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Electronic Magic-Use It or You Lose It
School of the Sky” series that was broadcast over 12 commercial stations for 30 weeks to the elementary schools last school term.
Educators should consult with their local radio stations and work out arrangements
that will be mutually profitable. Because of space limitation School Life presents only selected excerpts from the Convocation
Every schoolroom in America should be Lecture at Indiana University by Wayne Coy, Chairman, Federal Communications Commission.
equipped with its own radio set. It should Mr. Coy's address before the Second Annual Conference on Radio in Education challenges all school administrators and teachers to consider radio's role in meeting today's many varied
be freely integrated with classroom work
as a major educational tool. As soon as communication needs. Copies of the full lecture are available from the Federal Communica
television becomes available in a commu. tions Commission, Washington 25, D. C.
nity, every schoolroom should be equipped with a television screen—the electronic
blackboard of the future. Besides the HE overcrowding of our schools, the 2. To reach those who cannot go to
classroom use of radio, educators can help teacher shortage, the unprecedented de. college.
to guide the students' use of radio in the mand for all types of education and train- 3. To provide a continuing educational
home. This wider, more intelligent use of ing, the deficiencies of our libraries, the opportunity for those who have left college. commercial radio is a joint responsibility informational requirements involved in our
Every fact of our times cries for the im- of the broadcaster and the educator. But
because there are limits to what the composition of world leadership, all these prob.
mediate and widespread utilization of this
mercial broadcaster can do in the field of lems constitute grave challenges to the edu
precedented enrollments. the shortage of education, a vast area of opportunity is cators of America. They are challenges to
teachers, ihe shortage of physical facilities, open to the radio station operated directly everyone engaged in the expression arts.
the demand for adult education, the in- by the educational institutions. If you could spend a day at the Federal
sistent and complex nature of the problems First, let us see how educators have Communications Commission, I can assure of modern life.
availed themselves of the past opportunities you that you would quickly appreciate the
to set up their own standard broadcast staextent to which industry is attempting to Quick and Inexpensive
tions. Today, only 34 standard stations are utilize every advance in the field of elec
Radio will not only magnify the educa- operated by educational institutions. Of tronics. ... But I regret to say, education, tor's effectiveness; it can mean an actual
these, 9 sell time. That compares with unlike industry, has failed to convert. It dollars and cents savings in tax money.
2,000 stations operated by commercial inhas failed to equip itself with the new tools Radio can enable our educational institu- terests. There are now only 17 noncom. needed to cope with conditions of a new tions to educate more effectively, more
mercial educational FM stations in opera
tion. day. It is clinging to the old ways of old quickly, more cheaply.
Ten more are under construction. days. . .. Radio is still the Dark Conti- There are many splendid examples of
There are only 4 applications pending. nent of American education. fruitful cooperation between schools and
What You May Lose Look for a moment at the great race to
commercial broadcast stations. WHAS in establish new stations in the field of broad- Louisville, Kentucky, is making radio his- In view of the possibility of 800 stations tory by cooperating with the University of
and state and regional networks, we can casting—a race in which education has
Louisville to broadcast the first college see that we are hardly on the threshold of been left at the barrier. course for credit ever offered by any stand
noncommercial educational FM radio. ard commercial station. ... The plan of
There are unlimited opportunities ahead. Education Straggling
NBC for a nation-wide college-by-radio The growth of commercial FM broadcastRailroads are converting to radio com
project is a bold approach to the adult ing is resulting in an increasing distribumunication. Taxicabs are converting to
education problem. I wish also to compli- tion of FM receiving sets. Audiences are radio. Public utilities are converting to ment Indiana University on its “Indiana being created for educational broadcastradio. Bus lines, truck lines, doctors'
ing. I must point out here that radio chanautos, delivery trucks, private autos are be
nels are too valuable to be left in idleness. ing equipped with radio. We are in the
What Can a Superintendent
If educators fail to utilize them, they will midst of a communication revolution. Edu
or High School Principal Do?
have lost their second and perhaps last cators are among our chief communicators.
