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The general Epistle of JAMES.

THE author of this epistle was probably James, the relative of our Lord, usually styled James the Just, and who held a prominent place in the church at Jerusalem (Ac. xv., 13; and xxi., 18).

Its authenticity is undoubted; it is translated in the Syriac version, which was made in the second century, and it was acknowledged as canonical by the early fathers. It was written in the Greek language, and addressed apparently to the dispersed Jewish converts to Christianity. It was rejected by Luther, who considered it destitute of an evangelic character, and that it directly opposed St. Paul in ascribing justification to works. It has been frequently shewn, however, on the contrary, that there is no discrepancy whatever between St. Paul and St. James; that it was not even the design of the latter to oppose any misapprehension respecting St. Paul's doctrine, but that they each addressed different people from different standing points. St. Paul was obliged to point out to those who placed their dependance on the justifying power of the works of the law, the futility of such works in reference to justification, and to demonstrate that justification and sanctification could proceed only from the faith of the Gospel. St. James, on the other hand, found it necessary to declare to those who imagined that they could be justified in God's sight by faith in the Jewish sense, that this was completely valueless if their course of life were not conformed to it. "The whole epistle," says Professor Stuart, "is a most vivid piece, fraught with feeling, bold in manner, and unsparing in reproof, and yet very affectionate, tender, and well adapted to win its readers."

Bishop Jebb, in his Sacred Literature, has illustrated this epistle in a very pleasing and interesting manner. The epistle contains allusions to the disturbed state of Judea previous to the destruction of Jerusalem, which determines its date as not later than the year 62, in which year St. James is said to have been put to death by the Jews.

a ... Dispersed among the Gentiles...Juo. 7, 35.

b...... When men ...revile you, & persecute you, and......say all manner of evil against you falsely....Mat. 5, 11. Ro. 5, 3.

c......Found unto

1J tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.

AMES, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve Behold, happy

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is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the of

chastening the Almighty. Job 5, 17.

2 My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations; 3 knowing this, that the trying of your faith worketh patience. 4 But let patience have her perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing. If any of you lack wisdom, leti Ve. 2. object and ef fect as the test him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth 8 Or, evils. of faith, 2-12. not; and it shall be given him.d 6 But let him ask in faith, no-k...I will promote thing wavering. For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed. 7 For let not that man think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord. 8 A double minded man is unstable in all his ways. Let the brother of low degree "rejoice in that he is exalted: 10 but the rich, in that he is made low because as the flower of the grass he shall pass away. 11 For the sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it with- people. Nu. 22, d...If thou criest ereth the grass, and the flower thereof falleth, and the grace of the fashion after knowledge, of it perisheth: so also shall the rich man fade away in his ways. 12 Blessed giveth wisdom: thy voice for un-is the man that endureth temptation: for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him."

praise and ho

nour and glory

at the appearing of Jesus Christ.

1 Pe. 1, 7.

and liftest up


Pr. 2, 3.

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water, thou shalt

not excel....Ge. 49, 4.

heart, not out-
tion, the cause


13 Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man: corrupt 14 but every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own ward tempta- lust, and enticed. 15 Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth of sin, 13-18. forth sin and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death. 16 Do not err, my beloved brethren. 17 Every good gift and (if need bein every perfect gift is from above,' and cometh down from the Father of lights, heaviness thro' with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. 18 Of his own manifold temp-will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first

a Or, glory.

f...For a season


1, 6.

g He cometh forth
like a flower, &

is cut down: he
fleeth also as a
shadow, & con-
tinueth not.
Job 14, 2.

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19 Wherefore, my beloved brethren, let every man be swift to hear, slow
to speak, slow to wrath: 20 for the wrath of man worketh not
The difference the righteousness of God. 21 Wherefore lay apart all filthiness
ers and doers and superfluity of naughtiness," and receive with meekness the
engrafted word, which is able to save your souls.
22 But be ye

between hear

of the word, 19


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m I am the Lord,
I change not...
Mal. 3, 6.
...Born, not of

blood, nor of the

will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of

God. Jno. 1, 13.

o He that hath knowledge spar-1 eth his words: and a man of understanding is

of an excellent (or, a cool) spirit. Pr. 17, 27. Ec. 7, 9.

p Col. 3, 8. 1 Pe. 2, 1.

that saith unto

shall enter into

heaven, but he will of my Father which is in

that doeth the


that confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them. De. 27, 26.

n Or, that law which saith.

