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In Maine, when instruction in manual training or domestic science has been provided for the pupils of elementary schools, two-thirds of the total salary paid to each teacher is granted.

In Maryland, when colored industrial schools have been established and maintained, $1,500 annually is granted.

In Minnesota a graded school maintaining a course in agriculture and either home economics or manual training receives $1,000 annually; a graded or consolidated rural school with certain equipment and trained instructors giving instruction in agriculture may receive a maximum of $2,500 annually, and in addition a maximum of $150 annually for each rural school district associated with it; each associated school district may also receive aid to the amount of $50 annually.

In Montana, when manual or industrial schools or courses are established, the State pays annually $10 for each pupil attending for a period of six months or more yearly. In North Dakota, any graded or consolidated rural school fitted to do agricultural work and employing trained instructors in agriculture, manual training, and domestic science may receive from the State $2,500 and its proportionate share of all moneys appropriated by the National Government for the teaching of agriculture in the public schools of the State.

In Rhode Island, when instruction in manual training and household arts is introduced into the public schools, one-half the amount actually expended for equipment is granted.

In Tennessee, as aid for introducing and supervising industrial work and including agriculture, home economics, manual training, and kindred subjects in county elementary schools, a part of 10 per cent of the general education fund is appropriated.

In Wisconsin, when special instruction in agriculture and other designated industrial subjects is given in graded schools of the first and second classes, districts receive $100 annually. Also, when free high-school boards maintain in connection with free high schools and the two upper grades next below the high school a department of manual training, domestic economy, or agriculture, or any or all of these departments, the State grants one-half the amount actually expended for instruction, not to exceed $350 for each department established.

DAY SCHOOLS FOR DEAF, BLIND, AND CRIPPLED CHILDREN.

State aid for the establishment and maintenance of day schools for deaf, blind, and crippled children is given in three States only— Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin.

General restrictions.-The main condition attached to the receipt of such aid is that school must have been maintained for at least nine months in the year. In Michigan and Ohio there must be an average attendance of not less than three pupils, and in the same States teachers must have had both special training and experience; in Wisconsin, the qualifications of teachers employed must have the approval of the State superintendent. In Michigan the amount granted must be expended for the payment of teachers' salaries and the purchase of necessary school appliances; in Wisconsin aid for instruction of blind pupils must be expended so as to include instruction in music and manual training, and to cover necessary expenses for material and printing. Restrictions as to amount.-In each of these States, $150 is granted annually for each deaf pupil instructed; in Ohio, $150 is also granted for each crippled pupil instructed; and in Wisconsin, $150 is granted for each defective-speech pupil instructed. In Wisconsin when parents are unable to meet the expense, $100 additional per pupil is granted for the instruction of deaf or defective-speech pupils residing in the State, but not in the district in which the school is located. In Ohio and Wisconsin, $200 is granted annually for each blind pupil instructed. In each of the States considered a proportionate share of the amount of State aid is granted when a pupil is instructed less than nine months in the year.

EVENING SCHOOLS.

State aid for the establishment and maintenance of elementary evening schools is granted by three States-Connecticut, Maine, and New Jersey.

General restrictions.-In Connecticut, such schools must be in session at least 75 sessions in each school year; in New Jersey for a term of four months, each month to consist of 16 sessions of at least two hours each. In Maine the course of study must include instruction in freehand and mechanical drawing, domestic science, or manual training, or the elements of the trades; in New Jersey, the course of study must be approved by the State board of education.

Restrictions as to amount.—In Connecticut the sum granted per pupil is $2.25; in Maine it is two-thirds of the amount paid for instruction. In New Jersey, when districts raise for the maintenance of an evening school by subscription, special appropriation, or special tax, a sum satisfactory to the State board of education, they receive an equal amount of State aid up to a maximum of $5,000 to any one district.

TEACHING OF LOCAL HISTORY AND LOCAL GEOGRAPHY.

In Maine when a town history combined with local geography has been approved by the State historian and published by the town for regular use in its schools, State aid is granted not exceeding one-half the cost of printing and binding, but in no case more then $150.

MEDICAL INSPECTION.

In Rhode Island any town or city providing medical inspection, approved by the State board of education, is entitled to receive annually from the State appropriation an amount equal to one-half of its annual expenditure for such purpose, the amount of such aid, however, not exceeding $250.

