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ORLD WAR I, fought by the Allies to make the world safe should furnish sufficient information to make the 1948 observance
for democracy, came to an end November 11, 1918, with appealing and dividend-paying. the signing of the Armistice. Three years later the first American The Office of Education has also prepared especially for use Education Week was observed to help carry the word of the during the coming American Education Week a folder titled, schools into the home—to gain public support of school efforts to “Fostering Democracy Through Our Schools.” This publication strengthen the fiber of our Nation through education—to attack offers practical suggestions for schools and colleges, pointing out in peacetime the enemies of national progress and security, what can be done to help school administrators, teachers, and illiteracy and ill health, which loomed large on the horizon as we students plan and carry forward programs for fostering democracy. prepared for World War I.
These suggestions are drawn from the practices and programs of Thus it was appropriate that the three national organizations schools, colleges, and communities throughout the country, and sponsoring American Education Week--the American Legion, the they tie in with the Zeal for American Democracy program launched National Congress of Parents and Teachers, the National Educa- during the past school year by the Office of Education, and now tion Association, with the Office of Education-agreed that the being promoted by States and local communities. observance should be held during that week beginning on Sunday
Write to the National Education Association, 1201 16th St., which includes Armistice Day.
N.W., Washington 6, D. C., for the American Education Week
packet which includes, in addition to the folder on Fostering De. Daily Topics
mocracy, brief statements on topics and sponsors for use by speakers Also interesting for this year's twenty-eighth annual observance and writers, program ideas for Sunday observance for educational of American Education Week is the theme, Strengthening the Foun
and religious leaders, parent and family life suggestions prepared dations of Freedom, which has a strangely similar ring to the by the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, health projects World War I battle cry—“making the world safe for democracy,”
suggested by the American Association of Health, Physical Educapreviously mentioned.
tion and Recreation, and other American Education Week aids. Agnes Samuelson of the National Education Association says The packet costs 50 cents. that the daily topics gear into this theme by pointing up critical areas in which speedy advances must be made if schools and col.
American Education Week leges are to be equipped in terms of the size of their tasks. These topics are presented by School Life in the accompanying box.
SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 7. Learning To Lire Ta American Education Week offers an opportunity for schools and colleges to interpret their programs and needs to the public—to
MONDAY, NOVEMBER 8. Improving the Educı bring schools closer to the public—to bring the public closer to the schools. This year's observance comes at a time when public
TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 9. Securing Qualified interest is already roused. It provides an opportunity to develop programs that should reap rich results.
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 10. Providing Adequa Manual of Suggestions
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 11. Safeguarding Our 4 Cooperating with the other sponsoring organizations, the Office of Education helped prepare the Public Relations Manual which FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 12. Promoting Health a should be a basic guide for American Education Week programs this year. It reports facts which every citizen should know about SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 13. Developing Worthy his schools and offers specific suggestions for mobilizing community support of the schools. This manual, with American Education Strengthening the Foundations of Freedom Week helps available from the National Education Association,
United Nations Day
CIRCLE October 24 on your calendar and as you
do will be calling your own attention to "a day in history” which peoples of many lands will join in observing this year for the first time United Nations Day.
Never before have the nations of the world set aside one dayinternationally—for a common purpose. But they now have agreed that at least one day of the year should be reserved to give special emphasis to the achievement of enduring peace through the United Nations.
Not only do these documents provide excellent source material
for teaching history classes, but they could be used through Marks Anniversary
exhibits and special study projects to arouse interest in and underUnited Nations Day, the General Assembly of the United Nations standing of the United Nations among students and in the comdecided, “shall be devoted to making known to the peoples of the munity. Educational potentialities are so many that we venture world the aims and achievements of the United Nations and to
to suggest only a few. gaining their support for the work of the United Nations.". It
1. Study projects for classes in modern history or civics, based on marks the anniversary of the coming into force of the United
assigned reading in some of these records. Nations Charter in 1945.
2. Dramatization by the students of a typical United Nations Com
mittee or General Assembly session, using these records as Aids for Schools
source material to indicate the attitude of each nation on some
copies of which are available to schools. the exhibit from time to time so as to attract continuing interest
United Nations countries to make known with posters designed by the students to explain the significance ether
the aims and objectives of the United of the documents.
