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Free publications listed on this page should be ordered directly from the agency
issuing them. Publications to be purchased should be ordered from the Super-
intendent of Documents. See “Three Ways to Order ..." on page 3 of cover,
this issue of SCHOOL LIFE.

from Your Government

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Office of Education

Vocational Division Publications (Revised Printed Bulletins

January 1948)

Occupational Books, 1947–48 (April 1948) Fostering Democracy Through Our Schools.

Business Experience for Business Teachers Education in Haiti (Bulletin, 1948, No. 1) (1948) 25 cents

How To Interpret Cumulative Records,
Making Democracy Work and Grow (1948,

Part 1 (October 1947)
No. 10) 15 cents

Information Concerning Child Labor

Standards (April 1948) Federal and State School Officers (Part 1, 1947–48 Educational Directory) 10 cents Library Statistics of Colleges and Uni

versities With Enrollments of 5,000 StuCounty and City School Officers (Part 2,

dents or More, 1946–47 (Circular No. 243. 1947–48 Educational Directory) 25 cents

June 1948)
Educational Associations and Directories

Studies and Reports on Hospital Occupa(Part 4, 1947–48 Educational Directory)

tions and on Selection and Training of 15 cents

Personnel. A Partial Bibliography of

Manuscripts and Publications Since 1939 Office of Education

(June 1948) Processed Materials

Life Adjustment Education for Every (Free-limited supply)

Youth (Revised)

Sources of Materials Dealing with Reading Suggestions for Securing Teaching Posi

Difficulties tions (April 1948)

Class Size. A Selected List of References Summary of Teacher Certification Require- by Year (from 1920 to 1948) (June 1948) ments, 1947-48 (February 1948)

The Major Principles of the Biological SciInnovations in Curriculum Organization

ences of Importance for General Education and Instructional Methods in Colleges and

(April 1948) Universities (Bibliography, April 1948)

Social Hygiene Education Bibliography Teacher Placement, Registration and Re

No. 1. Books and Pamphlets for Small lated Services, 1948 (Revised January and Preadolescent Children (Reprinted 1948)

April 1948) Institutions Offering Undergraduate Engi. Bibliography of Bibliographies on Adult neering Curricula (as of September 1947) Education (Adult Education References (no issue date)

No. 1, July 1948) Advance Statistics of State School Systems Methods of Instruction for Illiterates (Adult (May 1948, Circular No. 241)

Education References No. 2, July 1948) Statistics of Education of Negroes (March Material for Adult Illiterates (Both Foreign 1948)

and Native Born) (Adult Education ReferStatistics of Public Libraries in Cities with ences No. 3, August 1948) Populations of 100,000 or more for 1947, Adaptations of Classics and Famous Fiction with Comparative Summaries for 1945 and (Adult Education References No. 4, August 1946 (May 1948)

1948) Aviation Periodicals for Teachers and Adult Education Councils (Adult Education Pupils (April 1948)

References No. 5, July 1948)

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JAPAN, A Survey of Policy."
Prepared by Velma Hastings Cassidy, Division of
Historical Policy Research, and others. Department
of State Publication 3109. (In Documents and State
Papers, 1:3–31, April 1948) Single copies, 30
cents; annual subscription, $3.

Information and Publications Office, Library of Con-
gress. 11 p. Free.

Information and Publications Office, Library of Con-
gress. 8 p. Free.

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Official Journal of the Office of Education

Federal Security Agency

* Life

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IF YOU ARE a school administrator or a teacher, you are probably busier today than you have ever been in your educational career." Finding ways and means to accommodate in school and college record numbers of children and adults and helping to fashion educational offerings to meet their varied needs present challenges unprecedented in American educational history. It is our hope that you will find School LIFE a month-to-month aid during the school year as you face both old and new educational problems and search for the best possible solutions. Let us hear from you. We shall try to be as helpful as we can in the months ahead.

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Page A Visit to Midwood

1 Plans for Developing a School Building Program

3 Project for Adult Education of Negroes Salaries Paid School Librarians in 16 Large Cities .

5 Recent Supreme Court Decisions Relating to Education 6 Army To Teach Lessons of Citizenship

6 Education by Radio in Atlanta .

6 Book Week-November 14-20 .

7 Higher Education Fall Enrollment

7 Helping Teachers Keep Happy

7 School Library Survey

7 Publishers Support Campaign for Better Schools

8 True-False Quiz on Class Size

10 New Staff Specialist

10 Education Can Change Community Life

11 Code for Comics .

12 Ten-Point Goal To Strengthen Teaching

13 Life Adjustment Education Conference in Arkansas 13 International Conference on the Crippled

14 Aviation Education Reports .

15 World-Wide Interest in American Education

15 New Books and Pamphlets

16 Recent Theses in Education

16 Government Films ...

16 Special-Purpose Publications

Inside back cover Educational Aids From Your Government

Back cover

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LOOK FOR TWO or three definitive articles in School LIFE each month. Scan the remaining pages for research finding high lights, briefed to save printing space and to conserve your reading time. Don't hesi. tate to reproduce or make available to others any information presented in SCHOOL LIFE. Use it as you wish. Simply credit School Life as the source.

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Students of Brooklyn's Midwood High School hold a board of estimate meeting similar to one conducted by the city government.


by Ellsworth Tompkins, Specialist for Large High Schools

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HAD the Sherlock Holmes feeling as I turned from Glenwood

Road into Bedford Avenue on my way to the main entrance of Midwood High School in Brooklyn one bright Monday morning recently. I was after clues. What makes successful student gov. ernment successful? How well is the student body acquainted with the status, activities, and functions of the student council? Is this one of the criteria of effective student government? To what extent is successful government the result of the principal's enthusiasm for it? If student government fails, why does it fail? Is it important for the student council to have a constitution? By what means do pupils learn about student government when they first come to the school? Questions such as these were running through my mind as I entered the school and was escorted to the principal's office, where I waited for Dr. Ross. It was immediately apparent that he was a busy man and that Midwood was a place of motion, action, and pleasantness. I wondered whether Midwood was too busy for a caller who wanted to look into its student government and not be hurried about it.

