL MONEYS AND FILING OF OFFICIAL BONDS.

School moneys are withheld in six States if localities or local officers fail to observe the law regarding the care and expenditure of school moneys, and in two States if they fail to file official bonds. The amounts withheld are designated as all or a portion of State school funds, or of a particular State school fund, or of the district's share of school library moneys. In New Jersey the amount authorized to be withheld may be remitted by the commissioner of education.

In Massachusetts, whenever it appears that in the opinion of the State board of education the sums paid to any town have not been used in whole or in part according to law, or have not been held and accounted for separately, or that the report thereon required by law has not been made, the commissioners of the school fund are authorized to withhold the whole or any part of the future allowances otherwise falling to such town. In Michigan, in case a school district has failed to use the library money according to law, such district loses its share of library moneys for the ensuing year. In New Jersey, if the board of education of any school district uses any of the school money received by it, except such as has been raised within the district, for any purpose other than the payment of teachers' salaries, fuel bills, the transportation of pupils and the tuition of pupils attending schools in adjoining districts, there must be deducted from the next annual apportionment a sum equal to twice the amount thus misused. In New York the commissioner of education is authorized to withhold its share of public school moneys from any city or district which uses school library moneys for any other purpose than that for which they are provided, or for any willful neglect or disobedience of the law or of the rules or orders of said commissioner pertaining thereto. In North Dakota no city, village, town, or school district may share in the apportionment of the State tuition fund unless it has paid over to the State

treasurer for the teachers' insurance and retirement fund the per cent required by law. In Wisconsin no city, village, town, or school district may share in the 7-mill tax unless it has paid over to the State treasurer for the teachers' insurance and retirement fund the per cent required by law.

In Illinois no part of the State school fund may be paid to any officer authorized to receive it, unless such officer has filed his bond, or if reelected, has renewed his bond and filed the same. In North Dakota money must not be apportioned to any district unless the bond and oath of the treasurer of such district have been duly approved and filed.

SUBMISSION OF REPORTS.

Another cause for withholding school moneys is a failure on the part of localities or local agents to submit reports within the time and in the form required by law, as in 19 States.1 In some instances localities or local agents are required to submit reports to certain other local agents, or State school moneys are withheld; generally, however, localities or local agents are required to submit reports to central authorities-the State superintendent or the State board of education—in order that such authorities may have a basis for the apportionment of State school moneys. In one of these States, Illinois, upon the recommendation of the county superintendent of schools, or for other good and sufficient reasons, the State superintendent has power to remit the moneys withheld from any township because of its failure to make reports required by law.

In Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Utah, and Vermont all State school moneys are withheld for failure of local officers to submit certain required reports. In Connecticut every town and school district failing to make returns forfeits of the State apportionment 1 per cent for the first week of such delay, 2 per cent for a delay of two weeks, 3 per cent for a delay of three weeks, 5 per cent for a delay of four weeks, and 10 per cent for a delay exceeding four weeks. In Indiana, if a trustee fails to make a financial report, the township, town, or city apportionment is diminished $25 in the next State apportionment; further, if a county superintendent fails to report, the county is subject to a diminution of $10. In Massachusetts, towns failing to report by May 15 forfeit 10 per cent of their income from the school fund; if reports are not made by June 1 the entire income due the town is withheld. In Michigan, if district boards or boards of education fail to report concerning school libraries, such district forfeits its share of library moneys. In New Hampshire no town may receive any portion of the literary fund unless its returns have been made to the superintendent of public instruction. In North Dakota no city, village, town, or school district may share in the apportionment of the State tuition fund unless it has made a report concerning the teachers' insurance and retirement fund as required by law. In Wisconsin no village, town, or school district may share in the 6-mill tax unless it has made its report concerning the teachers' insurance and retirement fund.

RETURN OF SCHOOL ENUMERATION.