IMPROVEMENT OF RURAL SCHOOL CONDITIONS.

Through grants of State aid for the improvement of rural school conditions, States suggest the advisability of a reorganization, including the general improvement of smaller rural schools, establishment of graded schools, consolidation, and the transportation of school children. Although only 15 States' grant special aid for this purpose, school administrators generally believe that every State would profit by legislation of this kind. The aims of a State in granting financial aid for this purpose are to furnish equal or better school facilities with a longer minimum school term, to secure economy of teacher employment, efficiency in the teaching force, and a proper classification of children.

RURAL SCHOOLS.

Legislation referring directly to grants of State aid for the improvement of rural schools is found in four States.2

General restrictions.—The conditions attached refer, in the main, to the maintenance of schools for the minimum term; the erection of proper and suitable buildings and

1 Alabama, Florida, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Wisconsin.

2 Alabama, North Dakota, South Carolina, Wisconsin.

their equipment; the employment of qualified teachers; and the enforcement of a State course of study. More specifically, in Alabama, localities are required to raise a certain sum by donation or subscription; in South Carolina, localities are required to levy and collect a special tax of 4 mills and to maintain a specified enrollment and attendance; in Wisconsin, they must maintain a specified attendance.

Restrictions as to amount.-The maximum amount granted in Alabama for the erection of a rural schoolhouse is $200. For maintenance of schools, North Dakota grants $100 or $150 per school; South Carolina grants $200 or $300, the amount depending upon the grade of school established; and Wisconsin grants $10 per month for each teacher employed in rural schools of the first grade, and in rural schools of the second grade $5 per month for each teacher employed.

GRADED SCHOOLS.

State aid is granted for the establishment and maintenance of graded schools in six States.1

General restrictions.-Chief among the conditions named are the maintenance of school for the minimum term, the enforcement of an approved course of study, the erection and equipment of suitable buildings, and the employment of legally qualified teachers. In Florida, a State-aided graded school must be located at least 3 miles from any city of 500 or more inhabitants, and in Florida and Wisconsin a certain average attendance must be maintained. In North Dakota, in schools of the first class, the course of study must include two years of high-school work, and in schools both of the first and second classes must include courses in domestic science, and either manual training or elementary agriculture.

Restrictions as to amount.-The amount of aid granted in Florida is $200 a year for four years. In Minnesota, the annual grant is $300 or $750, according to the class of schools maintained; $500 additional is granted to such schools as, in addition to meeting all the requirements of a State graded school, maintain a course equivalent to two years of high-school work and comply with certain other specified requirements. In North Dakota, the grant is $150 or $200, according to the class of school maintained; in Wisconsin, $300 or $200, according to the number of departments maintained in each school. In Rhode Island, $100 per school is granted when an ungraded school is consolidated with a graded school; and in Virginia, $200 per school when such school has maintained two, three, or four rooms.

CONSOLIDATION.

By grants of State aid, localities are encouraged in seven States 2 to consolidate schools.

General restrictions.-The conditions attached to such grants are the maintenance of a minimum school term, the introduction of specified subjects into the curriculum, the maintenance of a specified number of departments, the provision of sites, the erection and equipment of buildings, and the employment of legally qualified teachers. In Missouri, when districts are organized into a consolidated district, such consolidated district must have a certain area or a certain enumeration of school children. Restrictions as to amount.-The amount of aid granted in Iowa varies from $250 to $500 for equipment and from $200 to $750 annually for maintenance, according to number of rooms in the building. In Minnesota, the amount of aid granted is $1,500, $1,000, or $750, according to the class of school; in addition aid in the construction of

1 Florida, Minnesota, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Virginia, Wisconsin.

2 Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Wisconsin.

a building equal to 25 per cent of its cost may be granted, not exceeding $1,500. In North Dakota, $600 or $500 is granted, according to the class of school, when consolidated schools meet the requirements of State graded schools. In Missouri, when a consolidated district has secured a suitable site and erected thereon a central building according to law and has complied with other conditions, the State pays one-fourth of the cost of such building and equipment within a maximum of $2,000 to any one district. In Oklahoma, to districts which have constructed and furnished a suitable building, and which have complied with certain other conditions, aid is granted, within a maximum of $1,500, to an amount not exceeding one-half the cost of said building. In Tennessee, to encourage the establishment of consolidated schools and to provide transportation, a part of 10 per cent of the general education fund is appropriated by the State. In Wisconsin, when two or more rural districts or subdistricts consolidate, aid for the purpose of partially defraying the cost of erecting and equipping a school building is granted in amounts varying from $500 to $5,000, according to type and size of the school maintained.

