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SHOULD like to speak of some specific
enable them to achieve peace and happiness. . Governments. One is the problem of atareas in which the Federal and State As a Nation, we have long recognized the tracting and holding enough competent governments are jointly interested and basic importance of education. We have teachers. The other is the question of reneed to act cooperatively.
been moving forward toward the goal of placement and new construction of school I select these subjects because I am sure
education for all. In 1870 there were only buildings. they are of immediate interest to you, and 80,000 students in all our high schools. In Both of these problems force us to face because I have been privileged to gain a 1940 there were more than 7,000,000. In the hard facts of Government finance. To more intimate understanding of some of 1870 there were 60,000 in our colleges, recruit more and better teachers, we must the problems connected with them.
while in 1940 there were 112 million stu- pay them salaries that come somewhere near
dents. In those 70 years while our popu- meeting the competition of jobs in private General Education
lation went up 3 times, the number in sec- industry and in other types of Government The first subject I wish to discuss is that ondary schools went up 90 times and the service. To repair and build schools reof education. number in colleges 25 times.
quires a heavy investment of funds parIf America is to survive and prosper in At the present time we are having an ticularly in view of the present high conthis complex postwar world, we must dem.
extraordinary increase in the number of struction and maintenance costs. onstrate that we can make our form of
children reaching school age, as a result of In the face of these high costs the State democracy function. We must make sure the high birth rate in recent years.
governments have provided more money that our political, economic, and social sys- Thus the clear goal before us is to pro- for education, even though their general tem is not static but is flexible enough to vide better and better education for more financial situation is not an easy one. meet the needs of our people. We must children.
There is another important financial fact always move forward toward the full reali
in this picture. The ability of States to zation of the ideals which are the spiritual Three Difficulties
pay for adequate schools is by no means foundation of our American society. “To Let us consider first the problem of ele
uniform, because income and wealth in preserve our democracy, we must improve mentary and secondary schools. There
this country are not uniformly distributed. seem to be three major difficulties to be
Accordingly, many States have to tax their The best way to improve our democracy overcome.
people and their business very heavily in in the long run is to make sure that our One is primarily a State problem. That
order to provide a standard of education children are well educated. Our schools is the problem of better organization-bet
that other States can afford with much teach what democracy is, why it is impor- ter organization of State education depart.
lower taxes. tant, and why it requires each citizen to ments, in some States, and better organiza
We know that the States have done a take part in the work and life of the Nation. tion of school districts which are
remarkable job in the last few years in Our children are facing a tremendously nomically sound and able to finance a more complex world. Serious economic and so. adequate school program.
increasing funds for education. We also cial problems inside and outside our coun
know that some of the States with the most The other two major difficulties facing
limited taxable resources have made rela. try require solution. The best possible elementary and secondary education need training and education will be needed to to be considered by both Federal and State tively the best record of all. Even with
the effort the States are making, however, The President recognized this problem ernment can give scholarship aid to worthy the situation remains critical.
when he appointed his Commission on young people who desire to continue their
Higher Education. He stated the Commis. education. Possible Solution sion's first concern to be “Ways and means
We Americans believe in a "free market What can we do about it? In my opin. of expanding educational opportunities for of ideas." We are convinced that in the ion, the first thing is for the Congress to all able young people *
struggle between democracy and totalienact legislation authorizing Federal grants The President's Commission found that, tarianism, only people who have been to the States for operating expenses of ele. in terms of the number of young people with trained to make sound individual judgmentary and secondary education. That the ability to complete college and post- ments, can effectively resist a dogma or is the highest priority need today. The graduate work, the total enrollment in our “party line” imposed from above. If peak wave of children of school age which institutions of higher learning should be America is to retain its freedom in a world is starting to hit the elementary schools more than double what it is today. It was of conflicting ideologies, we must take steps now will be felt in the secondary schools in found that the economic barrier is the to assure every American youth the
oppor: the next 6 years. The urgent need now, greatest single factor that has so far re- tunity to receive the highest level of educaabove all else, is to secure more teachers stricted the number who receive higher edu- tion by which he can profit. A soundly and to meet the other increased operating cation.
conceived Federal scholarship program is costs.
