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IV. The Codex CÆSAREUS (which is also frequently called the CoDEX ARGENTEUS, and Codex ARGENTEO-PURPUREUS, because it is written in silver letters on purple vellum), is preserved in the Imperial Library at Vienna. The letters are beautiful but thick, partly round and partly square. In size, it approximates to the quarto form : it consists of twenty-six leaves only, the first twenty-four of which contain a fragment of the book of Genesis, viz. from chapter iï. 4. to chap. viii. 24.: the two last contain a fragment of St. Luke's Gospel, viz. chapter xxiv. verses 21–49. In Wetstein's critical edition of the Greek New Testament, these two leaves are denoted by the letter N. The first twenty-four leaves are ornamented with forty-eight curious miniature paintings, which Lambecius refers to the age of Constantine; but, from the shape of the letters, this manuscript is rather to be assigned to the end of the fifth or the beginning of the sixth century. In these pictures, the divine prescience and providence are represented by a hand proceeding out of a cloud : and they exhibit interesting specimens of the habits, customs, and amusements of those early times. From the occurrence of the words xituvas (kitonas) instead of Xifwvas (chitonas), and ABIMsAsx (Abimelek) instead of ABMEREX (.Abimelech), Dr. Holmes is of opinion that this manuscript was written by dictation. Vowels, consonants, &c. are interchanged in the same manner as in the Codex Cottonianus, and similar abbreviations are likewise found in it. In some of its readings the Codex Cæsareus resembles the Alexandrian manuscript. In his letter to the Bishop of Durham, published in 1795, and containing a specimen of his proposed new edition of the Septuagint version with various lectons, 2 Dr. Holmes printed the entire text of this MS. which had been collated and revised for him by Professor Alter, of Vienna : and he also gave an engraved fac-simile, of the whole of its seventh page. From this fac-simile our specimen is copied in Plate 5. No. 2. 'It is the seventeenth verse of the fourteenth chapter of the book of Genesis, and runs thus in ordinary Greek characters.

1 The whole forty-eight embellishments are engraven in the third volume of Lambecins's Commentariorum de augustissima bibliotheca Cæsarea-Vindobonensi libri viii. (Vindobonæ 1665—1679, folio, 8 vols.) They are also republished in Nesselius's Breviarum et Supplementum Commentariorum bibliothecæ Cæsareæ-Vindobonensis (Vindobonæ, 6 parts in 2 vols. folio), vol. 1. pp. 55–102: and again in the third book or volume of Kollarius's second edition of Lambecius's Commentarii (Vindobonæ, 1766–1782, 8 vols. folio.) Montfaucon's fac-simile of the type (Palæographia Græca, p. 194.) has been made familiar to English readers by a portion of it which has been copied by Mr. Astle (on the Origin of Writing, plate iii. p. 70.); but his engraver is said by Mr. Dibdin (Bibliographical Decameron, vol. i. p. Iliv.) to have deviated from the original, and to have executed the fac-simile in too heavy a manner. Mr. D. has himself given a most beautiful fac-simile of one of the pictures of this MS. in the third volume of his Bibliographical and Antiquarian Tour in France and Germany.

2 Honorabili et admodum Reverendo, Shute Barrington, LL. D. Episcopo Du. Reimensi, Epistola, complexa Genesin ex Codice Purpureo-Argenteo CæsareoVindobonensi expressam, et Testamenti Veteris Græci, Versionis Septuagintaviralis com Variis Lectionibus denuo edendi, Specimen. Dedit Robertus Holmes, S.T. P.e Collegio Novo, et nuperrime Publicus in Academia Oxoniensi Poetices Prælector. Oxonii, MDCCXCV. folio.




In English, thus, as nearly as the idiom of our language will allow


VALLEYOFSAVE: V. The Codex AMBROSIANus derives its name from the Ambrosian Library at Milan, where it is preserved; it is probably as old as the seventh century. This manuscript is a large square quarto (by Montfaucon erroneously termed a folio), written in three columns in a round uncial character. The accents and spirits however have evidently been added by a later hand.

VÍ. The Codex ĆOISLINIANUS originally belonged to M. Seguier, Chancellor of France in the middle of the seventeenth century, a munificent collector of biblical manuscripts, from whom it passed, by hereditary succession, to the Duc de Coislin. From his library it was transferred into that of the monastery of Saint Germain-Des-Prez, and thence into the royal Library at Paris, where it now is. According to Montfaucon, by whom it is particularly described, it is in quarto, and was written in a beautiful round uncial character, in the sirth, or at the latest in the seventh century. But the accents and spirits have been added by a comparatively recent hand. It consists of two hundred and twenty-six leaves of vellum, and formerly contained the octateuch (that is the five books of Moses, and those of Joshua, Judges, and Ruth), the two books of Samuel and the two books of Kings : but it is now considerably mutilated by the injuries of time. The copyist was totally ignorant of Hebrew, as is evident from the following inscription, which he has placed at the beginning of the book of Genesis : - Βαρησε παρα Εβραιοις, οπες εστιν ερμενευομενον, λογοι ημερων, that is, Bagnoes in Hebrew, which being interpreted is (or means) the Words of Days, or the history of the days, i. e. the history of the six days' work of creation. This word Bagates (Barēseth) is no other than the Hebrew word red (BERESHITH) in the beginning, which is the first word in the book of Genesis. 'Montfaucon further observed that this manuscript contained readings very similar to those of the Codex Alexandrinus; and his remark is confirmed by Dr. Holmes, so far as respects the Pentateuch.

