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9 to 24. They are connected by complicated joints unlike' those of quadrupeds. The particular provision by which pressure on the spinal marrow is avoided in the motions thus obtained, we cannot give in fewer or clearer words than our anthor has done.

“ The canal of each vertebra is of very unequal calibre, the centre being the narrowest. It enlarges above and below, and at each joint is nearly three times the capacity that it is in the centre; and thus the canal of each individual vertebra may be not unaptly compared to an hour-glass. The canal is closed in front by the poste: rior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebra, bụt behind it is very imperfect: and in the skeleton there is a large lozenge-shaped opening formed by the diverging inferior articulated processes, and the converging plates which unite to form the back of the canal. This in a recent state is filled up by a membrane, and is protected by the highly elastic and powerful ligamentum nuchæ.

“ This mechanism, besides allowing of the greatest possible freedom of motion, appears to be intended at the same time to guard against the possibility of any undue pressure on the spinal


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The author then enters upon some deductions, in which, from this structure in the bird tribe, le is led to consider in an instructive light, several particulars in the formation of the spine in other animals.

No. 23. Of the Nerves which associate the muscles of the Chest, in the actions of Breathing, Speaking, and Expression; being a Continuation of the Paper on the Structure and Functions of the Nerves. By Charles Bell, Esq.

This paper is a continuation of one in a late number of the Transactions, of which we endeavoured, when that number was under our review, to give our readers such a general idea as we could do without reference to the illustrative plates. We were however able to give some account of the principle upon which Mr. Bell has conducted his very, carious and original investigations. He has opened some entirely new views in physiology, and has explained a vast number of phenomena presented by the animal economy, which have hitherto been but very imperfectly understood. He has united in one simple point of view a variety of apparently complicated parts of the corporeal frame, and has shewn the wonderful distribution of distinct sets of nerves to each part, according to the number of different offices the muscles composing it have to perform. In the present paper his attention is confined to the parts concerned in the acts of respiration : to the office of the nerves which associate with the different muscles connected with the chest, whereby the primary actions of breathing, and those dependent on it, such as speaking articulately, and in the natural language of passion and emotion, are performed. In all these functions of the animal frame he finds the same general principle accurately and universally applying: and it appears that the knowledge thus obtained is not only important in a scientific point of view, but has already been of great practical use," enabling," as the agthor says, " the physician to make more accurate distinctions of disease, and the surgeon in removing deformity to avoid producing distortion."

No. 25. Observations on the Changes the Egg undergoes during Incubation in the common Fowl, illustrated by Microscopical Drawings. By Sir Everard Home, Bart. V.P.R.S.

No. 28. Some Experiments on the Changes which take place in the fixed Principles of the Egg during Incubation. By William Prout, M.D. F.R.S. No. 29. On the Placenta. By Sir E. Home, Bart.

These three communications, all upon kindred subjects, are in some degree of general as well as scientific interest. We allude more particularly to the first, which elucidates in a remarkably clear and satisfactory manner the wonderful process of the gradual formation of the chick in the egg. Perhaps the most valuable part of it consists in the plates from the drawings of Mr. Bauer, to whom Sir E. Home is so mucb indebted in all his researches. In these the successive appearances which an egg presents are most beautifully delineated in twenty different stages of the process, from the time of incubation, till the young bird leaves the shell. The detail of these appearances, thus presented, and many important remarks upon them, tending to connect more closely different classes of animals in the relations of comparative physiology, are given by Sir E. Home in the dissertation which forms the accompaniment to the plates; and which is well worth an attentive perusal.

Of the other two papers named, the one being entirely of a chemical, and the. other of an anatomical nature, we shall not enter upon any further review ; merely recommending them to the scientific enquirer, as fully maintaining the character of their respective authors for profound and skilful investigation.

The remaining paper comes under the denomination of natural bistory.

No. 32. Observations on the Genus Planaria. By J. R. Johnson, M.D. F.R.S.

E VOL. XX. JULY, 1823.

The account of this singular class of animals is highly curious. They are a sort of small creature, nearly resembling those of the leech genus, and indeed with which they have sometimes been confounded. Their most remarkable property, and on wbich the author of this paper particularly dwells, is that of naturally separating into two parts, the head soon being furnished with a new tail, and the tail with a new head, by means of a natural process of reproduction. The same thing takes place if the division be made artificially, and even if it be carried to a greater number of parts.

We bere bring our remarks to a close, though on some .parts of the volume under consideration, we could have wished that our limits had.permitted us to enter more at large. If not enriched by any peculiarly striking discoveries, it certainly contains several papers which will contribute essentially to the slow but certain advance of sound science.

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ART. VIII. The Siege of Valencia; a Dramatic Poem. The

Last Constantine : with other Poems. By Mrs. Hemans.

