« ÎnapoiContinuați »
Look, with what courteous action It waves
you to a more removed ground*:
No, by no means.
Why, what should be the fear?
lord, Or to the dreadful summit of the cliff, That beetles o'er his base into the sea ? And there assume some other horrible form, Which might deprive your sovereignty of rea
* First folio, wafts.
4 – a more removed ground :) i. e. remote. So, in A Midsummer-Night's Dream :
“ From Athens is her house remov'd seven leagues.” The first folio reads-remote. Steevens. It is removed in Mr. Malone's copy of the first folio. BoswELL. s - pin's fee;] The value of a pin. Johnson.
6 That beetles o'er his base -] So, in Sidney's Arcadia, b. i. : “ Hills lifted up their beetle brows, as if they would overlooke pleasantnesse of their under prospect.” Steevens.
“ That beetles o'er his base--" That hangs o'er his base, like what is called a beetle-brow. This verb is, I believe, of our author's coinage. Malone.
7 — DEPRIVE your sovereignty of reason.] Sovereignty of reason is the same as sovereign or supreme reason, reason which governs man, and thus it was used by the best writers of those times. Sidney says,
“ It is time for us both to let reason enjoy its due soveraigntie." Arcad. And King Charles : “At once to betray the soveraignty of reason in my own soul.” Eixày Bao inxn. It is evident that Shakspeare wrote
Deprave your sovereignty of reason." WARBURTON. I believe, deprive in this place signifies simply to take away.
And draw you into madness? think of it:
It waves * me still
MAR. You shall not go, my lord.
Hold off your hands.
My fate cries out, And makes each petty artery in this body As hardy as the Némean lion's nerve?
[Ghost beckons. * First folio, wafts. When poets wish to invest any quality or virtue with uncommon splendor, they do it by some allusion to regal eminence. Thus, among the excellencies of Banquo's character, our author distinguishes “ his royalty of nature," i. e. his natural superiority over others, his independent dignity of mind. I have selected this instance to explain the former, because I am told that " royalty of nature" has been idly supposed to bear some allusion to Banquo's distant prospect of the crown.
To “ deprive your sovereignty of reason," therefore, does not signify, 'to deprive your princely mind of rational powers, but, to take away from you the command of reason, by which man is governed. So, in Chapman's version of the first Iliad:
I come from heaven to see “ Thy anger settled : if thy soul will use her soveraigntie
“ In fit reflection." Dr. Warburton would read deprave ; but several proofs are given in a note to King Lear, Act I. Sc. II. of Shakspeare's use of the word deprive, which is the true reading. Steevens.
* The very place --] The four following lines added from the first edition. Pope. 9 - puts toys of desperation,] Toys, for whims.
WARBURTON. "As hardy as the Némean lion's nerve.) Shakspeare has again accented the word Nemean in this manner, in Love's Labour's
“ Thus dost thou hear the Némean lion roar.” Spenser, however, wrote Neméan, Fairy Queen, b. v. c. i.:
Still am I calld;-unhand me, gentlemen ;
[Breaking from them. By heaven, I'll make a ghost of him that lets me? :I say, away :-Go on, I'll follow thee.
[Exeunt Ghost and HAMLET. Hor. He waxes desperate with imagination. MAR. Let's follow ; 'tis not fit thus to obey
him. Hor. Have after :-To what issue will this come? Mar. Something is rotten in the state of Den
mark. Hor. Heaven will direct it. Mar.
Nay, let's follow him.
[Exeunt. “ Into the great Neméan lion's grove." Our poet's conforming in this instance to Latin prosody was certainly accidental, for he, and almost all the poets of his time, disregarded the quantity of Latin names. So, in Locrine, 1595, (though undoubtedly the production of a scholar,) we have Anphion instead of Amphion, &c. See also p. 203, n. 1. MALONE.
The true quantity of this word was rendered obvious to Shakspeare by Twine's translation of part of the Æneid, and Golding's version of Ovid's Metamorphosis. Steevens. 2 - I'll make a ghost of him that lets me:)
“ Villains set down the corse, or by St. Paul,
Richard III. Act I. Sc. I. BLAKEWAY.
“ That lets her not to be your daughter now." MALONE. 3 Heaven will direct it.] Perhaps it may be more apposite to read, “Heaven will detect it.” FARMER.
Marcellus answers Horatio's question, “ To what issue will this come?” and Horatio also answers it himself with a pious resignation, “ Heaven will direct it.'
A more remote Part of the Platform.
Re-enter Ghost and HAMLET. HAM. Whither * wilt thou lead me? speak, I'll go
no further. Ghost. Mark me. Ham.
I will. Ghost.
My hour is almost come, When I to sulphurous and tormenting flames Must render up myself. HAM.
Alas, poor ghost ! Ghost. Pity me not, but lend thy serious hearing To what I shall unfold. HAм.
Speak, I am bound to hear. Ghost. So art thou to revenge, when thou shalt
hear. Ham. What ?
Ghost. I am thy father's spirit;
* First folio, where.
* Doom'd for a certain term to walk the night;
And, for the day, confin’d to fast in fires,] Chaucer has a similar passage with regard to the punishments of hell, Parson's Tale, p. 193, Mr. Urry's edition : “And moreover the misese of hell, shall be in defaute of mete and drinke.” Smith.
Nash, in his Pierce Penniless his Supplication to the Devil, 1595, has the same idea : “Whether it be a place of horror, stench and darkness, where men see meat, but can get none, and are ever thirsty,” &c. Before I had read the Persones Tale of Chaucer, I supposed that he meant rather to drop a stroke of satire on sacerdotal luxury, than to give a serious account of the place of future torment. Chaucer, however, is as grave as Shakspeare. So, likewise at the conclusion of an ancient pamphlet called The Wyll of the Devyll, bl. 1. no date :
“ Thou shalt lye in frost and fire
Till the foul crimes, done in my days of nature,
Again, in Love's Labour's Lost :
- love's fasting pain." It is observable, that in the statutes of our religious houses, most of the punishments affect the diet of the offenders.
But for the foregoing examples, I should have supposed we ought to read—“ confin'd to waste in fires.” Steevens.
This passage requires no amendment. As spirits were supposed to feel the same desires and appetites that they had on earth, to fast might be considered as one of the punishments inflicted on the wicked. M. Mason.
s Are burnt and purg'd away.] Gawin Douglas really changes the Platonic hell into the “punytion of saulis in purgatory :" and it is observable, that when the Ghost informs Hamlet of his doom there
“ Till the foul crimes done in his days of nature
“ Are burnt and purg'd away." the expression is very similar to the Bishop's. I will give you his version as concisely as I can : “ It is a nedeful thyng to suffer panis and torment;-Sum in the wyndis, sum under the watter, and in the fire uthir sum : thus the mony vices
“ Contrakkit in the corpis be done away
FARMER. Shakspeare might have found this expression in The Hystorie of Hamblet, bl. I. F. 2, edit. 1608 : “He set fire in the foure corners of the hal, in such sort, that of all that were as then therein not one escaped away, but were forced to purge their sinnes by fire." MALONE.
Shakspeare talks more like a Papist, than a Platonist ; but the language of Bishop Douglas is that of a good Protestant:
“ Thus the mony vices
purgit.” These are the very words of our Liturgy, in the commendatory prayer for a sick person at the point of departure, in the office for the visitation of the sick _"Whatsoever defilements it may have contracted—being purged and done away.” Whalley.
6 Make thy two eyes, like stars, START FROM THEIR SPHERES :} So, in our poet's 108th Sonnet :