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from the service or within six months thereafter: Provided, That any employee who heretofore has failed to file an application for retirement within six months after separation from the service, may file such application within three months after the effective date of this Act. No employee shall be retired under the provisions of this section unless examined by a medical officer of the United States, or a duly qualified physician or surgeon, or board of physicians or surgeons, designated by the Commissioner of Pensions for that purpose, and found to be disabled in the degree and in the manner specified herein.

Every annuitant retired under the provisions of this section, unless the disability for which retired be permanent in character, shall at the expiration of one year from the date of such retirement and annually thereafter, until reaching retirement age as defined in section 1 hereof, be examined under the direction of the Commissioner of Pensions by a medical officer of the United States, or a duly qualified physician or surgeon, or board of physicians or surgeons designated by the Commissioner of Pensions for that purpose, in order to ascertain the nature and degree of the annuitant's disability, if any. If an annuitant shall recover before reaching retirement age and be restored to an earning capacity which would permit him to be appointed to some appropriate position fairly comparable in compensation to the position occupied at the time of retirement, payment of the annuity shall be continued temporarily to afford the annuitant opportunity to seek such available position, but not in any case exceeding ninety days from the date of the medical examination showing such recovery. Should the annuitant fail to appear for examination, as required under this section, payment of the annuity shall be suspended until continuance of the disability shall have been satisfactorily established. The Commissioner of Pensions may order or direct at any time such medical or other examination as he shall deem necessary to determine the facts relative to the nature and degree of disability of any employee retired on an annuity under this section.

In all cases where the annuity is discontinued under the provisions of this section before the annuitant has received a sum equal to the amount credited to his individual account as provided in section 12 (a) hereof, together with interest at 4 per centum per annum compounded on June 30 of each year, the difference, unless he shall become reemployed in a position within the purview of this Act, shall be paid to the retired employee, as provided in section 12 (b) hereof, upon application therefor in such form and manner as the Commissioner of Pensions may direct. In case of reemployment in a position within the purview of this Act the amount so refunded shall be redeposited as provided in section 12 (b) hereof.

No person shall be entitled to receive an annuity under the provisions of this Act, and compensation under the provisions of the Act of September 7, 1916, entitled "An Act to provide compensation for employees of the United States suffering injuries while in the performance of their duties, and for other purposes," covering the same period of time; but this provision shall not be so construed as to bar the right of any claimant to the greater benefit conferred by either Act for any part of the same period of time.

Fees for examinations made under the provisions of this section, by physicians or surgeons who are not medical officers of the United States, shall be fixed by the Commissioner of Pensions, and such fees, together with the employee's reasonable traveling and other expenses incurred in order to submit to such examinations, shall be paid out of the appropriations for the cost of administering this Act. Sec. 6, act of July 3, 1926 (44 Stat. 907); sec. 6, act of May 29, 1930 (46 Stat. 472); 5 U. S. C. 710-714.

Notes of Decisions In general.--This section has no applica-, Government was terminated before its ention to an employee whose service with the actment. (1931) 36 Op. Atty. Gen. 495.

685. Retirement act; involuntary separation.-Should any employee fifty-five years of age or over to whom this Act applies, after having served for a total period of not less than fifteen years and before becoming eligible for retirement under the conditions defined in section 1 hereof, become involuntarily separated from the service, not by removal for cause on charges of misconduct or delinquency, such employee shall be paid as he or she may elect, either

(a) The total amount of his deductions with interest thereon; or

(b) An immediate life annuity beginning at the date of separation from the service, having a value equal to the present worth of a deferred annuity, beginning at the age at which the employees would otherwise have become eligible for superannuation retirement computed as provided in section 4 of this Act;

or

(c) A deferred annuity beginning at the age at which the employee would otherwise have become eligible for superannuation retirement, computed as provided in section 4 of this Act. The right to such deferred annuity shall be evidenced by a proper certificate issued under the seal of the Department of the Interior.

Any employee who has served for a period of not less than fifteen years, and who is forty-five years of age, or over, and less than fifty-five years, and who becomes separated from the service under the conditions set forth in this section shall be entitled to a deferred annuity, but such employee may, upon reaching the age of fifty-five years, elect to receive an immediate annuity as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.

Should an annuitant under the provisions of this section be reemployed in a position included in the provisions of this Act, or in any other position in the Government service, the annuity shall cease, and all rights and benefits under the provisions of this section shall terminate from and after the date of such employment.

This section shall include former employees within the provisions of the Act of May 22, 1920, or said Act as amended or as extended by Executive orders, who may have been separated from the service subsequent to August 20, 1920, under the conditions defined in this section : Provided, That in the case of an employee who has received a refund from the "civil-service retirement and disability fund," such employee shall be required to return the amount so withdrawn with interest compounded on June 30 of each year at the rate of 4 per centum per annum before he shall be entitled to the benefits of this section. Sec. 7, act of July 3, 1926 (44 Stat. 909) ; sec. 7, act of May 29, 1930 (46 Stat. 474); 5 U. S. C. 753, 735, 736.