Nations. Other aids for United Na. ional Program
tions Day observance are available from Pay Express Only pachers
the Department of State, including Teachers or school administrators who could make effective use posters and wall charts.
of one or more sets should send their requests immediately to the e Finance
Division of International Educational Relations, Office of Educa. United Nations Records
tion, Washington 25, D. C. Since there is no appropriation availnerica
To help those teaching about the able to cover the cost of transportation, the documents will have
United Nations, the Office of Education to be sent by express collect. However, each complete set weighs 1 Safety
is offering to schools and colleges only about 16 pounds, so that express charges range between $1 and
throughout the country an opportunity to $3 depending upon the distance from Washington, D. C. Family Life
acquire free a complete set of the ver- Available also as a useful United Nations Day aid to schools is batim records of the First Session of the a publication, “Peace Day in The United Nations,” an 84-page United Nations Assembly, held in New volume issued by The Committee for Peace Day in the United York City, Oct. 23-Dec. 16, 1946. Nations, 25 Beacon Street, Boston 8, Mass.
United States Educational Developments
Q's and A's
schools in 1945–46. The estimated number FORTY-FIVE countries sent 83 delegates education. ... A Gallup poll taken July of high school graduates for 1947–48 is to the Eleventh International Conference on 7, 1947, showed 41 percent of all adults in.
1,056,000. The study shows that fewer Public Education which was held at Geneva, terested in participating in adult education students are dropping out of high school Switzerland, June 28-July 3. Representing activities, in comparison with 34 percent before graduation. the United States at the Conference were who showed interest in December 1944, Ruth E. McMurry of the UNESCO Relations when a similar survey was made.
Q: Did the college degree survey disclose Staff, Department of State, and Galen Jones, At the same time that they have been anything of significance? director, Division of Secondary Education, trying to inculcate a deeper appreciation A: Yes—that almost 100,000 more col. Office of Education. The Commissioner of of the advantages of citizenship in a free lege students received degrees during 1947Education designated Dr. Jones as chairman society, America's schools have been at- 48 than in any past year. Because a larger of the United States Delegation.
tempting to make their pupils world- number of women were admitted to medical “Educational Developments in the United minded.
schools during World War II, there was States, 1947-48," a 3,500-word report, was One of the most notable developments of an increase of 25 percent in number of presented to the Conference by Dr. Jones. the year in secondary education has been
women graduates in medicine. Bachelors' He also visited the Ministries of Education a widespread revival of interest in the re- degrees in business and commerce, which in France, Belgium, Holland, and the United organization of the curriculum. The goal stood at 21,000 in 1939-40, rose to 35.000 Kingdom while abroad.
is the development of a program which will in 1947–48, an increase largely due to enExcerpts from the summary report on serve the needs of all the students who now rollment of large numbers of veterans in United States educational developments pre- attend high school.
these fields. The number of women gradusented to the Geneva Conference are offered For some years good elementary schools ates in education indicates that there will to School Life readers as follows:
have been emphasizing programs built probably be an adequate supply of high While America's schools escaped the around the needs and interests of children, school teachers in most fields, although physical ravages of war, they suffered a rather than formal subject matter divisions. there will continue to be a shortage of eleconsiderable degree of deterioration during New impetus was given to this trend in cur- mentary school teachers. Many of those the war period—a set-back from which they riculum planning by the publication of a
trained for secondary school teaching may have by no means completely recovered. recent American Council on Education re- have to go into elementary education teach
The 1947–48 school year witnessed a port, Helping Teachers Understand Chil- ing positions if they wish to continue in the number of administrative changes designed dren, and by a Leadership Conference held profession. A scaled-down veteran enroll. to extend the services of the American edu- by the Division of Elementary Education of ment expected this fall will mean fewer cational system to a larger number of chil- the Office of Education in June 1947. graduates 3 or 4 years hence. dren and youth and to achieve increased In the United States, as in every country, efficiency and flexibility. Notable develop- the teacher is at the heart of the educational Q: What will the veteran enrollment be ments included a downward extension of
system. It is, therefore, highly constructive this year? education to provide for children below six that much has been done during the year A: It is estimated that it will be about and an upward extension to provide for a to improve teachers' working conditions and 1,000,000 about 100.000 fewer than last thirteenth and fourteenth year of schooling. enhance their prestige.
enhance their prestige. ... Observers year. The decline in the number of very small are agreed that the constructive trends of high schools was regarded as a highly de- the year will have to carry a good deal Q: How many veterans are going to colsirable development. In 1938 there were further before teaching can hold or attract
lege in other countries? 1,839 high schools in the United States with as many able people as are needed.
A: Between 5,000 and 6,000. About fewer than 25 pupils; in 1946 the number The United States report also dealt with
20,000 students from other countries are enin this category had declined to 1,209. health education and services, education of
rolled in American colleges and universities. The Office of Education reported 162,300 exceptional children, guidance and psycho
Both of these enrollments are all-time highs. students enrolled in 246 public community logical services, and exchange of students colleges in the autumn of 1947. The junior and teachers.
