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not to exceed one hundred copies; * Sec. 9, Title VI, act of June 20, 1936 (49 Stat. 1551); sec. 2, act of June 16, 1938 (52 Stat. 761); 44 U. 8. C. 196a.

The above provision supersedes the text of this section as published in the 1929 Edition, which was specifically repealed.

For publication of slip laws, see sec. 56, act of Jan. 12, 1895 (28 Stat. 609); 44 U. S. C. 191.

1902. The text of this section as published in the 1929 Edition, based on R. S. 1777 ; 5 U. S. C. 89, was specifically repealed by section 12, Title VII, act of June 20, 1936 (49 Stat. 1553). See 1777a, ante, for current law.

1903. Statutes at Large; legal effect.—* The United States Statutes at Large shall be legal evidence of the laws, concurrent resolutions, treaties, international agreements other than treaties, proclamations by the President, and proposed or ratified amendments to the Constitution of the United States therein contained, in all the courts of the United States, the several States, and the Territories and insular possessions of the United States. Sec. 73, act of Jan. 12, 1895 (28 Stat. 615); sec. 9, Title VI, act of June 20, 1936 (49 Stat. 1551); sec. 1, act of June 16, 1938 (52 Stat. 761); 1 U. 8. C. 30.

1904. Statutes at Large, Little & Brown edition; legal effect.The edition of the laws and treaties of the United States, published by Little & Brown, shall be competent evidence of the several public and private acts of Congress, and of the several treaties therein contained, in all the courts of law and equity and of mari. time jurisdiction, and in all the tribunals and public offices of the United States, and of the several States, without any further proof or authentication thereof. R. 8. 908; 1 U. S. C. 30a.

The edition of the laws, etc., mentioned in this section, included vols. 1-17 of the Statutes at Large, which were published under contracts with the publishers named. Said contracts were terminated by sec. 1, act of June 20, 1874 (18 Stat. 113). As to judicial notice taken of acts of Congress, see ante, 1903, post, 1911.

1905. Revised Statutes, first edition; scope.—The foregoing seventy-three titles embrace the statutes of the United States general and permanent in their nature, in force on the 1st day of December, one thousand eight hundred and seventythree, as revised and consolidated by commissioners appointed under an act of Congress, and the same shall be designated and cited as the Revised Statutes of the United States. R. S. 5595,

The compilers of the United States Code have not followed the recommendation of the War Department (Op. J. A. G. 010.3, July 7, 1931, p. 124 ; July 10, 1931, p. 1) that this section, based on R. S. 5595, be included in the code until the Revised Statutes as a body are repealed.

1906. Revised Statutes, first edition; effect on laws enacted prior to December 1, 1873.-All acts of Congress passed prior to said first day of December, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three, any portion of which is embraced in any section of said revision, are hereby repealed, and the section applicable thereto shall be in force in lieu thereof; all parts of such acts not contained in such revision, having been repealed or superseded by subsequent acts, or not being general and permanent in their nature: Provided, That the incorporation into said revision of any general and permanent provision, taken from an act making appropriations, or from an act containing other provisions of a private, local, or temporary character, shall not repeal, or in any way affect any appropriation, or any provision of a private, local, or temporary character, contained in any of said acts, but the same shall remain in force; and all acts of Congress passed prior to said last-named day no part of which are embraced in said revision, shall not be affected or changed by its enactment. R. S. 5596.

All acts of limitation, whether applicable to civil causes and proceedings, or to the prosecution of offenses, or for the recovery of penalties or forfeitures,

embraced in said revision and covered by said repeal, shall not be affected thereby, but all suits, proceedings, or prosecutions, whether civil or criminal, for causes arising, or acts done or committed prior to said repeal, may be commenced and prosecuted within the same time as if said repeal had not been made. R. S. 5599; 1 U. 8. C. 29a.

The War Department has no objection to the express repeal of the first paragraph of this section, based on R. S. 5596 (J. A. G. 010.3, July 7, 1931, p. 125).

The second paragraph, based on R. S. 5599, 1 U. S. C. 29a, is retained as still of value (J. A. G. 010.3, July 10, 1931, page 2; April 2, 1932).