4 Not every one doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves. 23 For Cursed be he me, Lord, Lord, if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like unto a man bethe kingdom of holding his natural face in a glass: 24 for he beholdeth himself, and goeth his way, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he was." 25 But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed. 26 If any man among you seem to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart, this man's religion is......If ye from vain. 27 Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.

heaven. Mat. 7, 21.

r Lu. 6, 47-49.


.......Made free from sin...Ro. 6,


y Or, doing.

Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile. Ps. 34, 13.

2 M2


The obligation law of God, 1

of the whole

u......Thou shalt -13. not respect the

person of the person of

poor, nor honour the

the mighty...

Le. 19, 15.

8 Gr., synagogue.

the wise. It

not good to have

respect of persons...Pr. 24, 23.


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Y brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of Or, glorieth. glory, with respect of persons." 2 For if there come unto your assembly a man with a gold ring, in goodly apparel, and there come in also a poor man in vile raiment; and ye have respect" to him that weareth the gay clothing, and say unto him, Sit thou here in a good place; and say to the poor, Stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool: are ye not then partial in yourselves, and are become judges of evil thoughts ? 5 Hearken, my beloved brethren, Hath not God chosen the poor of this world rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he hath promised to them that love him?" 6 But ye have despised the poor. Do not rich men oppress you, and draw his you before the judgment seats? Do not they blaspheme that worthy name by the which ye are called? 8 If ye fulfil the royal law according to the These things Scripture, "THOU SHALT LOVE THY NEIGHBOUR AS THYSELF," ye do well: also belong to but if ye have respect to persons, ye commit sin, and are convinced of the law as transgressors." 10 For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet Gr., by itself. offend in one point, he is guilty of all." 11 For "he that said, "Do NOT COMMIT ADULTERY," said also, "DO NOT KILL." Now if thou commit no adule Or, well; or, tery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a transgressor of the law. 12 So speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be judged by the law of liberty. shall have judgment without mercy, that hath shewed no mercy; among brethren. rejoiceth against judgment. 14 What doth it profit, my brethren, though a man say he hath faith, and have not works? can faith save him?d 15 If a brother or sister be naked, and destitute of daily food, and one of you say unto them, 16 Depart in peace, be ye warmed and filled; notwithstanding ye give them not those things which are needful to the body; what doth it profit ?e 17 Even so faith, if it hath not give you the works, is dead, being 'alone. 18 Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: shew me thy faith without thy works, and I will shew thee my faith by my works. 19 Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well: the devils also believe, and tremble 20 But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith without works is dead? 21 Was not Abraham our father justified by works, when he had offered Isaac his son upon the altar? 22Seest thou how faith wrought with his works, and by works was faith made perfect? 23 And the Scripture was fulfilled which saith," "ABRAHAM Ge. 15, 6. BELIEVED GOD, AND IT WAS IMPUTed unto him for RIGHTEOUSNESS" and 4, 3. 6. 3, 6. he was called the Friend of God. 24 Ye see then how that by works a man is justified and not by faith only. 25 Likewise also was not Rahab the harlot ... Abraham thy justified by works, when she had received the messengers, and had sent

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13 For he and mercy

Let us alone;

what have we to do with thee,

thou Jesus of

Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God. Ma. 1, 24.

g...He that had received the promises offered up his only begotten son. He. 11, 17.

λ Or, thou seest.


friend......2 Ch. 20, 7.

k... Perished not them out another way ?

with them that

26 For as the body without the "spirit is dead, so

believed not, faith without works is dead also.

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spies in peace. He. 11, 31.

μ Or, breath.

1 Be not ye called

Rabbi for one is your Master, even Christ. Mat. 23, 8.

v Or, judgment.

T Or, natural.

v Gr., tumult; or, |

3 MY brethren, be not many masters, knowing that we shall receive unquietness.

the tongue a

there is among

you envying & strife and divisions, are ye not carnal ?.....1 Co.

3, 3.

Or, without


x Or, brawlings.

the greater "condemnation. 2 For in many things we offend all." If any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man, and t... For whereas Regulation of able also to bridle the whole body. 3 Behold, we put bits in the great part of horses' mouths, that they may obey us; and we turn about their Christian duty whole body." Behold also the ships, which though they be so 1-12. great, and are driven of fierce winds, yet are they turned about with a very small helm, whithersoever the governor listeth. 5 Even so the tongue is a little member, and boasteth great things." Behold, how great $a matter a little fire kindleth! And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, m Who can say, and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell. For "kind of beasts, and of birds, and of serpents, and of things in the every Pr. sea, is tamed, and hath been tamed of mankind: but the tongue can no man tame; it is an unruly evil, full of deadly poison. Therewith bless we God, even the Father; and therewith curse we men, which are made after the similitude of God. 10 Out of the same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought not so to be. 11 Doth a fountain the piercings of send forth at the same place sweet water and bitter? 12 Can the fig tree, my brethren, bear olive berries? either a vine, figs? so can no fountain both yield salt water and fresh?