Q: How will the draft affect high school college, or, as it is increasingly coming to Other items on the agenda at the Geneva
enrollment? be called, the community college, has made Conference were: The Teaching of Hand- A: Hardly at all. The law provides that marked progress in the United States in writing, The Role of School Psychologists, high school students may have their inducrecent years.
The Development of International Under- tion postponed until graduation or until During the year there were numerous in- standing Among Young People, and Teach- they reach their twentieth birthday, or until dications of heightened interest in adult ing About International Organizations. they cease doing satisfactory work.
Q: Will the selectee under the Selective
Second Annual Contest
THIRTY representatives of vocational and secondary education from State departments of education and teacher training institutions in Indiana and six adjoining States participated in a work conference on life adjustment education at Indiana Uni. versity, July 25–31. The conference was sponsored by Indiana University and the Office of Education. Carl G. F. Franzen and Galen Jones were directors.
Chairmen of working groups were Victor M. Houston of Illinois State Normal University, Leon S. Waskin of the Michigan State Department of Public Instruction, and Max S. Huebner of the Northern Illinois State Teachers College. The chief emphasis of the conference was upon effective action programs in improving pupil personnel services and curriculum offerings, organizational patterns at State and local levels, and pre-service and in-service programs of teacher education.
S SCHOOLS and colleges all over the able, and may be secured from the Office
Nation reopen for another year, the of Education on request: spotlight of attention is again turned on the
Report on the National Conference on great need for reexamining and strength- Zeal for American Democracy—from May ening programs of citizenship education.
1948 SCHOOL LIFE. There is no more important area of the
Reprint from the Congressional Record curriculum than that devoted to the de
of March 3, 1948—a bibliography of revelopment of citizens imbued with a zeal for
liable reading matter on communism. American democracy and ready to defend it against all hostile forces.
Report of Sub-Committee No. 5—ForEight regional "Zeal for American De.
eign Affairs—of 80th Congress, 2nd ses. mocracy” conferences with Chief State
sion, House Document No. 619, on “The School Officers or their representatives were
Strategy and Tactics of World Comsponsored by the Office of Education during
munism." the summer.
These conferences, each of Study Outline for High School Classes 1-day duration, were arranged to learn the on "The Strategy and Tactics of World progress of the Zeal for American Democ- Communism" by Howard H. Cummings. racy program in the respective States, to Study Guide for College Classes on “The acquaint State leaders with resource ma- Strategy and Tactics of World Commuterial assembled by the Office of Education, nism" by Jennings B. Sanders. and to lend assistance to States desiring to Special issue of Higher Education pehold State-wide conferences this fall.
riodical on Zeal for American Democracy, The regional conferences were held at May 1, 1948. Washington, D. C., Boston, Mass., Atlanta, “Teaching High School History and So. Ga., Oklahoma City, Okla., St. Paul, Minn., cial Science for Citizenship Training" by Chicago, Ill., Denver, Colo., and Sacra- Charles C. Peters, University of Miami. mento, Calif.
"Growing into Democracy,” a series of More than 35,000 copies of the February pamphlets for elementary schools, preissue of School Life, devoted to the Zeal pared by Harriet A. Houdlette. (Supply for American Democracy theme, have been almost exhausted.) sold by the Superintendent of Documents, Two issues of “Pointers” reporting curGovernment Printing Office. This basic rent activities in education for American guide to information presented to help democracy. schools and colleges strengthen their pro- “Making Democracy Work and Grow," grams of education for democracy and
giving practical suggestions for students, against totalitarianism is still available. teachers, administrators, and other com(Price 20 cents—25 percent discount on munity leaders. 100 copies or more sent to one address.) In less than a year, the Zeal for Amer
Through conferences, addresses, and ican Democracy program has gained Naother publications, the Office of Education tion-wide momentum. Much progress has has endeavored to stimulate the Zeal for been made. State departments of educaAmerican Democracy program since July tion and local school systems are now 1947, when Congress appropriated funds carrying the program forward. The Ofcalling for Office of Education leadership fice of Education will continue to regard in this phase of education. To date, in this activity as a major project. Every addition to the February 1947 School LIFE, effort will be made to assist State and local the following aids for use by school adminis- school systems in promoting and developing trators and teachers have been made avail. effective Z. A. D. programs.
THE NUMBER of students attending colleges and universities in 1947–48 was larger than the total attending public high schools in this country in 1920.
