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constantly supervised by the faculty or prin- Though we may be doing fairly well, we've The ringing of the period bell intercipal. As a matter of fact, the administra. got to do better.”

rupted our conversation, and hastened the tion really avoids making decisions that are “The pupils can talk more convincingly leave takings of Miss Kroeber and Mr. properly in the sphere and jurisdiction of than we can about weaknesses of student Kussin. Dr. Ross said, “This is a good student government. Legally, the principal government,” Mr. Kussin said, "and since time to eat. Let's go to lunch!” has the power of veto—he has to have. But today happens to be the day of the week As I turned from Bedford Avenue into I am confident all Midwood understands when the city councils meet, why not come Glenwood Road the afternoon of that that an issue regarding that veto power is with me to the meetings and find out at first

bright Monday morning, I felt a pleasant not likely to arise, because in matters con- hand how much our answers are worth?”

elation and a gentle weariness. The clues cerning pupil welfare and relations, the ad- “That would be fine!” added Miss

had been traced and the excellence found. ministration and staff, particularly Dr. Kroeber. “By all means take a look at the Ross, are willing to be outvoted. We want

Glancing back for a last look at Midwood's campaign literature, signs, slogans, Argus the Midwood students to have the practice analyses of platforms and issues, and plans

chaste colonial facade, sharp and shining of making cooperative decisions, of accept- for election assemblies, which incidentally

in the strength of the midafternoon sun, ing personal and group responsibilities. are to be held this week. You ought to

I sensed that here was something more than That sounds a little high and mighty, but I hear how the assemblies quiz the candi

brick and windows and doors. Here was believe it is so."

dates about their platforms. That really is spirited, benevolent cooperation between "You know," added Dr. Ross, "school is something. ...

school government and student government. life, just as John Dewey said so often that it is now commonplace. To breathe vitality and vigor into the idea is anything but commonplace. For instance, the notices that Mr. Kussin mentioned. That's one example of education as living."

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Plans for Developing a
School Building Program



Discuss Weaknesses
“As far as weaknesses are concerned,"

HREE hundred and fifty leading archi- point of their adaptability to accepted edu

cational needs. The Office of State SuperMr. Kussin broke in, “I think our students will show no hesitancy in talking about

trators recently enrolled in a Washington intendent of Public Instruction is prepared them."

State School Plant Workshop to discuss to cooperate with all districts in the conduct

school building problems. Out of this of such studies. "I quite agree," the principal smiled, “that's where I get my information. But, workshop, held in Seattle, Wash., came a

4. Specific attention must be given to the you might like to know what we think some summary which School Life offers as a

recommendations of classroom teachers conweaknesses are. In the first place, our

guide to other States interested in develop cerning the exact facilities to be provided democracy is only as good as the leaders ing school building programs and in

for effective instruction at all grade levels. it elects to office. For the citizens to elect organizing school and community for

The superintendent and the principal should competent leaders is always a major consuch building programs. The Washington

devote much time to this planning work with sideration. Sometimes have better School Plant Workshop Summary follows.

teachers. leaders than other times, just as every

The development of a building program where. At other times we have leaders

5. The building program will reflect in is one of the major educational and busithat do not meet our hopes. Sometimes ness undertakings of every school district.

a large degree the attitude of the community The following suggestions list certain key

toward education. In every community in they fade out after a fine start, and at other times they develop splendidly after a poor steps which should be developed by individ

Washington the school must continue to be ual school districts in their activities in the

an integral part of neighborhood life. Time start. Of this I feel fairly certain: it is construction field.

must be taken, therefore, for discussion difficult to predict what kind of leader a boy

with individuals and organized groups or girl will be. But that does not lessen 1. There is need for specific long-range

within the district as to what the building our duty to emphasize the careful choice studies of basic facts about the community,

should include. A true communityof leaders on the part of the electorate.” its population, its industrial changes, its

planned school will receive the enthusiastic "And another weakness: though boys student groups, and other significant factors.

endorsement of all patrons of the district. and girls can find many opportunities open This information may be used to predict to them to serve the school, boys and girls school needs for at least the next 10 or 15

6. When all opinions are collected the with originality, perseverance, and a will

school directors have the responsibility of years. to achieve, there still must be more oppor

sitting down with the superintendent and

2. The school board and the superintend. tunities made available. Much remains to

formulating a tentative plan of action. ent must study these facts carefully, adapt be done before any of us will be satisfied.