1. Write to the Superintendent of Docu
chance to own and operate their own radio In that revolution they should be marching ments, Washington 25, D. C., for "FM stations. If education should lose out in in their rightful place at the head of the for Education.” Misc. No. 7, Revised 1948, FM it will also lose its chance for facsimile column. Instead they are the stragglers.
price 20 cents.
broadcasting. Facsimile travels over FM Educators have a threefold duty in our
2. Write to your State Department of Edu
channels. Facsimile broadcasting makes
cation to learn what your State is doing. society:
possible the electronic newspaper, the
3. Write to the Federal Communications 1. To provide a more effective, more Commission, Washington 25, D. C., for
electronic textbook. ... Printed text imaginative, more zestful education for full text of Mr. Coy's address.
would be sent into the homes to accompany those now in our schools and colleges.
oral instructions. Maps, photographs,
charts, instructional guides, musical and State departments of education all need To Vitalize Reading Program
-all sorts of informational matter to help improve conditions, if teaching is would be sent over the FM channels. But to be made a more satisfying job than it READING is so fundamental to the educathe educational institution that delays too now appears to be.
tion of everyone that it is the basis of all long and wakes up some fine day to find Order the full report “Factors Affecting
education. So said Herold C. Hunt, genall the educational FM channels in its area the Satisfactions of Home Economics eral superintendent of Chicago schools, in gone will also be foreclosed from using Teachers,” AVA Research Bulletin No. 3, addressing the recent eleventh annual readthis electronic printing press.
To lose from the American Vocational Association, ing conference at the University of Chi. these opportunities would be a sad com- Washington, D. C. (75 cents)
cago. Dr. Hunt stated that reading is mentary on the American educator's ability
every teacher's job, and he called for vitalto adapt himself to changing conditions.
ization of the reading program through use The school system without radio must go Status of Students
of visual aids, the radio, and other devices. the way of the little Red School House. Under Selective Service Stressing the need for careful planning
to meet the needs, abilities, and interests of HOW DO high school and college students pupils, Superintendent Hunt urged teachers Four Thousand Teachers
fare under the Selective Service Act of to take time to emphasize reading lesson
1948? Report on Their Jobs
What exemptions do 'they have activities so that learning would be more under the new draft law ?
meaningful and lasting. Each child should “YES, I’M handing in my resignation,” the Following are excerpts from the law have not only the opportunity to learn to home economics teacher in a small town which answer these questions for teachers read but also the chance to read to learn, told her superintendent. “The parents have and students:
according to Dr. Hunt. been very cooperative and I've thoroughly “Any person who, while satisfactorily enjoyed working with the pupils. How. pursuing a full-time course of instruction Just issued is an 8-page Office of Educaever,
the continual criticism in the commu- at a high school or similar institution of tion bulletin titled "Sources of Materials nity of everything teachers do, combined learning, is ordered to report for induction Dealing With Reading Difficulties,” prewith the inadequate and inefficient equip- under this title prior to his graduation from pared by Helen H. Murray, research assistment in the department makes me feel I can- such school or institution, shall, upon the ant, Division of Secondary Education, Office
facts being presented to the local board, of Education. This multilithed publicaThis is but one of the many interesting have his induction under this title postponed tion contains three bibliographies—sources points of view expressed by the 4,216 home (A) until the time of his graduation there- of material to meet the reading needs of the economics teachers taking part in a study from, or (B) until he attains the twentieth retarded reader; books written for the pupil recently made by the Home Economics Sec. anniversary of his birth, or (C) until he of low reading ability; and book lists for tion of the American Vocational Associa- ceases satisfactorily to pursue such course normal readers. Copies are free in limited tion in cooperation with the Office of Edu- of instruction, whichever is the earliest. number from the Division of Secondary cation and home economists in 46 States. The induction of any such person shall not Education, Office of Education, WashingThis study dealt with job satisfactions and be postponed under this paragraph beyond ton 25, D. C. dissatisfactions and was made for the pur- the date so determined. pose of learning why home economics "Any person who, while satisfactorily Attracting New Teachers teachers leave the profession and what can pursuing a full-time course of instruction at
Continued from page 2 be done to improve conditions in this field a college, university, or similar institution ahead with a variety of ways—the program of instruction.
of learning, is ordered to report for induc- should have solid information as well as The study has produced significant re- tion under this title, shall, upon the facts inspirational pulling power. The teaching sults, according to Beulah I. Coon, research being presented to the local board, have profession has nothing to offer the faint of specialist in Home Economics Education in his induction under this title postponed (A) heart, the bigoted, or the unimaginative. the Office of Education. It shows that until the end of such academic year or (B) And this should be made unmistakably teacher satisfaction on the job is influenced until he ceases satisfactorily to pursue such clear. by a wide variety of factors and that many course of instruction, whichever is the ear- In attracting the kind of young people of the dissatisfactions reported by teachers lier. Nothing in this paragraph shall be the profession so gravely needs, the eloare associated with conditions which can deemed to preclude the President from pro- quence of Pearl Buck's plea for teachers and should be corrected. Situations caus- viding, by regulations prescribed under sub- cannot be overstated. “Only the brave ing greatest dissatisfactions among teach. section (h) of this section, for the defer- should teach," said Mrs. Buck. "Only those ers relate to (1) community and living con. ment from training and service of any who love the young should teach. Teachditions, (2) the professional aspects of category or categories of students for such ing is a vocation. It is as sacred as priestteaching, and (3) conditions existing in periods of time as he
ap- hood; as innate a desire, as inescapable, as the school. propriate.”
