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Office of Education

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"ALL teachers, regardless of grade taught or age taught, should be as familiar with the elementary principles of mental hygiene as they are with their subject matter."

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“In a few States anyone who can get a license that can be used to transport a truck load of cattle can use the same license to transport a bus full of children.” . . . p. 5

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Page The Teacher's Role in Mental Health Defense

1 14 Questions on Elementary School Organization

2 Classroom Growth Record.

3 Transportation of PupilsA Growing Problem

4 Fall 1948 Enrollment in Colleges and Universities

7 President Truman on Education

8 “... For the Future Security

10 Announcing a SCHOOL LIFE Dividend

11 Strengthen Education To Strengthen Democracy in a Divided World

12 Publications on Cerebral Palsied Children

13 Educational Articles Elsewhere .

13 Citizens Federal Committee Meets

14 Ways To Teach Peace

15 New Books and Pamphlets

16 Selected Theses in Education

16 Educational Aids From Your Government. Inside Back Cover Publications of the Office of Education ..... Back Cover

“Several million children of school age are unable to attend school, largely because of lack of facilities or teachers.” . . p. 8

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Published each month of the school year, October through June. To order SCHOOL LIFE send your check, money order, or a dollar bill (no stamps) with your subscription request to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. SCHOOL LIFE service comes to you at a school-year subscription price of $1.00. Yearly fee to countries in which the frank of the U. S. Government is not recognized is $1.50. A discount of 25 percent is allowed on orders for 100 copies or more sent to one address within the United States. Printing of SCHOOL LIFE has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget. OSCAR R. EWING..... Federal Security Administrator RALL I. GRIGSBY.. Acting Commissioner of Education RALPH C. M. FLYNT. Executive Assistant to the Commissioner GEORGE KERRY SMITH... Chief, Information and Publications Service JOHN H. LLOYD......... Assistant Chief, Information and Publications

Service Address all SCHOOL LIFE inquiries to the Chief, Information and Publications Service, Office of Education, Federal Security Agency,

Washington 25, D. C.

lished in 1867 “for the purpose of collecting such statistics and facts as shall show the condition and progress of education in the sev. eral States and Territories, and of diffusing such information respecting the organization and management of schools and school systems and methods of teaching, as shall aid the people of the United States in the establishment and maintenance of efficient school systems, and otherwise promote the cause of education throughout the

country.”

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ONE of every TWENTY children may be destined to spend time in a mental hospital ANY school administrators can well significant ways: First of all, since teachers we were considered to have sound mental remember when epidemics of scarlet are housed with children relatively many health if we got through our youth without

fever, measles, or whooping cough hours of each day, they stand as the physi- any outright delinquency and managed our brought the community's physicians into cian's first line of defense against disease. adulthood without neighbor trouble, alcothe schools for mass preventive check-ups. Second, teachers give children the precious holism, or divorce. Today, fortunately, There are no statistics to prove how much all-important principles of staying healthy. we know that mental health can and should serious illness was avoided by these pre- Today, thanks in no small part to the be as robust as physical health. Further, cautionary measures; the point is that Nation's schools, American physicians can most of us know that the signs of questionAmerican medicine and American educa- put more and more emphasis on preventive able mental health are signs that literally tion, in getting together, helped to achieve medicine.

flag our attention, sometimes over a period brilliant results in routing the old scourges Such attacks as the schools helped to make of years. If only we give them our attenof the communicable childhood diseases. against the contagious diseases give us stout tion! Not even the newly developed vaccines, heart today in tackling what now amounts

Be Alert to Symptoms serums, and powerful drugs could have done to America's number one health problem, this alone. Cooperation and education the problem of mental health.

Here are such typical early symptoms were both needed, and as science marched Mental health is fast becoming under- in a group of average school children. triumphantly forward our schools con- stood as a positive quality, which is all to Harry, age 14, looks as if he'll be a chronic tinued to give assistance-generally in two the good. For too many years, of course, liar all his life; he is also aggressive and

1

Volume 31, Number 4

picks fights. Jane, 8, is overtimid and too symptoms that may mean later trouble, must ily doctor see them. quiet. She still wets the bed. Martha, 4, be a matter for the everyday understanding It seems to me that of all these workers has violent temper tantrums. Johnny, 6, of the classroom teacher.

who are in wide contact with the public,4 a war baby, is also a cry baby; he is over- Since early diagnosis is of the utmost however, teachers hold the key observation dependent on his mother and deeply resents importance, the chief responsibility for the post. I say this for two reasons. First, his father-a stranger who came and dis. prevention of mental ill health actually rests they deal with children in their formative rupted Johnny's secure claim to all his with the public at large rather than with and impressionable years and they deal mother's time and affection.

the psychiatrist. People such as teachers, with them over a highly significant stretch Unhealthy, “abnormal,” children? No, the clergy, social workers, and public of time, singly as well as in groups. of course not. I deliberately selected chil- health personnel, who, by the nature of Second, teachers have a golden opportunity dren with problems rather than problem their work, are constantly presented with to work together with parents and other children for my examples in order to under opportunities for recognizing and helping teachers in learning about each new child, score this important fact: Mental health is to some extent with emotional problems his past history, and his present personality. today an everyday matter of everyday con- are in a position to observe such problems Recognizing the unique role that the cern. Protecting it, recognizing the early long before the specialists or even the fam- school situation plays in the emotional de

14 Questions on Elementary

School Organization W:

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For School LifE readers there are listed 14 questions which are asked frequently in the field about elementary school organization. Pamphlet No. 105 helps answer these questions, presenting information gathered by Office of Education specialists from educators in many communities. You may wish to ask the same questions regarding the organization of elementary schools in your community. Or. der copies of Pamphlet No. 105, price

10 cents each, from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.

ITH ELEMENTARY school enroll-
ments at a record peak, and further

increases predicted for years to come, today's school administrator views the organization of the elementary schools with serious concern. He has seen the elementary school increase in size and complexity over the years, and now faces new problems which must be solved as efficiently and expeditiously as possible.

In its effort to help the Nation's administrators and teachers of elementary education answer some of their most current and pressing questions today, the Office of Education detailed six members of its Elementary Education Division staff to work with a selected group of superintendents and other designated school officials during the past year. Superintendents or their representatives in 52 cities of varying population sizes were interviewed by the Office specialists-Effie G. Bathurst, Mary Dabney Davis, Jane Franseth, Hazel Gabbard, Helen K. Mackintosh, and Don S. Patterson.

Facts were gathered by these Office of Education specialists to help answer the questions most frequently asked by people in the field about elementary school organization. Findings of their study are reported in an Office of Education pamphlet titled “14 Questions on Elementary School Organization."

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10. What types of progress reports are
used in elementary schools?
11. Are there central office policies
about progress reports?
12. What coordinating committees or
councils are sponsored by the schools?
13. In what way do parents participate
in the school program?
14. Is there a bureau of instructional
materials or bureau of visual aids?

6. What is the size of classes ?

7. What is the percentage of nonpromotion?

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