I have made my
heart clean, I

am pure from
my sin?
20, 9.

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p Gr., nature of


q...In the image

of God made he

man. Ge. 9, 6.

s Or, hole.

Exercised with
meekness and

kindness, 13


Or, pleasures.

w Or, envy.

If I regard iniquity in my heart, the Lord will not hear me. Ps. 66, 18. 1 Pe. 2, 11.

13 Who is a wise man and endued with knowledge among you? let him shew out of a good conversation his works with meekness of wis-a Or, pleasures. dom." 14 But if ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth. 15 This wisdom des-v......If any man cendeth not from above, but is earthly, "sensual, devilish. 16 For where envying and strife is, there is "confusion and every evil work. 17 But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be intreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. 18 And the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace x ... Speaketh in of them that make peace.

4 FROM whence come wars and xfightings among you? come they not

Worldliness inconsistent


hence even of your lusts that war in your members? 2 Ye lust, and have not ye "kill, and desire to have, and cannot obtain: ye fight and war, yet ye have not, because ye ask not. Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss," that ye may consume it with spiritual upon your "lusts. Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not humility 1- that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God." 5 Do ye think that the Scripture saith in vain," The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy ?" But he giveth more grace. Wherefore he saith," "GOD RESISTETH THE PROUD, BUT GIVETH GRACE UNTO THE HUMBLE.' 7Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee 8 Draw nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands, ye sinners; and purify your hearts, ye double minded. 9 Be nestly (or, de-afflicted, and mourn, and weep; let your laughter be turned to mourning, cently)....not in and your joy to heaviness. 10 Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, ing....Ro. 13, 13. and he shall lift you up.o

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d Mat. 7, 1. Ro. 2, 1.

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man's servant:

Uncharitable censures and ter he standeth presumptuous

to his own mas

tient; or, Suffer with long pati


11 Speak not evil one of another, brethren. He that speaketh evil of his Or, Be long pabrother, and judgeth his brother, speaketh evil of the law, and judgeth the law: but if thou judge the law, thou art not a doer of the law, but a judge. 12 There is one lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy: who art thou that judgest another ? 13 Go to now, ye that say, To-day or to-morrow we will go into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and sell, is able to make and get gain: 14 whereas ye know not what shall be on the morrow. For what is your life? It is even a vapour, that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away. 15 For that ye ought to say, If the Lord will, we 16 But now ye rejoice in your boastings:

or falleth. Yea, confidence, 11 he shall be hold--17.

en up for God

him stand. Ro. 14, 4.

f Boast not thy-shall live, and do this, or that."

self of to-mor


P (When) the Lord shall scatter (the sinful nation) among all people, from the one end of the earth even unto the other...

De. 28, 64. Mat.

24, 3.

for thou all such rejoicing is evil." 17 Therefore to him that knoweth to do good, q...It (or, He) is and doeth it not, to him it is sin.'

knowest not what a day may bring forth. Pr. 27, 1.

y Or, For it is.

I will return again to you, if

5 Go

And avarice

God, 1-6.

O to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you.k 2 Your riches are corrupted, and your garments are moth eaten. 3 Your gold and silver is cankered; and the g... (Paul said), displeasing to rust of them shall be a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh as it were fire. Ye have heaped treasure together for the last days. Behold, the hire of the labourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, crieth: and the cries of them which have reaped are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaoth.” 5 Ye have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton; ye have nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter." 6 Ye have condemned and killed the just; and he doth not resist you.

God will.....Ac. 18, 21. 1 Co. 4,

19. He. 6, 3.

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Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord." Behold, prayed for his the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and tual love and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter patience, and rain. 8 Be ye also patient; stablish your hearts: for the coming nying blessings of the Lord draweth nigh. 9Grudge not one against another, brethren, lest ye be condemned: behold, the judge standethu eth in his riches before the door. 10 Take, my brethren, the prophets, who have spoken in the name of the Lord, for an example of suffering affliction, and of patience." 11 Behold, we count them happy which endure. Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord; that the Lord is very

k He that trust

shall fall....Pr.

11, 28.

So is he that layeth up treasure for himself, and is not rich

toward God. Lu. 12, 21.

m At his day thou

shall the sun go for he is poor,


pitiful, and of tender mercy. 12 But above all things, my brethren, swear"

not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but
let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay; lest fall into condemnation.