TRANSPORTATION.

1

State aid is granted in four States 1 for transportation, board, tuition of school children.

and

General restrictions.—So far as conditions are concerned, in New Jersey and New York, aid is granted to a certain amount if the locality dispenses with the services of a teacher, and to a different amount if the district maintains its own school; in New York, the term must be at least 160 days; in Wisconsin, the average attendance of pupils transported to a one-department or two-department rural school, or to a school containing the grades below the free high school, must be at least 80 per cent of the entire number of children enrolled for transportation for a term of at least 32 weeks. Restrictions as to amount.—In regard to amount, in three of the States a certain sum annually is granted; New Jersey grants $200 per district when a teacher is dispensed with, or 75 per cent of the cost of transportation when a district does not close its school; New York, $125 to $200 according to the valuation of property within the district, when a district closes its school; and the maximum sum of $25 per pupil when a home school is maintained and at least 12 children are transported. In Vermont, the amount granted is dependent upon the tax raised and expended by localities. In Wisconsin, the grant is 5 cents a day for each pupil outside the 2-mile limit transported to a district school; 10 cents a day for each pupil outside the 2-mile limit transported within a consolidated district; or $150 annually to each rural school district or subdistrict closing the district or subdistrict school and transporting the pupils to a one-department or two-department rural school, or a school containing the grades below the free high school; or $200 when two or more school districts maintaining one-department rural schools consolidate and establish a State graded school of the first or second class, transporting the children thereto.

INCREASE IN AVERAGE LENGTH OF SCHOOL TERM.

One State, South Carolina, grants aid annually for the purpose of increasing the average length of the school term to at least 100 days when the regular school fund is insufficient to maintain school for that period of time. Within a maximum of $100 per school annually, the amount granted equals the amount raised by special taxation. The request for such aid must meet with the approval both of the county superintendent and of the State superintendent.

1 New Jersey, New York, Vermont, Wisconsin.

TEACHERS' INSTITUTES.

In order to encourage the holding of teachers' institutes, State aid is granted in four States.1 A union of towns for institute purposes is encouraged in both Kansas and Massachusetts by grants of State aid.

General restrictions.-In Michigan aid is granted only when institute funds are insufficient to meet necessary expenses, no other conditions being attached thereto; in Kansas, teachers must pay a registration fee; in Massachusetts the annual meeting must be not less than one day; in North Dakota, the aid granted must be used exclusively for salaries of conductors and lecturers appointed by the State superintendent. Restrictions as to amount.—The amount of aid granted in Kansas is $50; to a union, $50 for each county represented; in Massachusetts $50 is also granted, and to a union not exceeding $350. In North Dakota a sum of $100 is granted to each county for institute purposes.

DISCUSSION.

The intention of a State in granting State aid is to improve public schools by a combination of State and local support. In the main, the purposes for which State aid is proffered are not those which are commonly regarded as necessities, but rather as extensions of elementary school work. Like many other educational innovations, such extensions have become a part of school activity through the initiative of the richer localities, which are able to introduce and maintain them independently of any State aid. Less prosperous localities, in their endeavor to gain equal advancement, may have realized the wisdom of providing a certain amount of money for such purposes and of then applying to the State for an additional amount; or a State, conscious of existing inequalities in educational opportunities and actuated by broad interests, may have proffered aid to localities that were willing to join in a movement for increasing the efficiency of their elementary schools. In State aid as granted, the conditions imposed are not unduly burdensome, yet the enforcement of the conditions tends to arouse a permanent interest in school improvement. Such action on the part of a State necessarily implies central control. The form of control presented, however, is tolerant. Localities are in no instance compelled to accept State aid, but if they do accept, then the conditions attached become operative. In other words, the rather high degree of centralization involved in the usually stringent conditions is modified in practice by voluntary participation on the part of localities. In view of these facts and of the relative importance and distribution of the various purposes for which State aid is granted in the 33 States having any provision for State aid, the standard can not be regarded as showing conclusively either centralization or localization, but rather a division of control, with the odds in favor of localization.

1 Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, North Dakota.

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