the genius which compels a great artist. The report of the study for the Nation Copies of the Selective Service Act are Indeed, a true teacher is a priest and he is gives detailed information on salaries, available from the Superintendent of Docu- an artist. If he has not the concern for teaching load, community conditions, and ments, Government Printing Office, Wash- humanity, the love of living creatures, the school. Findings indicate that teacher edu- ington 25, D. C., as Public Law 759—80th vision of the priest and the artist, he must cators, school administrators, lay persons, Congress, price 25 cents each.
Acts of the Eightieth Congress Relating to Education
heart diseases, makes grants in aid to public
or private agencies and institutions for re(Second Session)
search projects, and establishes research
fellowships and traineeships in nonprofit A CTS OF THE Congress of the United for carrying out the purpose of the institutions. (Approved June 16, 1948.) States relating to education are of na- UNESCO, of which $3,637,545 shall be Public Law 755 (H. R. 6726)
.This Act tional significance. Some of them affect available for contributions. (Approved
(Approved establishes in the Public Health Service the international educational relations. June 3, 1948.)
National Institute of Dental Research to While education in the States is governed Public Law 647 (H. R. 6407).This is promote research in the causes, prevention, principally by State laws, numerous bills the "International Aviation Facilities Act.” and methods of diagnosis and treatment of are introduced each year in Congress bear- This Act, among other things, authorizes dental diseases; provides fellowships in ing upon different phases of education. the Secretary of State, the Administrator the Institute, and establishes traineeships Most of these bills do not get beyond the of Civil Aeronautics, and the Chief of the through grants to nonprofit institutions. committees to which they are referred. Weather Bureau to train foreign nationals (Approved June 24, 1948.) Some of them, however, are enacted into directly or in conjunction with any United law. States Government agency, private agency,
Military Education Below is a summary of the principal bills State or municipal educational institution, Public Law 564 (S. 1723).-This Act relating to education which were passed by or international organization in aeronauti. amended Public Law 168 of the 77th Conthe 80th Congress, 2d Session, and signed cal and related subjects essential to the gress, authorizing courses of instruction at by the President:
orderly and safe operation of civil aircraft. the United States Naval Academy and the (Approved June 16, 1948.)
United States Military Academy to be given International Education
Attention is invited to the international to limited number of persons in the AmeriPublic Law 402 (H. R. 3342).-This is education aspect of Public Law 564 given can Republics, so as to permit such courses cited as the “United States Information and below under Military Education.
to be given to Canadians. (Approved June Exchange Act of 1948," and is designed to
1, 1948.) promote the better understanding of the Higher Education
Public Law 759 (S. 2655).—This is the United States among the peoples of the Public Law 402, mentioned under Inter. Selective Service Act of 1948. It makes proworld. This Act provides for:
national Education, known as the “United vision for the deferment from service of (1) An information service to dissem- States Information and Exchange Act of high school and college students under cerinate abroad information about the United 1948” is of outstanding interest to students tain conditions and authorizes the President States, its people, and official policies rela- and friends of higher education.
to provide for the deferment of other catetive to foreign affairs.
Public Law 411 and Public Law 512, gories of students as
gories of students as he may deem appropri- . (2) An educational exchange service to particularly applicable to veterans, also ate. (Approved June 24, 1948.) cooperate with other nations in:
affect the administration of higher educa-
Public Law 411 (S. 1394).—This Act (b) The rendering of technical and Public Law 796 (H. R. 5710).—This Act provides an increase in subsistence allowother services;
provides that the Federal Works Adminis- ance to veterans pursuing certain education(c) The interchange of developments trator transfer to any educational institu- al courses under the Servicemen's Read
in the field of education, the tion, without monetary consideration, all justment Act of 1944. It increased the arts, and sciences.
property rights to temporary houses on land allowance to full-time student veterans from The administration of this Act is vested in owned by the educational institution, with $65 to $75 per month, if without dependthe Secretary of State. The Act also pro- the provision that student veterans be given ents; from $90 to $105 per month, if with vides that the President shall appoint two preference in filling vacancies in any house one dependent; $120 per month, if with advisory commissions of five members each for which rights are transferred. (Ap- more than one dependent. (Approved (by and with the consent of the Senate) proved June 26, 1948.)