Whenever at any time hereafter prior to July 1, 1935, any employee of the United States or the District of Columbia to whom the Civil Service Retirement Act, approved May 29, 1930 (U. S. C. Supp. VI, title 5, chap. 14), applies, who has an aggregate period of service of at least thirty years computed as prescribed in section 5 of such act, is involuntarily separated from the service for reasons other than his misconduct, such employee shall be entitled to an annuity computed as provided in section 4 of such act payable from the civil service retirement and disability fund less a sum equal to 342 per centum of such annuity: Provided, That when an annuitant hereunder attains the age which would have been the retirement age prescribed for automatic separation from the service applicable to such annuitant had he continued in the service to such retirement age, such deduction from the annuity shall cease. If and when any such annuitant shall be reemployed in the service of the District of Columbia or the United States (including any corporation the majority of the stock of which is owned by the United States), the right to the annuity provided by this section shall cease and the subsequent annuity rights of such person shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of retirement law existing at the time of the subsequent separation of such person from the service. Sec. 8 (a), act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 305); 5 U. 8. C. 736a.

A similar provision as to employees of the Canal Zone to whom the act of March 2, 1931 (46 Stat. 1471); 48 U. S. C. 1371, applies, and who are involuntarily separated after at least thirty years' service, is contained in sec. 8 (b) of the same act, 48 U. S. C. 1371bb.

Notes of Decisions In general.-In creating claims against command, the power of the officer will not itself, the United States may limit claim- be deemed to extend to the denial of that ants to an administrative remedy ; but in wbich the statute allows as a right and to the absence of compelling language, resort to which, upon the facts found or admitted by the courts to assert the right created will such oficer, the claimant is entitled. Disbe dermed to be curtailed only so far as au- muke v. U. S. (1936), 297 U. S. 167, affirming thority to decide is given to the administra- (1935) 76 F. (2d) 715. tive officer; and, in the absence of plain

686. Retirement act; extension of benefits to persons previously retired.-In the case of those who before the effective date of this Act shall have been retired on annuity under the provisions of the Act of May 22, 1920, or said Act as amended, or as extended by Executive orders, the annuity shall be computed, adjusted, and paid under the provisions of this Act, but this Act shall not be so construed as to reduce the annuity of any person retired before its effective date, nor shall any increase in annuity commence before such effective date. Sec. 8, act of July 3, 1926 (44 Stat. 909); sec. 8, act of May 29, 1930 (46 Stat. 475); 5 U. S. C. 736c.

687. Retirement act; deposits and service credit of persons covered in.-Beginning with the effective date of this Act, all employees who may be brought then or thereafter within the purview of the Act by legislative enactment, or by appointment, or through classification, or by transfer, or reinstatement, or Executive order, or otherwise, shall be required to deposit with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit of the "civil-service retirement and disability fund" a sum equal to 242 per centum of the employee's basic salary, pay, or compensation received for services rendered after July 31, 1920, and prior to July 1, 1926, and also 3% per centum of the basic salary, pay, or compensation for services rendered from and after July 1, 1926, together with interest computed at the rate of 4 per centum per annum compounded on June 30 of each fiscal year, but such interest shall not be included for any period during which the employee was separated from the service. All employees who may hereafter be brought within the purview of this Act may elect to make such deposits in installments during the continuance of their service in such amounts and under such conditions as may be determined in each instance by the Commissioner of Pensions. The amount so deposited, less $1 for each month, or major fraction thereof, of service after the effective date of this Act, shall be credited to the employees individual account, as provided in section 12 (a) hereof : Provided, That failure to make such deposit shall not deprive the employee of credit for any past service rendered prior to August 1, 1920, to which he or she would otherwise be entitled: Provided further, That, notwithstanding the failure of an employee to make such deposit, credit shall be allowed for the service rendered, but the annuity of such employee shall be reduced by the amount such deposit would purchase if made, unless the employee shall elect to eliminate such service entirely from credit under this Act. Sec. 9, act of July 3, 1926 (44 Stat. 910); sec. 9, act of May 29, 1930 (46 Stat. 475); act of June 23, 1938 (52 Stat. 943); 5 U. S. C. 7366.

688. Retirement deductions and contributions to fund.—Beginning as of July 1, 1926, there shall be deducted and withheld from the basic salary, pay, or compensation of each employee to whom this Act applies a sum equal to 34, per centum of such employee's basic salary, pay, or compensation. The amounts so deducted and withheld from the basic salary, pay, or compensation of each employee shall, in accordance with such procedure as may be prescribed by the Comptroller General of the United States, be deposited in the Treasury of the United States to the credit of the "civil-service retirement and disability fund," created by the act of May 22, 1920, and said fund is hereby appropriated for the payment of annuities, refunds, and allowances as provided in this Act.