What part should the Federal Govern- a necessary step in achieving this goal. As to Federal funds for school construc. ment play in meeting this problem? tion, the situation is not so clear. The total Federal assistance to higher education is
Scientific Research and Development size of the construction job, the rate of not new and is based on sound precedent. At the same time, we should consider construction needed, the degree of Federal For many years the Federal Government another matter, closely related to higher assistance which should be provided, if has encouraged and assisted the colleges education. That is the problem of scienany, all need careful study.
and universities, through grants of land and tific education and research. Over the past 10 years or more, substan- money and by exempting nonprofit institu- All of us are aware how much our modtial consensus has been achieved on
tions from Federal taxation. Recently, ern civilization depends on the advance of method of providing Federal financial sup
during the 1930's, more help has been given scientific knowledge.' From the broad port for operating costs. There is general
through construction grants for tax-sup- problems of national defense down to the agreement that this can be done without interfering with State responsibility for the scope and content of education. There is general agreement on a method of dis.
“... all of us are made aware every day that there are very tribution to take account of both the vary.
few problems that are confined to the State governments alone. ing financial capacity of different States
We must think of Federal, State, and local governments together, and the number of children of school age.
for together they make up our American system of governmenta However, as yet, there is no such general
system of 'multiple governments for a single nation.'" agreement in the case of Federal financial assistance for construction. I would not say that we should never look forward to Federal aid for building schools. I do think, however, that careful study is nec- ported institutions, and a program of questions of better methods of building essary to determine the need for the loca- student aid under the National Youth Ad. houses or organizing municipal police detion and kind of building required to pro- ministration,
partments, modern science is the pivot for vide educational opportunity for children,
action and progress. youth, and adults. Such planning, evident Scholarship Aid
We know that as the frontiers of our in some areas now, should precede and ac- At the present time, over a million vet- knowledge have been pushed forward, the company long-range programs of school erans of World War II are attending higher wealth of America has increased by leaps construction.
educational institutions all over the coun- and bounds and the American way of life
try, and under the GI bill they receive their has improved. There are no known limits Higher Education
tuition and subsistence from the Federal to the discovery of knowledge. We have Let us look beyond elementary and sec- Government. This greatly increased en- discovered considerable new knowledge in ondary education to the colleges and uni- rollment, while it has taxed the facilities our time—some of it under the stress of versities.
of our colleges, has at the same time given emergency. It becomes increasingly clear that as our
us an indication of how many young people Some of the knowledge we gained in national economy grows more complex, really want to continue their education, if wartime has awed and appalled us, but one and as the United States assumes a greater they have the opportunity to do so.
good thing we gained. That is the deepenposition of leadership and responsibility in In the next few years, I believe we must ing realization that we stand only at the international affairs, higher education must plan, in the light of the report of the Presi. gateway to a world of new knowledge. The be made available to every young Ameri- dent's Commission on Higher Education, use we make of our new knowledge is mancan who is able to profit from it.
the best means by which the Federal Gov. kind's to decide. Our responsibility is to
proceed intelligently in our search for this together the various Federal research and our local and State governments must conknowledge.
scientific training programs. And the centrate on improving and preserving the The President's Scientific Research Foundation would provide the national American type of democracy wherein lies Board, of which I had the honor to be focus so badly needed to give guidance to our strength and our welfare. With that Chairman, reported that as a Nation we all scientific research and training-public statement I thoroughly agree. need more trained scientists, and in the and private guidance not in the sense of That is why I have wanted to talk to you next few years we should seek to double the direction and control but in the sense of tonight about better education and inamount of
money we are spending on scien- suggestions for program balance and creased knowledge. The ultimate strength tific research. emphasis.
of our democracy lies in the minds of its This Board pointed out that in the past
It is clear, for example, that a portion of citizens. And it is through an enlightened our scientific strength lay in development the funds expended by the National Science
citizenry devoted to right principles that rather than in discovery. They warned us Foundation should be used to strengthen
our democracy will be improved and that we were woefully lagging in the field of the weaker, but promising, colleges and uni
preserved. basic scientific research, the area most vital versities, and thus to increase our total
I believe that your work along the lines to progress and for which we were almost scientific potential. It is clear, also, that
I have discussed tonight will carry us for. the Science Foundation would aid students completely dependent upon Europe. We
ward toward that goal. In all these entercan no longer afford the luxury of import
in every part of the country to contribute to ing basic scientific knowledge. We must
prises the Federal Government is not an the advance of scientific knowledge.
overseer but a partner. Upon the success, develop our own. In the Minds of Citizens
my friends, of this partnership in the safe. What should we do about this problem?