1907. Revised Statutes, first edition; effect on laws enacted after December 1, 1873.-—The enactment of the said revision is not to affect or repeal any act of Congress passed since the 1st day of December, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three, and all acts passed since that date are to have full effect as if passed after the enactment of this revision, and so far as such acts vary from, or conflict with any provision contained in said revision,' they are to have effect as subsequent statutes, and as repealing any portion of the revision inconsistent therewith. R. S. 5601.

The compilers of the United States Code have not followed the recommendation of the War Department (Op. J. A. G. 010.3, July 7, 1931, p. 130; July 10, 1931, p. 4) that this section, based on R. S. 5601, be included in the code until the Revised Statutes are done away with

1908. Revised Statutes, first edition; title designations not to influence legislative construction.-The arrangement and classification of the several sections of the revision have been made for the purpose of a more convenient and orderly arrangement of the same, and therefore no inference or presumption of a legislative construction is to be drawn by reason of the title, under which any particular section is placed. R. 8. 5600.

The compilers of the United States Code have not followed the recommendation of the War Department (Op. J. A. G. 010.3, July 7, 1931, p. 129 ; July 10, 1931, p. 3), that this section, based on R. S. 5600, be included in the code.

1909. Revised Statutes, first edition; publication. That the Secretary of State is hereby charged with the duty of causing to be prepared for printing, publication, and distribution the Revised Statutes of the United States enacted at this present session of Congress; that he shall cause to be completed the headnotes of the several titles and chapters and the marginal notes referring to the statutes from which each section was compiled and repealed by said revision; and references to the decisions of the courts of the United States explaining or expounding the same, and such decisions of State courts as he may deem expedient, with a full and complete index to the same. And when the same shall be completed, the said Secretary shall duly certify the same under the seal of the United States.

Sec. 2, act of June 20, 1874 (18 Stat. 113). That the revision of the statutes of a general and permanent nature, with the index thereto, shall be printed in one volume, and shall be entitled and labeled “Revised Statutes of the United States"; and the revision of the statutes relating to the District of Columbia ; to post roads, and the public treaties in force on the first day of December, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three, with a suitable index to each, shall be published in a separate volume, and entitled and labeled “Revised Statutes relating to District of Columbia and Post Roads, Public Treaties." Sec. 3, act of June 20, 1874 (18 Stat. 113).

By sec. 1, act of June 27, 1866 (14 Stat. 74), the President was authorized “to appoint three commissioners to revise, simplify, arrange, and consolidate all statutes of the United States, general and permanent in their nature." Act of May 4, 1870 (16 Stat. 96), provided that the work and revision should be completed within three years from the date of its passage. The act of Mar. 3, 1873 (17 Stat. 579), authorized the appointment of a joint committee of Congress to accept the draft of the revision of laws, so far as the same was completed at the expiration of the time designated for that purpose (May 4, 1873). The same statute authorized the existing joint committee to contract with some suitable person or persons to prepare a revision of the statutes, already reported by the commissioners, in the form of a bill to be presented at the opening of the Forty-third Congress.

The Revised Statutes of the United States were enacted and the publication of the first edition was authorized by the Forty-third Congress, at the first session, by an act entitled "An act to revise and consolidate the statutes of the United States, in force on the first day of December, anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and seventy-three," which was approved June 22, 1874 (18 Stat. 113).

Numerous amendments of said act, "for the purpose of correcting errors and supplying omissions" therein, were made by act of Feb. 18, 1875 (18 Stat. 316), and act of Feb. 27, 1877 (19 Stat. 240). And by act of Mar. 2, 1877 (19 Stat. 268), the preparation of a new edition of the Revised Statutes was provided for, in the text of which was incorporated all the amendments made in the revision to the close of the Forty-fourth Congress, Mar. 4, 1877, with marginal references to other statutes passed subsequent to the Revised Statutes affecting or modifying any of the provisions thereof. This new edition was published as the Revised Statutes of the United States, Second Edition, 1878. See 1912, post.