Here they will wish to review statistical them to the needs of their district, and inThe idea of service is to some extent still

aspects of their prolonged survey, with restricted to a minority of our pupils. Our terpret these findings to the community.

special concern given to need and finance. job is to demonstrate that we deserve to live 3. There must be completed by competent

If construction is feasible, then an architect in a democratic society by trying to solve our trained leadership a comprehensive survey

must be employed. No question deserves immediate problems in a cooperative way. of existing school facilities from the view

(Continued on page 10)

HIS STATEMENT brings School LIFE readers up to date on progress in the Project for Adult

Education of Negroes. The article is a conden sation of the third progress report on the project prepared by Ambrose Caliver, Specialist for Higher Education of Negroes, Project Director. See previous reports on this project in School LIFE, October 1946, and School LIFE, January 1948.


Project for Adult Education of Negroes

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GETS paid by

to give people the fundamental tools which made grants totaling $49,910 to the Project, check. Now I

will enable them to function effectively, at and from this amount $17,050 was allodon't have to make no least on the elementary level, as workers, cated to the six institutions which particiX. I can sign my citizens, and individuals. As a member of pated directly in conducting the Project. whole name myself. one of the Project classes said, “You got to · They were Atlanta University, Fort Valley Been comin' comin' since

have learnin' before you can do most any- State Teachers College, Tennessee Agricul. Christmas. I only wish thing."

tural & Industrial State College, Fisk UniI had learned about Projects on fundamental education are versity, Hampton Institute, and Virginia this class before."

in progress


other countries. State College. Many other organizations, Similar comments

UNESCO wants to include these in its pro- school systems, and individuals have cohave been made by gram and study them to find common prob- operated. hundreds of grown men and women who

lems and common solutions. It will also Experimental materials, such as basic have learned to sign their names in the serve as a clearinghouse through which ma- readers and workbooks, were produced and classes offered through the Project for Adult terials from such projects are disseminated. tested in classes. While these materials Education of Negroes sponsored by the

are suitable for many types of learners in Number of Illiterates Office of Education during the past 2 years,

a variety of localities and situations, the and directed by Ambrose Caliver, Specialist

The Project for Adult Education of difficulty of producing materials that have for Higher Education of Negroes.

Negroes concerned itself with the function- universal application is recognized. ThereAlarmed at the presence of 10 million ally illiterate Negroes, of whom there are fore emphasis has been placed on the procfunctionally illiterate adults in the United 3 million in the United States, or 2 out of ess rather than the product, and an effort States, the Office undertook the project in

every 5 of the adult Negro population. The made to stimulate teachers to develop ma1946 with financial assistance from the long-felt need for such adult education is terials based on the needs and interests of Carnegie Corporation of New York and the indicated by a comment of one of the class their pupils, particularly adults of low litercooperation of organizations, school sys.

members: “If only our foreparents had had асу levels. A comment of a member of one tems, and individuals. In the 2 years of its

this, I wouldn't be in this fix today. It is of the classes indicates that the Project existence, the Project has attracted national bad to have to meet people and don't know materials have realized their motivational and international attention, and the results how to meet them."

objective: “I like the story of Citizen King have been so successful that UNESCO may

The Project was designed as a demonstra- because it is what anyone has to do any adopt it as one of its associated projects tion or pilot effort to provide criteria and day. And he wouldn't have got that job in its world-wide assault on illiteracy.

guides, to make educational leaders aware if he hadn't gone to night school and got Clarence Beebe, Assistant Director Gen

of the seriousness of the situation and of some learnin'!” eral of UNESCO, and John Bowers, Direc

their responsibility, and to arouse the in- And another adult student said: “I like tor of Fundamental Education, visited the

terest of lay leaders of community organiza- the Language Workbook 'cause it helps me Office of Education during the spring to

tions concerning the problem and to indicate in my church work. They made me Presilearn about the Project. It was, they be

how they may cooperate in attacking it. dent of the literary department. Everylieved, an approach to the type of funda

The Carnegie Corporation of New York body's eyes is open to see how I'll act. So mental education in which they had a special interest. And at its meeting on June 25, 1948, the Panel on Fundamental Education of the U. S. National Commission for UNESCO nominated the Project for Adult Education of Negroes to be one of its associated projects. Fundamental education is designed to help under-privileged people to live fuller and happier jives in an ever changing environment; to develop the best elements in their own culture and to par

ADULT AMERICA S ticipate in the economic and social progress in their areas and in the world. It attempts

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I've been studyin' from my book and I hope nesia, Belgium, and Haiti, have either illiteracy can no longer be left to the unthat next Sunday at 3 o'clock you will all visited or written the Office of Education prepared, the immature, or the mere wellbe there to see how I do.”