The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and empowered in carry. ing out the provisions of this Act to supplement the individual contributions of employees with moneys received in the form of donations, gifts, legacies, or bequests, or otherwise, and to receive, deposit, and invest for the purposes of this Act all moneys which may be contributed by private individuals or corporations or organizations for the benefit of civil-service employees generally.

Every employee coming within the provisions of this Act shall be deemed to consent and agree to the deduction from salary, pay, or compensation as provided herein, and payment less such deduction shall be a full and complete discharge and acquittance of all claims and demands whatsoever for all regular services rendered by such employee during the period covered by such payment, except the right to the benefits to which he shall be entitled under the provisions of this Act, notwithstanding the provisions of sections 167, 168, and 169 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, and of any other law, rule, or regulation affecting the salary, pay, or compensation of any person or persons employed in the civil service to whom this act applies. Sec. 10, act of July 3, 1926 (44 Stat. 910); sec. 10, act of May 29, 1930 (46 Stat. 175); 5 U. S. C. 719, 721, 722.

R. S. 169 is found in 636, ante.

A sum of money is annually placed to the credit of the “civil-service retirement and disability fund," by a recurring provision in the independent offices appropriation act,

689. Retirement and disability fund; investment and accounting.–The Secretary of the Treasury shall invest from time to time, in interest-bearing securities of the United States or Federal farm-loan bonds, such portions of the "civil-service retirement and disability fund" as in his judgment may not be immediately required for the payment of annuities, refunds, and allowances as herein provided, and the income derived from such investments shall constitute a part of said fund for the purpose of paying annuities and of carrying out the provisions of section 12 of this Act.

The Comptroller General shall establish and maintain an account showing the annual liabilities of the Government under this Act, and shall keep such other accounts as may be deemed necessary for a proper administration of the Act. Sec. 11, act of July 3, 1926 (44 Stat. 910); sec. 11, act of May 29, 1930 (46 Stat. 476); 5 U. S. C. 720.

690. Retirement deductions; accounting and refund on separation or decease.(a) Under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Civil Service Commission the amounts deducted and withheld from the basic salary, pay, or compensation of each employee for credit to the "civil-service retirement and disability fund” created by the Act of May 22, 1920, covering service during the period from August 1, 1920, to the effective date of this Act, shall be credited to an individual account of such employee, to be maintained by the department or office by which he is employed, and the amounts deducted and withheld from the basic salary, pay, or compensation of each employee for credit to the "civil-service retirement and disability fund" covering service from and after the effective date of this Act, less the sum of $1 per month or major fraction thereof, shall similarly be credited to such individual account.

(b) In the case of any employee to whom this Act applies who shall be transferred to a position not within the purview of the Act, or who shall become absolutely separated from the service before becoming eligible for retirement on annuity, the amount credited to his individual account shall be returned to such employee together with interest at 4 per centum per annum compounded on June 30 of each year: Provided, That when any employee becomes involuntarily separated from the service, not by removal for cause on charges of misconduct or delinquency, the total amount of his deductions with interest thereon shall be paid to such employee: And provided further, That all money so returned to an employee must, upon reinstatement, retransfer, or reappointment to a position coming within the purview of this Act, be redeposited with interest before such employee may derive any benefits under this Act, except as provided in this section, but interest shall not be required covering any period of separation from the service.

(c) In case an annuitant shall die without having received in annuities purchased by the employee's contributions as provided in (2) of section 4 of this Act an amount equal to the total amount to his credit at time of retirement, the amount remaining to his credit and any accrued annuity shall be paid, upon the establishment of a valid claim therefor, in the following order of precedence:

First, to the beneficiary or beneficiaries designated in writing by such annuitant and recorded on his individual account;

Second, if there be no such beneficiary, to the duly appointed executor or administrator of the estate of such annuitant;

Third, if there be no such beneficiary, or executor or administrator, payment may be made, after the expiration of thirty days from the date of the death of the annuitant, to such person or persons as may appear in the judgment of the Civil Service Commission to be legally entitled thereto, and such payment shall be a bar to recovery by any other person.

In the case of an annuitant who has elected to receive an increased annuity as provided in section 4 of this Act, the amount to be paid under the provisions of this subsection shall be only the accrued annuity.

(d) In case an employee shall die without having attained eligibility for retirement or without having established a valid claim for annuity, the total amount of his deductions with interest thereon shall be paid, upon the establishment of a valid claim therefor, in the following order of precedence:

First, to the beneficiary or beneficiarics designated in writing by such employee and recorded on his individual account;

Second, if there be no such beneficiary, to the duly appointed executor or administrator of the estate of such employee;

Third, if there be no such beneficiary or executor or administrator, payment may be made, after the expiration of thirty days from the date of the death of the employee, to such person or persons as may appear in the judgment of the Civil Service Commission to be legally entitled thereto, and such payment shall be a bar to recovery by any other person.

(e) In case a former employee entitled to the return of the amount credited to his individual account shall become legally incompetent, the total amount

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