1910. Revised Statutes, first edition; definition of terms.-In determining the meaning of the revised statutes, or of any act or resolution of Congress passed subsequent to February twenty-fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-one, words importing the singular number may extend and be applied to several persons or things; words importing the plural number may include the singular; words importing the masculine gender may be applied to females; the words "insane person" and "lunatic" shall include every idiot, non compos, lunatic, and insane person; the word “person" may extend and be applied to partnerships and corporations, and the reference to any officer shall include any person authorized by law to perform the duties of such office, unless the context shows that such words were intended to be used in a more limited sense; and a requirement of an "oath" shall be deemed complied with by making affirmation in judicial form. R. S. 1; 1 U. S. C. 1.

The word "vessel” includes every description of water craft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water. R. 8. 3; 1 U. 8. O. 3.

The word "vehicle” includes every description of carriage or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on land. R. 8. 4; 1 0. 8. C. 4.

The word "company” or “association," when used in reference to a corporation, shall be deemed to embrace the words "successors and assigns of such company or association,” in like manner as if these last-named words, or words of similar import, were expressed. R. 8.5; 1 U. 8. C. 5.

Notes of Decisions Seaplanes.-Seaplane held “mechanical de- of engine trouble. Wendorf 0. Missouri vice for aerial navigation" within accident State Life Ins. Co., (Mo., 1927), 1 s. w. policy when capsizing after alighting because l (20) 99. 1911. Revised Statutes, first edition; legal effect.

and when printed and promulgated as hereinafter provided, the printed volumes shall be legal evidence of the laws and treaties therein contained, in all the courts of the United States, and of the several States and Territories. Sec. 2, act of June 20, 1874 (18 Stat, 113).

1912. Revised Statutes, edition of 1878; publication and legal effect. That said new edition shall be completed in manuscript by said commissioner by the first day of January, anno Domini eighteen hundred and seventy-eight, and by him presented to the Secretary of State for his examination and approval, who is hereby required to examine and compare the same as amended, with all the amendatory Acts, and, within two months after having been submitted to him, and when the same shall be completed, the said Secretary shall duly certify the same under the seal of the Secretary of State, and when printed and promulgated as herein provided the printed volume shall be legal evidence of the laws therein contained, in all the courts of the United States and of the several States and Territories, but shall not preclude reference to, nor control, in case of any discrepancy, the effect of any original Act as passed by Congress since the first day of December, eighteen hundred and seventy-three; and said Secretary shall cause fifteen thousand copies of the same to be printed and bound at the Government Printing Office, under the supervision of said commissioner, at the expense of the United States, and without unnecessary delay. Seo. 4, act of Mar. 2, 1877 (19 Stat. 269); act of Mar. 9, 1878 (20 Stat. 27).

Secs. 2 and 3 of act of Mar. 2, 1877, above, prescribed the duties of the commissioner in preparing the new edition of the Revised Statutes, and the matters to be included therein.

1913. Revised Statutes, supplement of 1891; publication and legal effect.That the publication of the Supplement to the Revised Statutes, embracing the statutes general and permanent in their nature, passed after the Revised Statutes, with references connecting provisions on the same subject, explanatory notes, and citations of judicial decisions, be continued and issued in one volume, to include the general laws of the Forty-seventh, Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth, Fiftieth, and Fifty-first Congresses, with a table of alterations and a general index to the whole, to be prepared and edited by the editor of the existing Supplement, authorized by the joint resolution of June twenty-eighth, eighteen hundred and eighty, numbered forty-four (Supplement to Revised Statutes, page five hundred and eighty-two), to be stereotyped at the Government Printing Office, using the present plates, as far as practicable, with such alterations as may be found necessary, the work and plates and all right and title therein and thereto to be in and fully belong to the Government for its exclusive use and benefit. Sec. 1, act of Apr. 9, 1890 (26 Stat. 50).

That the publication herein authorized shall be taken to be prima facie evidence of the laws therein contained, but shall not change nor alter any existing law, nor preclude reference to nor control, in case of any discrepancy, the effect of any original Act passed by Congress. Sec. 3, act of Apr. 9, 1890 (26 Stat. 50).