to get information. Federal agencies, par- wishers; nor can it be left to voluntary and Nearly a thousand teachers and pro- ticularly the State Department, have re- unprofessional effort. Educational leaders spective teachers of adults who were in con- quested information and help. After the must come to recognize their responsibility tact with the Project have been exposed to introduction of the bill (S. 2801) for the in the matter, particularly in five areas of the principles discussed here and to the

purpose of providing funds to the States to service: Evaluation, selection, and productechniques of applying them. All of the help eradicate illiteracy, Senators and Rep- tion of instructional materials suitable for institutions participating in the Project are resentatives, as well as professional and lay teaching adults; preparation of adult edudetermined to continue the work, at least to leaders in practically every State in the cation teachers; preparation of teacher conduct classes for teachers of adults. Union, asked the Project for more in- trainers and supervisors; development of Their interest is indicated by the fact that formation.

teaching methods; and bringing about an they have almost matched the $17,050

awareness of and concern for the problem allotted to them by the Project. These and To Consolidate Gains

on the part of the public in general, and of other institutions plan to make the course Despite the interest which the Project has the legislators and public school officials in

aroused throughout the Nation, commu- particular.
nities and States are not yet ready to con- Many of the ills which afflict human be-
tinue it and to make an all-out attack on the ings—disease, poverty, crime, and malad-
problem of illiteracy without further stimu-

justments—find their greatest incidence lation and assistance. All concerned with

among the least educated. Moreover, so the Project believe that two or three ad- large a mass of undereducated people beditional years are needed in order to con- come a drag on the entire population. The solidate the gains made, and to prepare for lack of national wealth and strength resultthe Nation-wide campaign against illiteracy ing from this untapped reservoir of human which will begin if the Congress passes a resources is incalculable. national literacy education bill. With this

in mind, the Conference of Presidents of 6.

Negro Land-Grant Colleges has spear. Salaries Paid School

headed an effort to secure funds for such a The tire is on a car.

Librarians in 16 Large Cities program. Other organizations, including The man is standing up.

the National Council of Chief State School ACCORDING to recent reports from public

Officers, have endorsed its program, which The man is fixing a tire.

school systems in a group of 16 cities with is estimated to cost $370,000. It should

100,000 or more population, supervisors or The man is wearing a hat.

be emphasized that the proposed program directors of public school libraries are reThe man is feeding his dog.

would not be concerned solely with Ne- ceiving annual salaries ranging from less

groes, but that it would prepare the way, than $4,000 to more than $8,000. Three Page from instruction book used learning is

for an attack on illiteracy wherever it may linked with everyday practical experiences.

of the cities reported that school librarians be found throughout the Nation.

assigned to senior and junior high schools for teachers of adults a regular part of their Meanwhile, until needed funds may be work under the general supervision and curriculum. found, arrangements have been made to

direction of the school principal. Three Each year since its beginning evaluative continue a skeleton organization of the cities report special subject supervisors in conferences of adult education specialists Project and to conduct a minimum pro- libraries in addition to the general superhave been held to discuss techniques of gram. The Office of Education has made visor or director. group leadership, scientific validation of one professional staff member available on Secondary school librarians in the 16 materials and methods in adult education, a temporary basis to continue the prepa- cities are being paid a minimum of $2,200 development and effective use of instruc- ration, selection, and revision of materials, and a maximum of $5,700. Elementary tional materials, principles of teaching and insofar as possible to render consulta- school librarians are receiving a minimum adults, selection and preparation of tive and information service. In order to of $2,200 and a maximum of $5,200. teachers, special problems of organizing provide other necessary services and travel In the 22 States which have persons emclasses and training adults, and enlisting on a limited basis and to assure the con- ployed as State supervisors, directors, or the interest of school officials and com- tinuation of certain needed activities dur- consultants of school libraries, the salary munity leaders.

ing the interim period, four national Negro ranges from less than $3,000 to more than The Project has been operating on a organizations--the Elks, the Phi Beta $5,000. Two States employ two persons demonstration basis for 2 years and during Sigma Fraternity, the Conference of Presi- in this capacity. that time scores of requests for information dents of Negro Land-Grant Colleges, and Additional information on the subject has concerning literacy education in general the American Teachers Association have been prepared by Nora A. Beust, Specialist and the Project in particular have been offered to make a modest contribution to for School and Children's Libraries, and is received. Representatives of 25 countries, the Project.

available upon request from Service to including England, China, India, Indo- The time has come when the problem of Libraries, Office of Education.