A further cause for withholding school moneys is the failure of localities or local officers to make enumeration returns accurately

1 Colorado, Connecticut, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, and Wisconsin.

and promptly, applying to 13 States. In 9 States1 all State school moneys are withheld if the law in this respect is violated; in North Dakota, the State tuition fund is withheld; in Pennsylvania, the State superintendent may withhold any part or all of the State appropriation; in Iowa, the law says that the State apportionment shall be reduced.

In Connecticut no town may receive from the State treasury any money for schools unless the enumeration returns are made according to law. In Indiana, for failure of a county superintendent to report the enumeration the county is subject to a diminution of $25 from the next State apportionment. In Iowa, failure to report the enumeration reduces the semiannual apportionment for the year. In Kansas, a district that refuses or neglects to have the census taken forfeits its right to share in the annual school fund. In Massachusetts, no town which has not made its return of the school enumeration as required by law may receive any portion of the income of the State school fund. In Minnesota, when districts fail in any year to take the school census, State school moneys are withheld. In Missouri, if the law pertaining to the enumeration of children is not complied with, the offending district forfeits its right to any of the public funds. In North Dakota, no district which fails to make or report the enumeration is entitled to any portion of the State tuition fund. In Ohio, if the enumeration is not taken and returned, the offending district is not entitled to receive any part of the school moneys. In Oklahoma, for failure of a county superintendent or district board to report the enumeration, the county or district loses its share of the State apportionment. In Pennsylvania, the superintendent of public instruction, upon due hearing after two weeks' notice to the board of school directors affected, may withhold and declare forfeited any part or all of the State appropriation of any school district which refuses or neglects to enforce in a manner satisfactory to him the provisions of the law pertaining to the enumeration of children. In Rhode Island, the census returns must be forwarded to the commissioner of public schools before he may draw his order for the payment of any portion of the public money to a town. In Wisconsin, no apportionment may be made to any district for any year the report for which does not show that the school census has been taken.

EMPLOYMENT OF QUALIFIED TEACHERS AND SUPERINTENDENTS AND THE PAYMENT TO THEM OF A MINIMUM SALARY.

Among the causes for which State school moneys are withheld is the failure on the part of local school authorities to place all public schools under the charge of teachers or superintendents who have been duly examined, approved, and employed by legal authority; this law applies in nine States. In Wisconsin and in two other States, Maryland and New Jersey, local authorities are required to pay teachers or superintendents at least a specified minimum salary, under penalty of having State school moneys withheld.

In California, Delaware, Minnesota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, all State school moneys are withheld for failure of local school boards to employ properly qualified teachers. In Michigan, any board of education employing teachers not legally qualified forfeits such a proportion of the primary school interest fund as the number of unqualified teachers employed bears to the whole number of teachers employed in

1 Connecticut, Kansas, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Wisconsin. 2 California, Delaware, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Wisconsin.

the district. In New York, no allotment of the supervision quota is made to any city or district unless the commissioner of education is satisfied that such city or district employs a competent superintendent whose time is devoted exclusively to supervision. In Rhode Island, if a city or town employs an uncertificated teacher, the commissioner of public schools deducts from its share of the State apportionment a sum equal to the amount so paid.

In Maryland, if any white teacher regularly employed receives an annual salary of less than $300, the controller must withhold from the offending county the March installment of the State school tax.1 In New Jersey, if districts fail to pay supervising principals or city superintendents a salary of at least $1,000 per year, the county superintendent withholds from the State apportionment allotted to such district the part designated for supervision purposes. In Wisconsin, if districts fail to pay teachers a salary of at least $40 per month for eight months, State school moneys are withheld.

PROVISION OF SPECIFIED SCHOOL ACCOMMODATIONS AND ACCESSORIES.