The volume compiled in pursuance of the authority conferred by this statute was published in 1891, and is entitled “Vol. 1, Supplement to the Revised Statutes of the United States. Second edition. 1874–1891"; and supersedes the volume published under authority of Joint Resolution No. 44 of June 7, 1880 (21 Stat. 308). Under authority of act of Feb. 27, 1893 (27 Stat. 477), the publication of the supplement was continued-part of a second volume being issued in 1895, containing general legislation of the Fifty-second and Fifty-third Congresses, between Jan, 22, 1892, and Mar. 2, 1895. Later numbers were issued at the end of each session as required by act of June 4, 1897 (30 Stat. 30), to include the general legislation of the Fifty-sixth Congress. Volume 2, therefore, comprises the general legislation of the Fifty-second to the Fifty-sixth Congresses, Jan. 22, 1892, to Mar. 3, 1901.

1914. Code of Laws of the United States; scope.--That the fifty titles hereinafter set forth are intended to embrace the laws of the United States, general and permanent in their nature, in force on the 7th day of December 1925, compiled into a single volume under the authority of Congress, and designated “The Code of Laws of the United States of America.” Sec. 1, act of June 30, 1926 (44 Stat., Part I); U.S. C. Preamble.

1915. Code of Laws of the United States; legal effect. In all courts, tribunals, and public offices of the United States, at home or abroad, of the District of Columbia, and of each State, Territory, or insular possession of the United States

(a) The matter set forth in the Code, evidenced as hereinafter in this section provided, shall establish prima facie the laws of the United States, general and permanent in their nature, in force on the 7th day of December 1925, but nothing in this Act shall be construed as repealing or amending any such law, or as enacting as new law any matter contained in the Code. In case of any inconsistency arising through omission or otherwise between the provisions of any section of this Code and the corresponding portion of legislation heretofore enacted, effect shall be given for all purposes whatsoever to such enactments.

(b) Copies of this Act, printed at the Government Printing Office and bearing its imprint, shall be conclusive evidence of the original of the Code in the custody of the Secretary of State.

(c) The Code may be cited as “U. S. C.”. Sec. 2, act of June 30, 1926 (44 Stat., Part I); U. S. C. Preamble.

Notes of Decisions Presumption from inclusion of statute.- section its inclusion is to be given weight in Inclusion of an act in the U. S. Code did determining whether the act was repealed not revitalize the act if it had been repealed. prior to the compilation of the Code. Hill v. U. S. (1930), 68 Ct. Cl. 740. Hoague-Sprague Corp. v. Frank C. Meyer Co.,

But in view of subdivision (a) of this Inc. (D, C., 1929, 31 F. (20) 583.

1916. Code of Laws of the United States; criticism invited.-That the Committee on the Revision of Laws of the House of Representatives is hereby authorized to prepare and the Public Printer to print, in slip form, and furnish with each copy a statement inviting scrutiny of the work and encouraging constructive criticism. Sec. 4, act of June 30, 1926 (44 Stat. 778).

1917. Code of Laws of the United States; supplements. That there be pre pared and published under the supervision of the Committee on Revision of the Laws of the House of Representatives a supplement to the Code of Laws of the United States in one volume, in the style and form of said code, to contain the general and permanent laws of the United States enacted during the Sixty-ninth Congress and in force December 5, 1927, a restatement of such statutes or parts of statutes as were inaccurately set forth in the code, and statutes of a general and permanent nature in force December 6, 1925, omitted from the code, and other perfecting amendments to the code

Sec. 1, act of May 29, 1928 (45 Stat. 1007).

Ther shall be prepared and published under the supervision of the Committee on Revision of the Laws of the House of Representatives-(a) A supplement for each session of the Congress to the then current edition of the Code of Laws of the United States, cumulatively embracing the legislation of the then current supplement, and correcting errors in such edition and supplement; (d) New editions of the Code of Laws of the United States and of the Code of the District of Columbia, correcting errors and incorporating the then current supplement. In the case of each code new editions shall not be published oftener than once in each five years. Copies of each such edition shall be distributed in the same manner as provided in the case of supplements to the code of which it is a new edition. Supplements published after any new edition shall not contain the legislation of supplements published before such new edition. Sec. 2, act of May 29, 1928 (45 Stat. 1007); sec. 2, pub, res. of Mar. 2, 1929 (45 Stat. 1541); 1 U, S. C. 52.

(d) Such committee may direct that the printing and distribution of any supplement to the Code of Laws of the United States or to the Code of the District of Columbia be dispensed with entirely, except that there shall be printed and distributed for each Congress at least one supplement to each such code con

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