I want to conclude
remarks to you to
my I believe that the State government and the
guarding of our liberties and in the night by referring to the last report of the strengthening of our democracy, depends Federal Government have similar roles to
Executive Director of the Council of State the safety not only of our play: The State universities and colleges
own great Governments. He said that more and more America, but of the world. need support from State governments for greatly expanded programs for training all kinds of scientists' and for scientific re. search. The Federal Government should devote more funds to scientific training and research in its own laboratories and research agencies, through grants to colleges and universities, and through scholarships and
by Clifford P. Froehlich, Specialist for Training Guidance Personnel fellowships. Doubling of Budgets
N A STRANGE and imaginary city, the I have heard these questions asked Although such programs require money,
Superintendent of Schools was called by those who would conduct in-service
before the Board of Education. He was the amount is very small compared to total
training: How can I do anything when I told that he and all the teachers and princiGovernment expenditures either State or
have to get out of the way or be trampled pals in his schools would not have their Federal. Consider your own State univer
to death when teachers and pupils rush contracts renewed the next year. The sities—a doubling of their budgets for
out of school at 3:30 in the afternoon? Do President of the Board said, "Yes, sir, we scientific training and research would be a
eachers really believe in the value of edu. are cleaning house this year. We have very small percentage of the total State edu.
cation? Do they realize they cannot live cation budget. In the case of the Federal just had a survey made by those college forever on the knowledge they picked up
professors, and they found out that when Government, outlays such as I have recom
twenty years ago? Are they interested only mended are almost negligible beside the pupils leave our schools they are not edu- in
(These allegations cated. Why, they say that when pupils against teachers are unfounded.) total cost of the Army or Navy or Air
leave our schools they have to keep on learnForce.
ing! Now we have been behind our Facing the Facts And yet these relatively small outlays can
schools, but we have no other choice than At the same time, let us face facts. be tremendously fruitful. If through sup
to fire all of you. Children should get all Teachers do not participate in in-service port of basic research we can find a pre
the education they need by the time they training programs very readily. In fact, ventive cure for cancer—or if by
graduate from our schools. They shouldn't visits throughout the country during the scholaships we give training to men who
have to spend the rest of their lives learn- last few years have convinced me that not can lead the way to a successful United ing.”
one out of fifty schools has an organized Nations—think of the enormous dividends
It is improbable that such an event will in-service training program. Why not we would receive on our investment.
ever occur. Teachers do not agree with the more? Repeatedly, the schools have placed These are the reasons why I believe so
statement made by the President of the the blame on the lack of interest or unwill. strongly that the Federal legislation for a Board. Why then do they fail to take ad- ingness of teachers to participate in any National Science Foundation should be en
vantage of opportunities to continue their training program. How can we secure acted soon. This Foundation would provide education? Why is there resistance to an their participation? How can we get the coordinating agency we need to gear in-service training program among teach- teachers and counselors to expend the extra
They Accept In-Service Education
effort? This is more than the $64 ques. what we would have done—they put their only to meet the actual problem and find tion; it is the crux of the entire problem of best foot forward. So the relationship be- that you must use the old, the traditional, in-service training. To answer completely came one of putting on a good show every and put your new, if imperfect, techniques such a question within the limits of this time the supervisor came into their room. on the shelf. article is impossible. But it is more than Unless teachers can feel secure in their jobs. a space limitation. Our knowledge of we cannot have effective in-service training. Security Key to Participation motivation is still too fragmentary for such Secondly, teachers must feel secure with a task. their fellow teachers. This security must be
The task of increasing teacher participaAs a partial answer, we may find that lack felt strongly enough to allow them to engage
tion in in-service training extends beyond of attention to the psychological principles in in-service training. Most of us are greatly
the planning of an interesting and stimulatinvolved in motivation has caused our diffi- influenced by our estimate of others' opin- ing program. The school must follow pracculty in securing participation. Certainly ion of us. In a school where the majority
tices which contribute to the teachers' feel. these principles are frequently overlooked of the faculty is unsympathetic with guid- ings of security. This article has pointed in the organization of in-service programs. ance procedures, and where they make such out that teachers should feel secure in their For example, we have announced in-service
remarks as, “It's all a fad”; or, “We have jobs, with their fellows, and in putting their training programs and expected teachers to gotten along all right without any of that so
new learnings into practice. Schools fosterattend because it was good for them.