13 Is any among you afflicted? let him pray. Is any merry? let him sing
psalms." 14 Is sick
any among you? let him call for the elders of the church;
shalt give him and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the
his hire, neither Lord: 15 and the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise
down upon it; him and if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him. 16 Con-
and setteth his fess your faults one to another, and pray one for another, that ye may be
heart upon it, healed. The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much.
gainst thee un- 17 Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are, and he prayed Searnestly
to the Lord, and that it might not rain:" and it rained not on the earth by the space of three
years and six months. 18 And he prayed again, and the heaven gave rain,"
and the earth brought forth her fruit.

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Mat. 5, 34.

V... Singing and

making melody

in your heart to the Lord. Ep. 5, 19.

...... They (the twelve) anointed with oil many that were sick, & healed them.

Ma. 6, 13.

¿ Or, in prayer.

y... He said unto Ahab...There shall not be dew nor rain these

years, but acword. 1 Ki. 17,

cording to my

1. 1 Ki. 18, 42. z... Prepare thy chariot, and get thee down, that the rain stop thee not. 1 Ki.

any of do err from the truth, and one convert him;
20 let him know, that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his 18, 44.
way shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins.

a Mat, 18, 15.

The First Epistle general of PETER.

THE authenticity of this epistle as the genuine production of the apostle Peter is undoubted: according to Eusebius, it was universally received and referred to as his.

There has been much variety of opinion as to the place from which it was written. The Romanists appeal to Ch. v. 13 in favour of Rome, as the mystical Babylon-a designation in accordance, certainly, with Jewish modes of expression, and which might be chosen by the apostle with the intention of concealing his abode from all, except those to whom he wrote; but this opinion is generally rejected by Protestants, who think Babylon on the Euphrates is meant. The epistle was addressed to the strangers of the dispersion, perhaps Gentiles as well as Jews, who were called, by the sanctification of the Spirit, to obey the Gospel, and to be partakers in the benefits of the death of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is the aim of this epistle to set forth the redemption wrought out by Him as the governing principle of all the actions of His followers. With the feeling of the priceless value of the atoning sacrifice of the Lamb of God the heart of the writer overflows; he does not labour so much at proving it as he rejoices in it, and in so doing communicates to the attentive reader a portion of his own intense joy, admiration, and love to the Saviour, and it can scarcely fail, if perused without prejudice, to produce an unhesitating acquiescence in the truth of Christianity. Its date is probably about the year 64, amidst the closing days of the Jewish dispensation, its triumphant and happy tone, like a star shining out amidst the storm, being calculated to animate the hope of the believer, that the abrogation of the Mosaic Dispensation would be succeeded by another more spiritual and permanent.

a... Dispersed among the Gentiles (or, Greeks) ...Jno. 7, 35.


an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered through- (They) all died out Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, 2elect acSalutation, 1,2. cording to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the b...Called to be blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.

saints....Ro. 1, 7.

a Gr,, much.


c......Risen from Jesus, 3-21.
the dead, and
become the first-

15, 20.

affliction, which is but for a mo

ment, worketh exceeding and of glory. 2 Co.

for us a far more

eternal weight 4, 17.

in faith, not hav ing received the promises, but having secu them afar off, and were suaded of them.



embraced them, and con

were strangers,
and pilgrims on
the earth.
11, 13.


Let your loins

be girded about. and your lights

burning. Lu. 12,


3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively fessed that they Christ hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, 4to an ian's feeling of love and joy inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not towards Christ away,d reserved in heaven for you, who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed in the fruits of them last time. Wherein ye greatly rejoice, though now for a season, if need that slept...1 Co. be, ye are in heaviness through manifold temptations: 7 that the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, might be found unto praise and honour and glory at the d For our light appearing of Jesus Christ: whom having not seen, ye love; in whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory: receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls. 10 Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched y Gr., perfectly. diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: 11 searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the ...From heaven glory that should follow. 12 Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the Gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into. 13 Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and hope Le. 11, 44. Yto the end for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of hearts. Pr. 17, 3. Jesus Christ; 14 as obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance: 15 but as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation; 16 because it is written,' m Ye are bought "BE YE HOLY, FOR I AM HOLY." 17 And if ye call on the Father, who without respect of persons judgeth according to every man's work, pass the g Ge. 49, 10. Da. time of your sojourning here in fear: 18 forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold," from your vain 20.

B Or, for us.

The fining pot

is for silver, and

the furnace for gold, but the Lord trieth the

ƒ2 Co. 5, 7.

2, 44; and 9, 24. Ze. 6, 12.

with his mighty angels. 2 Th.

1, 7.

with a price, therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God's. 1 Co. &

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