February 14, 1948.) which commissions shall formulate and
Public Law 512 (S. 1393).-This Act recommend to the Secretary of State poliResearch
provided additional subsistence allowance cies and programs for carrying out the Public Law 655 (S. 2215).--This Act for veterans pursuing on-the-job training purpose of the Act. (Approved January establishes in the Public Health Service an courses under the GI Bill of Rights, but 27, 1948.) institute to conduct, foster, and promote
limited it so that allowance plus compensaPublic Law 597 (H. R. 5607).-Appro- research relating to the causes, prevention, tion may not exceed $210 per month for priated to the State Department $3,772,775 and methods of diagnosis and treatment of veteran without a dependent; or $270 per
month for veteran with one dependent; or $290 per month for a veteran with two or
more dependents. (Approved May 4, This summary was prepared by Ward W. Keesecker, Specialist in School Legislation, Office
1948.) of Education. Copies of the laws are not available from the Office of Education. They
Attention is invited to the preference should be ordered from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
given in behalf of veterans' education in
Continued on page 15
of Education Division of Auxiliary gress for funds to provide defense-training resignation, he had continued to serve as Services, has been designated Acting Com
in high schools and colleges Commissioner “through the darkest years missioner of Education by Oscar R. Ewing throughout the Nation. Vocational schools of economic depression, the period of deFederal Security Administrator, to succeed and engineering institutions launched pro- fense preparation, the strenuous years of John W. Studebaker, who resigned as Com- grams which turned out skilled workers war, and three very difficult years of postmissioner on July 15, 1948.
needed in industry and by the armed serv- war readjustment." Mr. Grigsby, a member of the Office of ices months before Pearl Harbor. When In the letter President Truman wrote in Education staff since 1939, has had practical defense training turned out to be war train- accepting Dr. Studebaker's resignation, the experience as a high school teacher and ing, such foresight put American education President praised his contributions to the principal and as a school superintendent in firmly into the Nation's war effort.
Office of Education and said, “Not the least both Illinois and Iowa. A native of Indiana,
3. Following the war, Dr. Studebaker of these contributions was its part in the he was reared in Nebraska and Iowa. He is
asked for funds to help schools and colleges training of 14,000,000 men and women for a graduate of Cornell College, Iowa, re
strengthen their programs of education for war jobs. It was this program that broke ceived his master of arts degree from Drake democracy. A year ago funds were made
the bottleneck caused by the lack of trained University in Iowa, and has done graduate available and the Office of Education workers and made possible the vast prostudy in education at the University of Iowa, launched the Zeal for American Democracy
duction of planes, ships, tanks, and guns the University of Chicago, and the Uni
program. This program has assisted which contributed so much to our victory. versity of Washington. Before coming to schools and colleges in high lighting the You and all the others who helped make the Office of Education, Mr. Grigsby was ideals and benefits of democracy.
this program succeed deserve the everlastassistant superintendent of schools in Des
4. The Office of Education is now function- ing gratitude of the American people.” Moines, Iowa, where he was in charge ing under a plan of organization put into of the high school and adult education
operation by Dr. Studebaker in 1946. program. He also had responsibility
5. Two years ago the Citizens Federal Landmarks in for psychological and visiting teacher
Committee on Education was established services.
Vocational Guidance On the Office of Education staff, Mr.
to serve as the Office's lay advisory arm in
relation to the broad national aspects of Grigsby served in the Vocational Division
THIS YEAR is generally regarded as markfor 3 years. From 1942 to 1945 he was educational problems. Its first task was
ing the 40th anniversary of the beginning Special Assistant to the Commissioner. to present to the Nation the facts about the
of the vocational guidance movement in the Since 1946 he has been Director of the crisis in education, and this it has been
United States. It was in 1908 that Frank Auxiliary Services Division and Acting doing through the intensive radio and press
Parsons established the Vocational Bureau Associate Commissioner of Education. services of the Advertising Council of
in Boston, Mass. America.