ing these feelings of security are in a favor. have depended solely upon an appeal ad- storm blows over”; we cannot expect to able position to secure teacher participation dressed to them on an intellectual plane, have very much participation in an in-serv- in the in-service training program. with little regard for their feelings. It
ice training program devoted to guidance would not be wise to organize an in-service work. Teachers have to live and work with training program solely on the basis of
their fellow teachers. If their associates emotional appeal. However, we think it foolish to enroll in a training pro
Great Britain's Teacher longer neglect the needs and drives of
gram, teachers are not likely to participate. Recruitment Plan potential enrollees in our in-service training Unless an atmosphere is created in which
WHAT IS BEING DONE in Great Britain program.
in-service training is accepted, and in which One of the most important of these needs
to recruit and train teachers? According those who participate in an in-service trainis a feeling of security, and if in-service ing program are respected rather than
to Educational Notes No. 1, a new periodtraining is to succeed, we must consider this
scorned, participation will be limited. ical publication issued by the British Infactor. Teachers, counselors, or adminis
Of more importance than job security or
formation Services, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, trators are not different from other human security with their fellows is another factor:
New York 20, N. Y., a 5-year plan for rebeings. We cannot forget this fact when
In-service training participants must feel cruitment and training of British teachers we organize a training program. Like
secure enough to try out the new skills or has been initiated. The aim is to raise the others, they need a feeling of security, and
to operate on the basis of new understand- total number of teachers in the publicly they resist with all that is in them any ings derived from the in-service program.
financed schools from the present 196,000 activities which threaten to destroy that se
When we try anything new, we wonder to 237,000 by 1953. curity. We cannot blame them. We do it
whether or not we shall be successful. A “This meant that it was necessary to ex. ourselves. But, if we are to organize effec
teacher who learns to prepare
tend the permanent training facilities.” In tive training programs, we must give atten
ords during an in-service training program tion to this need. In fact, it is a tenable
1948, 6,000 women were admitted to 2-year must feel that it would be safe for her to try thesis that by organizing training programs
courses in permanent training colleges, 750 the procedure out in her own school. A in such a way that they do not threaten se
more than were admitted in 1947, and person who learns to confer with parents curity, we not only build stronger programs,
nearly double the number admitted in an must be given the support of the adminisbut also get greater participation. tration in conducting parent interviews,
average prewar year. It is hoped to have
facilities for 8,000 women entrants and for
Here Three Important considerations even though mistakes are made.
2,000 men in 1949. training may conflict with administration. How can we meet the need for security?
Principals want their schools to First of all, teachers must feel secure
smoothly. Using the old procedures will enough in their employment to risk ad. almost certainly guarantee that the school
NOTICE mitting their shortcomings. Picture if you
will run about as well as in the past. The will the resistance that must be overcome in introduction of new procedures may upset
"Atomic Energy–Here to Stay," a school where no one dares admit he is
supplement to SCHOOL LIFE, is the routine. Some of the suggestions doing less than a perfect job. In a certain
scheduled to be off the press school a teacher-rating system completely gleaned from an in-service training program
March 1. SCHOOL LIFE addressees destroyed the value of supervision. Procan be expected to fail when
will receive one copy free. Order tice. But if teachers are to see a purpose
in motions and dismissals were based on the
additional copies from the Superinrating made by supervisors. Would these in-service training, the administration must
tendent of Documents, Washington teachers admit the need of help to the person
guarantee the freedom to put their learnings 25, D. C. The estimated price per holding their job in his hand? Not on into practice. What point is there in spend
copy is 10 cents. your life! Teachers in that situation did ing hours in improving your techniques
New Books and Pamphlets
quency, and other evidences of maladjustment in modern society. Evaluates homemaking training
given in a selected school. The Administration of Schools for Better Richmond, Va., The Virginia Association The Effect of Three Variations in Home Living. Compiled and edited by Dan H. of School Trustees, 1948. 82 p.