Still another cause for withholding school moneys in six States is the failure of districts to provide necessary and proper school accommodations. Such accommodations are the building of schoolhouses sanitary in construction, the repairing and replacing of condemned property, the erection of fire escapes and of satisfactory outbuildings, the furnishing of schoolhouses, and the supplying of textbooks and other school apparatus. In Connecticut, the district must erect schoolhouses satisfactory to the local school board; in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Wisconsin State authorities—the State superintendent, division superintendent (a State officer), or the State inspector acting under the direction of the State superintendent, respectively-are delegated to pass judgment upon the fitness of a schoolhouse and to enforce the law pertaining thereto. In Arkansas, Connecticut, New York, and Virginia, all State school moneys are withheld for a violation of this law; in Pennsylvania, all or any part may be withheld; in Wisconsin, the school district or school corporation forfeits its share of the 7-mill State tax.

In Arkansas if school buildings are not equipped with fire escapes as provided by law, towns forfeit the State enumeration grant during the time such buildings are used. In Connecticut no district is entitled to receive any money from the State unless it has a schoolhouse and outbuildings satisfactory to the board of school visitors. In New York a failure on the part of school trustees or boards of education in union free school districts to comply with the law regarding the condemnation of a schoolhouse and the erection of a new schoolhouse in its place is sufficient ground for withholding from the district or city its share of the State appropriation. In Pennsylvania the State superintendent has power to condemn as unfit for use, on account of insanitary or other improper conditions, any school building, school site, or outbuilding in the State, and upon failure of the board of school directors to remedy such conditions he has power to withhold and declare forfeited all or any part of the annual State appropriation. In Virginia when a schoolhouse appears to the division superintendent to be unfit for occupancy it becomes his duty to condemn the same, and no

1 The provisions of this section apply to Garrett County only so far as to oblige that county to pay its teachers a minimum salary of $200 per year.

part of the State school moneys may be applied to support any such school until the division superintendent is satisfied with the conditions of such building; further, no school district may receive any State school moneys until it has made proper provision for schoolhouses, furniture, apparatus, textbooks for indigent children, and all other means and appliances needful. In Wisconsin whenever school buildings are not kept in repair the State inspector must notify the school board or other officer or officers having control of the school district or school corporation to repair and improve such buildings; if such officers refuse to comply with the order, such district or corporation forfeits its apportionment of the seven-tenths-mill tax; further, such district or corporation continues to forfeit its regular apportionment from such fund until there is a full compliance with the law, unless the electors vote to close the school and to provide transportation and tuition for all children of school age desiring to attend a neighboring school.

ENFORCEMENT OF THE COMPULSORY-ATTENDANCE LAW.

State school moneys are withheld in three States-Delaware, Massachusetts, and New York-if localities or local officers fail to enforce the compulsory-attendance law. In Massachusetts all State school moneys are withheld; in New York the commissioner of education has discretionary power to withhold one-half of the State school moneys from offending localities; and in Delaware the State treasurer must withhold one-fourth of the public-school fund.

INTRODUCTION OF SPECIFIED STUDIES INTO THE CURRICULUM

Another cause for withholding State school moneys is the failure of local school authorities to observe the law regarding the introduction of certain studies into the curriculum, 'as is the practice in seven States.1 In six of these States 2 all State school moneys are withheld for a violation of the law regarding instruction in physiology and hygiene, or physiology and hygiene with especial reference to the nature and effects of alcoholic drinks; in Connecticut the commissioner of public schools may withhold all or any part of the State appropriation for the same offense.

EXCLUSIVE USE OF STATE-ADOPTED TEXTS AND STATE COURSE OF STUDY.

Another cause for withholding school moneys is the failure of local school authorities to use State-adopted texts and none other, or their failure to comply with the State course of study; this holds in six States. In Georgia all State school moneys are withheld for failure to enforce the law relating to textbooks; in California, Idaho, and Washington 25 per cent is withheld. In Oregon (in districts of the second and third classes) and in Washington 25 per cent is withheld when local school authorities fail to comply with the State course of study; in Wyoming, for the same reason, all State school moneys are withheld.

1 Connecticut, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, South Dakota, Wyoming.

2 New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, South Dakota, Wyoming.

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