An article by Harry A. Jager, Chief of URING Dr. Studebaker's 14 years as 6. Commissioner Studebaker served as D
the Occupational Information and GuidCommissioner, the Office of Education member of the Osborn) Committee on
ance Service, Office of Education, Vocamade such gains as the following: Postwar Educational Opportunities for
tional Division, brings these facts to light. 1. During the depression years the Office Service Personnel. The recommendations
The article, first published in the Interof Education staff was made available to made by this committee eventuated in the
national Labour Review, April 1948 issue, emergency relief units of the Federal Gov- passage of the Servicemen's Readjustment has been reprinted as a pamphlet by the ernment in order to direct Nation-wide Act of 1944, commonly called the "GI Bill
International Labour Office in Geneva, educational programs in adult and vocaof Rights.”
Switzerland. Under the title “Vocational tional education, parent and Negro edu- 7. The large-scale Office pilot study deal. Guidance in the United States," Mr. Jager cation, and nursery-school projects. The ing with the preparation of materials and presents “historical landmarks” in this field Office itself carried forward emergency personnel for the education of Negro adult of education, describes the work of prinprojects in adult civic education, CCC Camp illiterates is typical of the policy of the cipal agencies conducting guidance seryeducation, vocational guidance of Negroes,
Office of Education in promoting programs ices, and reports on prevalent principles university research, education by radio, that enable the American people to deal and practices, training of counselors, proand local school administrative units. intelligently with the problems they face. vision of equipment, and evaluation. He
on Elementary Education
concludes with a statement on influence of teachers in our State are going to revise our
who attended a summer work conference
response to an invitation to State directors National Work Conference
of elementary education from the Elemen-
Bringing their problems of program “WE CAME to the conference to get help planning or production to the Office of Eduin writing a curriculum guide.”
cation, the State leaders in elementary edu“We want to exchange ideas with others cation shared their experiences in conwho are engaged in the preparation of teach- sideration of these major projects: ers so that we may set up some standards for Planning curriculum guides for science, a forward-looking program of our own.” health and physical education, and other
"I want to review recent publications on phases of elementary education. arithmetic and talk with a specialist con. Planning ways of helping teachers use cerning standard tests. I wish to learn curriculum guides. what other States are doing because the Organizing plans for developing State
wide curriculum programs.
Studying ways to prepare teachers to understand children and guide them in good modern living.
Formulating standards for evaluating programs in elementary education.
Developing programs of instruction for home-bound children.
“Working groups” of the conferees called upon Office of Education staff members and members of other groups for counsel in special fields. Louis Raths, New York Uni. versity, guided the whole group as a specialist in evaluation. Willard C. Olson, University of Michigan, discussed phases of child development.
The same type of conference will be repeated next year, from May 16 to 28. For further details on the 1948 conference, ad. dress the Elementary Education Division, Office of Education.
British teachers. Included in the welcoming group were Mervyn Pritchard of the British Embassy in Washington, D. C.,
Ellen S. Woodward, of the Federal Security The United States-British teacher exchange program is a wonderful idea. It
Agency, Francis J. Colligan, Department of has unlimited possibilities for future good ... 11 only in practice this idea State, and Ralph C. M. Flynt, Acting Comwere not limited to so few countries, if only it could span all barriers of language, .
missioner of Education. ideas, even Iron Curtains
School Life presents an exclusive Lon-Jean Ellis, Portsmouth, N. H.
don Times photograph of American teachers being received by England's
Queen Elizabeth. British exchange teach“ALL WENT ‘merry as a marriage peal,'” returned to the United States in August ers for 1948-49 were entertained August wrote Edith A. Ford to the Office of Edu- after an exchange year in Great Britain. 23 at the White House by Mrs. Marshall, cation Division of International Educa. Representatives of both the British and wife of the Honorable George C. Marshall, tional Relations, reporting on the sailing United States Governments welcomed the Secretary of State. and arrival at Plymouth, England, of 112 American teachers.
The teachers, from 27 States, embarked for England July 24. They will exchange positions with 112 British teachers during the 1948–49 school term.
As chairman and director of the British Committee for the Interchange of Teachers Between Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States, Miss Ford wrote from London: “I met the teachers on behalf of my Committee and the British Government and of the English-Speaking Union ... the Lord Mayor of Plymouth in his full robes of office greeted them on behalf not only of the citizens of Plymouth but of the citizens of the United Kingdom.”
Miss Ford expressed delight in welcoming the American teachers and regret in having to say good-by to the old friends of the 1947–48 year”—the teachers who
Queen Elizabeth greets American teachers participating in teacher exchange program.