Recent Supreme Court Decisions
Relating to Education

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station and studio equipment for broadcasting and 300 FM receiving sets for use in the schools. On the basis of one receiver for each 8 teachers, these sets were

distributed through the 70 schools of the In January 1948 the Supreme Court re

city system and the 91 units of the county 'OR OCTOBER 1948 SCHOOL LIFE Ward versed a decision of the highest court of

system, for use by a total of 90,000 students W. Keesecker, Office of Education Spe- Oklahoma and held that the State of Okla

in elementary and high schools. cialist in School Legislation, prepared a homa, in conformity with the equal protec

Aside from natural advantages of a fullsummary of the principal bills relating to

tion clause of the fourteenth amendment, time radio station, the two school systems education passed by the Eightieth Congress,

was required to provide qualified Negro second session, and signed by the President.

have received benefit already in two byapplicants with legal education equal to that products. First, there has been another For SCHOOL Life readers this month Dr. Keesecker digests recent court decisions afforded by the State institution for white

step toward a complete curriculum interelating to education. students and also that where admission was

gration by the two systems; and second, denied solely on the ground of color, man. the radio permits for the first time simul

damus would compel admission (Seipel v. taneous and identical instruction to Negro IN RECENT years an increasing number of

University of Oklahoma, 68 S. Ct. 299). and white students under the system of decisions by the United States Supreme Court have affected education among the

On March 8, 1948, the Supreme Court segregated schools.

rendered its decision in the case of McCol. The use of radio in Atlanta and Fulton several States. Three decisions are of par. ticular significance. Early in 1947 the lum v. Board of Education arising in Cham- County schools is not new. Researchers in

the field of radio education variously credit Supreme Court in a New Jersey case held paign, III. The Court held that sectarian that the use of public tax funds by school

religious instruction on public school prem- the Atlanta system with being either the first districts for paying the transportation of

ises during school time, of the kind offered or the second system to adopt it, the first children attending a parochial school was in the Champaign city schools, was not per

experience having come in 1926 when an

Atlanta dealer presented the schools with 60 not in violation of any provision of the Con

missible under the First Amendment of the stitution of the United States (Everson v. United States Constitution because it vio

battery-type receivers (one for each school)

and radio station WSB of Atlanta gave Board of Education of the Township of lated the principle of separation of Church

time for school broadcasts. This initial Ewing, 67 S. Ct. 504). and State (69 S. Ct. 461).

step was limited to cultural music programs, and through the years since then there has been some type of radio activity

through standard AM commercial stations. EN. Omar N. Bradley, Army Chief of two-way street-that with its benefits comes

The Department of Audio-Visual EducaStaff, in a recent address before the the necessity for also giving service. It is

tion of the Atlanta Board had maintained a Forty-ninth National Encampment, Veter- because American education has so often

radio division since 1942 for work through ans of Foreign Wars of the United States, failed to imprint this lesson of citizenship commercial stations for classroom broadin St. Louis, Mo., said, “I am already con- on the minds of these young men, that the

casts, and through recordings and turnvinced that the Army has too long ignored United States Army has felt it necessary to

tables to supplement the limited air time the insides of its men. During the war it stimulate their thinking while in the available. was apparent that men fought best when service.”

From an administrative standpoint, the they understood why they were fighting.

radio station will perform an important To give our troops conviction and to equip

function. Regularly, the period from 8:50 them with ample justification for the service Education by Radio

to 9 a. m. is set aside for administrative on which they embark, the Army will add in Atlanta

announcements, with one faculty member emphasis to its educational program."

in each school designated to receive and Continuing, he said, “Despite the oppor. ATLANTA and Fulton County schools

distribute official announcements. The statunities for free education that exist in these have joined a select group of 14 large city

tion was used in the week before school United States, too many young men come and county systems in the Nation owning opening on September 9 for administrative into the Army appallingly ill-informed on a full-time FM educational radio station. the issues and crises that warrant their serv

broadcasts to faculty members meeting at With the dedication of Radio Station ice. American education has failed to give

their respective schools. WABE-FM in September, they became the many young men an alert appreciation of first systems in the Southeast to have such

Although the planning of station operatheir liberties and a consequent explanation a facility to add to audio-visual education

tion, which went into the full classroom of their obligations. We have too long aids.