Murray. 1823. We heartily abjure Blue Stockings. We make no compromise with any variation of the colour, from sky-blue to Prussian blue, blue stockings are an outrage upon the eternal fitness of things. It is a principle with us to regard an Academicienne of this Society, with the same charity that a cat regards a vagabond mouse. We are inexorable to special justifications. We would fain make a fire in Charing-Cross, of all the bas blus in the kingdom, and albums, and commonplace books, as accessaries before or after the fact, should perish in the conflagration.

Our forefathers never heard of such a thing as a Blue Stocking, except upon their sons' legs; the writers of Natural History make no mention of the name; it is not to be accounted for by the all-sufficient sensation and reflection of Mr. Locke; it has no place even amongst the phantasms of Bishop Berkeley. Shakspeare, who painted all sorts and degrees of persons and things, who compounded or created thousands, which, perhaps, never existed, except in his own prolific mind, even he, in the wildest excursion of his fancy never dreamed of such an extraordinary combination as a Blue Stocking! No! it is a creature of modern growth, and capable of existing only in such times as the present.

Formerly there were two styles of female éducation, and consequently two styles of women; the really learned, and the really simple; the first, nurtured in classic lore, and disciplined in scholastic exercises ; the second taught to sow neatly, and read the English Bible distinctly; the one skilful in drawing conclusions, the other in drawing pancakes. You had your Lady Jane Grey with Plato on her breakfast table, or a living Sophia Western with orange marmalade of her own making, and a dozen national tunes on the harpsichord of your own choosing. Both of these were well; they proposed several ends, and adopted several means towards the attaining of them; there was a fitness, and a moral perfection in each. In such times, and under such institution, the anomaly in question could not have existed; the ingredients of its composition, and the sphere of its action, were equally wanting.

A Blue Stocking is the natural product of an age in wbich knowledge is lost in accomplishments. It is the vapoury offspring of ignorance, impregnated by conceit. It is the epicene tertium aliquid between a fool and a coquette. It is the infallible consequence of the Loves of the Angels fase tened upon Conversations on Chemistry, and swallowed according to the prescription of the Mathematical Professor in the University of Lagado. It is the plague and the punishment of a time and nation, in which, as a system, female education is no more understood, tban Mr. Payne Knight's Theory of the Iliad, or Mr. Burges's Play on the Troades.

Without being positively criminal, a Blue Stocking is the most odious character in society; nature, sense, and hilarity fly at her approach; affectation, absurdity, and peevishness, follow in her train; she sinks, wherever she is placed, like the yolk of an egg, to the bottom, and carries the filth and the lees with her.

In a drawing-room she is detestable enough, no doubt, but the creature bears a feminine exterior, and we are obliged to refrain ourselves. But when, not contented with infesting private society, she proceeds to outrage public decorum; when satiated with talking of books, she advances to the printing from books, she leaves the position which ensured to her impunity, and deserts the asylum within the precincts of which alone she could hope to escape the vengeance of insulted literature. Many such fugitives, from sanctuary are rambling about the town and country; their example is evidently contagious;

“ For they write now, who never wrote before,
And those who always wrote, now write the more !".

We thought it becoming the sound principles, and manly character, of our Review, to declare ourselves thus openly upon this subject; and we hereby give notice to all whom it may concern, that it is our intention henceforth, to visit enormities of this description, with the severity they so justly deserve.

We now turn to Mrs. Hemans, and we do so with pleasure and confidence. She will feel convinced, that whatever we may say, will be sincere, and though we do not pretend to fix the value of our advice, yet at all events after the foregoing denunciations, the praises we bestow, may reasonably be en

titled to some consideration at her hands. Mrs. Hemans is . a woman of that undoubted genius, that it is her legitimate vocation to attend at the altars of the Muses.

She has regularly advanced in intellectual power, from her earliest work, which was simply blameless, to the present, which contains instances of a vigour of conception, luxuriance of feeling, and splendor of language, which may be compared without disadvantage, to the best efforts of Mrs. Joanna Baillie. Indeed in point of richness, and fertility of description, Mrs. Hemans is much superior. She is especially excellent in painting the strength, and the weaknesses of her own lovely sex, and there is a womanly nature throughout all her thoughts and her aspirations, which is new and inexpressibly touching. A mother only could have poured forth the deep and passionate strain of eloquence which follows. We hardly remember any thing more exquisitely beautiful. It is conceived in the truest spirit of essential poetry. The speakers are husband and wife.


66 We have but
To bow the head in silence, when Heaven's voice
Calls back the things we love.

“ Love ! love !--there are soft smiles and gentle words,

And there are faces, skilful to put on
The look we trust in--and 'tis mockery all!
-A faithless mist, a desert-vapour, wearing,
The brightness of clear waters, thus to cheat
The thirst that semblance kindled !—There is none,
In all this cold and hollow world, no fount
Of deep, strong, deathless love, save that within
A mother's heart. It is but pride, wherewith
To his fair son the father's eye
Watching his growth. Aye, on the boy he looks,
The bright glad creature springing in his path,

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