Report Procedure on Student Achievement, Cooper. Chicago, The University of Chi. We the Parents: Our Relationship to Our Citizenship and Attendance. By Irving A. cago Press, 1948. 161 p. (Proceedings Children and to the World Today. Rev. Dodes. Doctor's, 1945. New York Uni. of the Conferences for Administrative Of. Ed. By Sidonie Matsner Gruenberg. New versity. 253 p. ms. ficers of Public and Private Schools, 1948. York, Harper & Brothers, 1948. 309 p. Attempts to measure objectively the effect of a Vol. 11.) $3.50. Processed. $3.50.
change in frequency of sending report cards from
three to five times a semester; a change in method Extended School Services Through the Your Mind and You. By George K.
of reporting citizenship marks from a composite AU-Day Neighborhood Schools. Brook- Pratt. New York, The National Commit. to individual ratings for each subject, and a change lyn, N. Y., Board of Education of the city tee for Mental Hygiene, Inc. (1790 Broad
in the type of mark from the percent type to the of New York, 1947. 86 p. Illus. (Cur- way, Zone 19), 1948. 71 p. 35 cents.
five letter type on achievement, school citizenship,
and attendance of male students in the first five riculum Bulletin, 1947-8 Series, No. 3.) Your School District. The Report of terms of Woodrow Wilson Vocational High School, 20 cents.
the National Commission on School Dis- Jamaica, New York City. Planning Your Exhibit. By Janet Lane trict Reorganization. Washington, Depart- A Guide for the Use of Films in the Teachand Beatrice K. Tolleris. New York, Na. ment of Rural Education, National Educa. ing of Science in the Intermediate Grades. tional Publicity Council for Health and tion Association of the United States, 1948. By Ellen Anglin. Master's, 1947. Univer. Welfare Services, Inc. (130 East Twenty.
Flexible cover $2, board cover sity of Cincinnati. 107 p. ms. second Street, Zone 10), 1948. 28 p. $2.50.
Reviews briefly the advantages of the film as an Illus. $1.
Federal Aid to Elementary and Second- aid to learning. Presents teaching procedures Radio Workshop for Children. By Jen.
ary Education. By Charles A. Quattle. when using films, and lists films which can be baum. Chicago, Public Administration
used by teachers desiring to know the materials nie Waugh Callahan. 1st ed. New York,
available for the development of various units of Service (1313 East Sixtieth Street), 1948. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1948. 398 p.
work. 191 p. $2. Processed. Excerpted in Illus. (McGraw-Hill Series in Speech.)
School Failure: The Problem and its SCHOOL LIFE, July 1948. $3.75.
Causes as Determined by Objective Studies
-Compiled by Susan O. Futterer, Head, Completed Between 1925 and 1945. By Virginia School Boards: A Manual for
Reference and Bibliographical Services, Edward A. O'Keefe. Master's, 1947. the Guidance and Help of Members. Federal Security Agency Library.
Boston University. 63 p. ms.
Reviews a number of studies on the causes of failure, and finds a wide divergence of opinion as
to the relative value of each. The Civic Competence of High School George Washington University. 477 p. ms.
Social and Personal Integration During Seniors. By John W. Gates. Doctor's,
Discusses the formulation of tentative criteria,
Later Childhood. By Arthur W. Blair. 1945. University of Chicago. 198 p. their revision and validation; the testing of the Doctor's, 1946. Harvard University. 226
criteria; and the development of a checklist for
evaluating physical education programs for boys
Discusses the need for study of the child from western community of approximately 65,000
9 to 12 years; the changing status of these chil. population.
Education for Homemaking and Family dren; and implications of sociological research Criteria of a Good Physical Education Life. By Ruth R. Conin. Master's, 1947. for understanding this level of development. Program for Boys in the Senior High School. George Washington University. 65 p. ms. A Study of the Effects of Certain Practices By Donald I. Minnegan. Doctor's, 1947. Analyzes causes of divorce, juvenile delin- Upon Pupil Attendance. By Wallace W.
Hixson. Master's, 1945. Syracuse Uni
versity. 108 p. ms. Subscription Blank
Traces briefly the history of compulsory educa
tion in the United States. Studies attendance SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS,
practices in a number of large cities. Compares
attendance practices of Utica Free Academy with Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.:
the revised practices of Proctor High School in
Utica, N. Y. Please send me School LIFE for 1 year, and find $1 (check or money order) enclosed as payment.
Testing Civic Information. By Marie T.
Cote. Master's, 1946. Boston University. School superintendents please note: On all orders for 100 copies or more to
34 p. ms. be sent to one address, there is a discount of 25 percent.
Compares the civic information of 339 adults Name.
with that of 367 pupils in the ninth to eleventh
grades of five different communities, as shown by Address:
their answers to a test. City-State..
-Compiled by Ruth G. Strawbridge, Federal Security Agency Library Bibliographer.
Recent Theses in Education
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949