broadcasting schedule September 13, has concentrated on how to make good, how to Technically, the station is property of the

been very extensive, the use of radio in get ahead. We have taught our young peo- Atlanta Board of Education, but it was

the schools is not compulsory. Each ple how to plunder our resources, how to presented to the Board by the Rich Foun- teacher may elect to use any or all of the get jobs, and how to get rich. We have dation of Atlanta for use of both systems. programs for her grade level, or she may neglected to tell them that democracy is a The gift from the foundation included all disregard radio altogether. Teachers will

Army To Teach Lessons of Citizenship

Helping Teachers Keep Happy

receive bulletins announcing the programs and will be fully equipped through the station with utilization aids suggesting preparation of the classroom for listening, and FTER AN educational survey is made, "Our teaching load is too heavy," resupplemental activity to gain the most from what happens to the findings? There ported teachers in another State. The the radio programs. No program is de- appears to be no question of how certain complaint was met by showing the teachers signed to be self-contained, but demands State and local school administrators and national figures on teacher load with which prior or supplemental assistance from the home economics education leaders are mak- theirs compared favorably. Nevertheless, teacher.

ing use of information resulting from a where teaching load was found to be extra

study of home economics teaching satisfac- ordinarily heavy, the situation was remeBook Week-November 14-20 tions and dissatisfactions recently com- died as much as possible.

pleted. (See “Four Thousand Teachers “Books Tell the Story” is the slogan for Report on Their Jobs,” School Life, Oc

Reviewing Survey Findings the twenty-ninth national observance of tober 1948 issue.)

A council of representatives of women's Children's Book Week, November 14–20. Beulah I. Coon, Office of Education Re- organizations was approached in one State Book Fairs across the Nation is the theme search Specialist in Home Economics to see what could be done to provide better of the 1948 plans for the event.

Education, points out some of the steps be- recreational possibilities for teachers, to ing taken by States to insure a more ade- consider more satisfactory health services quate supply of home economics teachers

and more stimulating cultural opportunities and to keep those already on the job happy NOVEMBER 14 TO 20, 1948

in the communities. The council is rein their work. 4

viewing the survey findings on teacher The 4.216 replies from teachers in 46

attitudes toward community conditions States were made available to the respective

generally as well as community attitudes States for further study. To facilitate

toward teacher activities, reported by many study and action by States on the returns, three workshops were held in different sec

teachers as contributing to their job dis

tions of the country. State research chair-
men, State supervisors of home economics,

The study furnished fertile information and others reviewed the reports from teach

which another State used as a basis for ers, planned ways to improve conditions strengthening its home economics teachertermed unsatisfactory by the teachers, and training program. It also provided basic took steps to analyze and make more widely facts which guided another State in enknown what contributes to job satisfaction. couraging its teachers to do advanced

Analysis of returns by one State revealed study and get training for leadership in an that the better satisfied teachers had more effort to help maintain teacher satisfaction.

homelike home economics departments. BOOKS TELL THE STORY Their programs were adequately financed.

They themselves were properly recognized School Library Survey The Children's Book Council, 62 West by administrators for work well done. In Forty-fifth Street, New York 19, N. Y., is contrast, teachers with inadequate teaching AS A PART of its program of making

essential information on libraries available headquarters for the annual celebration of

materials and equipment, with insufficient Book Week. It has available planning

financial support, and recognized little or to administrators, the Office of Education aids, publicity materials, and the addresses

not at all for their accomplishments were will gather data about school libraries this of persons equipped to supply complete

found to be least satisfied in their positions. fall. Copies of the survey form, School Book Fairs of all sizes.

Several school administrators in this Library Statistics (1947-48), will be State met with home economics teachers in mailed to superintendents of city and in

State conference, considered these and dependent school districts and to county Higher Education Fall

other pertinent problems brought out in the superintendents for all school districts Enrollment study, and took action accordingly.

under their jurisdiction.

Another State saw a definite correlation HIGH LIGHTS of the survey of college

Administrators receiving forms are urged and university enrollment this fall will be

between teacher satisfaction and provision to have the form completed promptly and

of definite funds for operating expenses reported in an early issue of HIGHER

to return it to the Office of Education. EDUCATION, Office of Education semi

and of equipment for teaching a broad According to reports received from apmonthly periodical. The study, as in 1947,

home economics program rather than one proximately three-fourths of the superinwill report total number of students by sex, phase, such as foods or clothing. The tendents of city and rural districts in two the number of students enrolled for the first State simplified its methods of working previous studies, Statistics of Public School time in any college, and the number of vet- with school administrators to improve the Libraries, 1934–35 and 1941-42, 92 pereran students drawing benefits under Public adequacy of home economics education cent of the school systems reported on had Laws 16 and 346.

and of funds for operating expenses. some form of library service by 1942.

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