School and College
This statement is presented by Ray L. Hamon, Chief, School Housing Section, Divi. sion of School Administration, Office of Education.
THE NATION is faced with the worst school and college building crisis in its his. tory. This situation is due to a combination of factors, related for the most part to World War II.
Enrollments. The first wave of war babies enrolled in school in the fall of 1947, and it is estimated that the entering classes will continue to increase for several years (see table on inside of back cover for latest estimates). It is expected that 3 million new children will enter school in 1949 and that the 1953 entering class will reach a figure of 3.7 million. Colleges and universities have had unprecedented enroll. ment increases due to deferred schooling and the veterans' educational program. In many spot surveys the estimated increases based on actual child count show percent. age increases three times the national estimate. There are 2 million 5-year-olds and 4.5 million 16- to 19-year-olds not now attending school. With increased interest in kindergarten education and postwar em. phasis on continuation and terminal educational programs for youth, it may be expected that the 1954–55 enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools will exceed the 1947–48 enrollment by 6.2 mil. lion. This one factor alone will require more than 200,000 new elementary and secondary classrooms.
Population Shifts and District Reorganization.—The war resulted in the greatest population shifts of any periods in American history, and this shifting and reshift. ing is continuing as the economy adjusts to a peacetime basis and housing becomes available. In many cases the population has moved away from sections which were served by old school buildings into sections where there are few, if any, school facilities. In most States the small inefficient school district is giving way to larger and more efficient administrative units and attendance areas; therefore modern consolidated plants are required to replace the little dilapidated schoolhouses which were ning in the red.
Expanding Offering.--Social and economic changes during and following the
war have accelerated curricular changes in number of children of school age and the
Conference Plans for Youth
tional organizations and Federal Govern. Deferred Construction and Mainte- ment agencies interested in camping pronance.—Relatively few new school and col. grams for youth met in the Office of Edulege plants have been erected since 1940, cation near the close of the 1947-48 school and regular maintenance programs have year to consider camping and related outbeen neglected owing to manpower and ma- door educational activities and their naterial shortages. Thus, thousands of build- tional significance. Included among the ings which normally would have been re- organizations represented were the Girl placed have been continued in service and Scouts of America, Boy Scouts of America, allowed to fall into a poor state of repair. the Young Men's Christian Association, the As a result many educational plants now in Future Farmers of America, the 4-H Clubs use are obsolete, unhealthful, and unsafe. of the Department of Agriculture, the Na.
Planning Trends. There are distinct tional Catholic Welfare Conference, and trends in plant planning which point to- the National Park Service of the Departward: (1) Functional plants which will ment of the Interior. house more adequately modern educational Agreeing that many learning experiand community programs, (2) larger sites ences can be gained by youth outside the for recreational use, (3) larger teaching classroom, the conference adopted a stateareas to permit more activity in the learning ment of principles, chief of which is: Pubprocess, (4) facilities for convenient stor. lic schools should provide opportunity for age and use of more instructional supplies camping experience for all youth as a and aids, (5) better seeing conditions by part of the educational program. Emphaimproving interior decoration and natural sizing the need for cooperation, coordinaand artificial lighting, (6) one-story open
tion, and demonstration, the conference Continued on page 16
also considered the general areas to which the school camp can make major education
contributions at the elementary and secondSchool Lunch
ary school levels. How to provide and finance school camping facilities was dis
cussed. Specific recommendations of the ALLOCATION of funds to the States and conference are presented in a report, copies Territories for operation of the 1948–49 of which are available from the Office of National School Lunch Program has been Education. made by the United States Department of Organizations, other than those previ. Agriculture.
ously mentioned, represented at the conA total of $58,800,000 of the $75,000,000 ference were: National Education Associa. appropriated by Congress for this year's tion, American Vocational Association, program has been apportioned to the par- Federal Inter-Agency Committee on Recticipating States, the District of Columbia, reation, National Association of Secondary and to the Territories of Hawaii, Puerto School Principals, American Association Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Alaska. This of School Administrators, American Counis roughly $5,000,000 more than was allo- cil on Education, Michigan State Departcated last year, when appropriations totaled ment of Public Instruction, and McKinley $70,000,000.
High School, Washington, D. C. Chair. Funds allocated to the States are used man of the subcommittee which prepared to reimburse participating schools for a part the conference report was Rall I. Grigsby, of their local purchases of food for school director, Division of Auxiliary Services, lunches. They are apportioned on the basis Office of Education, now Acting Commisof a formula which takes into account the sioner of Education.