"My name is Ross. Very happy to meet you. Won't you come in?” It was the principal. And in I went. With the in

troductions, the weather, the matter of mutual friends, and usual pleasantries exchanged, we came to the point: Student government . . . Midwood . . . questions i see at first hand ... outstanding practices . . . results.

"Perhaps it would be better if Miss Kroeber and Mr. Kussin joined us,” Principal Ross suggested. “They know more about it. I'll ask them to come in. Mr. Kussin is the Adviser to the Student Government and Miss Kroeber is Administrative Assistant that

ins vice principal outside of New York City." I had remembered those names from the Midwood Baedeker, the school handbook, which had been sent to me, along with copies of the Argus, the school newspaper. The Argus had interested me because it had freely, analytically, and constructively criticized the activities and projects of the student government.

"Do you devote much of your time to student government in the school?I asked.

"You probably know what we call our student government. All the students know it as the City of Midwood. No, I believe I don't put too much time on it, but I do give it a lot of emphasis. As for the students, they put a lot of time on it, however. And that's the

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way it should be, in my opinion-oh, come “Do


have a double session at Mid- “Taxes were 40 cents last term,” Prinin, please! This is Miss Kroeber, and this wood?" I inquired.

cipal Ross put in. “Forty cents per student. is Mr. Kussin. I was just saying that as “Yes we do. We have school from Once he pays that he is entitled to all the principal I put considerable emphasis on about 7:45 a. m. to about 5:30 p. m., and normal activities of the City of Midwood the importance of the City of Midwood.we don't care too much for it, because of and he's a citizen of Midwood."

“That's true, and the emphasis you give the fact that many of our pupils attending “That seems somewhat complicated. Do it is so very important. It's one of the school on the afternoon session get home so the pupils understand it?” chief reasons for whatever success we have,” late -."

Ask the Pupils said Miss Kroeber.

"That must be quite a draw-back to you “I know you call it the City of Midwood, and the students in promoting successful “I think so, without much difficulty. But but why do you?” I asked. student government, isn't it?”

you can probably find that out best by ask

Miss Kroeber said, "Well, I don't know ing the pupils,” said the principal. What About Taxes?

about that: I've worked in other schools, There was indication that this thread of “We say City of Midwood," she con- you know, and I think there is not too much explanation had spun out, so I said, “Maybe tinued, "because our student government connection between daily time schedule, now is the time to ask you about the is patterned after that of New York City. school size, all the mechanical details of strong points of your student government." I really think it's relatively unimportant school management and the success of “Well, I should say that one strong point what form is used, so long as participation student government. Of course, we could is the fact that the City of Midwood has is effective. The city government of New use that as an excuse. But to us it is a complete responsibility for drawing up York is rather complicated, in case you challenge to have good student govern- the budget, for approving disbursements don't know it, and we believe our students ment despite some of these apparent handi- through our budget commission," said Mr. will become better acquainted with their

caps. So, to

answer your question, I Kussin. "The students levy the taxes, colcity government by using it as a pattern should


the double session has not inter- lect them, and spend them. That gives them for Midwood. That's my opinion.” How easy

for Midwoodites to like Miss Kroeber! Attractive, alert, gracious, wellspoken, soft-voiced, pleasant in manner.

“Then, if the City of Midwood is a miniature replica of the city of New York, what do you do about taxes?" I said facetiously.

They laughed. “That's right, there are taxes, levied and collected, and argued over," said Mr. Kussin, the adviser, a tall young man, who gave the impression of quiet strength.

“You better explain how it works,” Dr. Ross added.

"Well, the City of Midwood is headed by a mayor chosen by the student body at large. This term the mayor of Midwood is David Fischer. Then we have eight term-presidents (corresponding to borough Freshman students actively direct and participate in their own orientation program at the Midwood High. presidents), and they are elected by the different classes—you know-senior 1,

fered with the progress of our student gov- a sense of power and responsibility in being senior 2, junior 1, and so forth. That's

ernment as much as might be expected. able to run their finances. That seems to because we have graduation twice a year,

But we have one council for the morning be one of our most evident strengths. Then, not once a year. Then we have a comp

session and one for the afternoon, and these through the election commissioners, the troller, chief justice of the student court,

two councils are made up of the homeroom City of Midwood sets up procedures for all

presidents. Each council then elects its own platforms and elections. If you look over and secretary, all of whom were elected by

chairman, and he or she and the officers that election notice on the table, you will see the whole student body. But the really

elected by the entire student body and the that the two election commissioners wrote basic position is the president of the home

eight term-presidents comprise the board that themselves. I didn't write it, Dr. Ross room, elected by each homeroom group.

of estimate, and now we're around to taxes. didn't. They did, with only an English He supervises all activities in his room and

They are set by the board of estimate after teacher to approve style, not content, as serves as delegate to the city council. Now

the rigmarole of budgetary proceedings required by City of Midwood regulations. the-.” As Mr. Kussin looked at Miss

and hearings. After the budget is made That is another strength." Kroeber, she continued what he was saying. up, it must be passed by the city council. "I think," Miss Kroeber was speaking, “Yes, the city council m. and

And before any homeroom president votes, "that the City of Midwood is responsible he discusses the budget with his section.” student government because it is not being



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