VII. The Codex Basilio-VATICANUS is the last of the MSS. in uncial characters collated by Dr. H. It formerly belonged to a monastery in Calabria, whence it was transferred by Pietro Memniti, superior of the monks of the order of Saint Basil at Rome into the library of his monastery; and thence it passed into the papal library of

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1 Bibliotheca Coisliniana, olim Seguieriana, folio, Paris, 1732.

the Vatican, where it is now numbered 2,106. It is written on vellum, in oblong leaning uncial characters; and according to Montfaucon was executed in the ninth century. Dr. Holmes considers it to be a manuscript of considerable value and importance, which, though in many respects it corresponds with other MSS. collated by him, yet contains some valuable lections which are no where else to be found. On this account it is to be regretted that the Codex BasilioVaticanus is imperfect both at the beginning and end.

VIII. The CODEX TURICENSIS is numbered 262 in Mr. Parson's catalogue of MSS. collated for the book of Psalms, in his continuation of the magnificent edition of the Septuagint commenced by the late Rev. Dr. Holmes. It is a quarto manuscript of the book of Psalms, the writing of which proves it to have been executed at least in the eleventh century, if not much earlier ; and consists of two

; hundred and twenty-two leaves of extremely thin purple vellum ; and the silver characters and golden initial letters are in many parts so decayed by the consuming hand of time, as to be with difficulty legible. The portions of the psalms wanting in this MS. are Psal.

. i. - xxv. ; xxx. 1. — xxxvi. 20.; xli. 5. — xliii. 2.; lviii. 13. lix. 4.; lxiv. 11. lxxi. 4. ; xcii. 3. — xcii. 7. and xcvi. 12.xcvii. 8. Several of the antient ecclesiastical hymns, which form part of this MS., are also mutilated. It is, however, consolatory to know that those portions of the psalms which are deficient in the Codices, Alexandrinus and Vaticanus, may be supplied from the Codex Turicensis: and this circumstance, it should seem, occasioned the generally accurate traveller, Mr. Coxe (whose error has been implicitly copied by succeeding writers) to state that the MS. here described once formed part of the Codex Vaticanus.2

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TESTAMENT ENTIRE OR IN PART. 1. The Codez Cottonianus (Titus C. XV.,- II. The Coder Beza, or

Cantatrigiensis. - III. The Codex Ephremi. - IV. The Coder Claromontanus. V. The Coder Argenteus. — VI. The Codex Rescriptus of St. Matthew's Gospel in Trinity College, Dublin. - VII. The Coder Laudianus 3. — VIII. The Codex Boernerianus. - IX. The Code. Cyprius. - X. The Codex Basileensis E. — XI. The Codez San-Germanensis. — XII. The Codex Augiensis. – XIII. The Coder Harleianus, 5598. — XIV. The Codex Regius or Stephani 7. — XV. The Codex Uffenbachianus. — XVI. The Codices Manners-Suttoniani. — XVII. The Codices Mosquenses.—XVIII. The Coder Bririensis. XIX. Other MSS. written in small characters and deserving of especial notice, viz. 1. The Codex Basileensis, 1 The preceding description of the Codex Turicensis is abridged from Professor Breitinger's scarce tract, addressed to Cardinal Quirini, and entitled “ De antiquis. simo Turicensis Bibliothecæ Græco Psalmorum Libro, in Membrana purpurea titulis aureis ac litteris argenteis exarato Epistola. Turici. MDCCXLVIII." 4to.

2 See Coxe's Travels in Switzerland, in Pinkerton's Collection of Voyages and Trarels, vol. vi. p. 672. 4to.

1.-2. The Coder Corsendoncensis. 3. The Codex Montfortianus. -4. The Codex Regius, 50. — 5. The Coder Leicestrensis. 6. The Coder Vindobonensis. -7. The Codex Ebnerianus. - XX.

Notice of the Collations of the Barberini and Velesian Manuscripts. THE autographs, or manuscripts of the New Testament, which were written either by the apostles themselves, or by amanuenses under their immediate inspection,' have long since perished; and we have no information whatever concerning their history. The pretended autograph of St. Mark's Gospel at Venice is now known to be nothing more than a copy of the Latin version, and no existing manuscripts of the New Testament can be traced higher than the fourth century; and most of them are of still later date. Some contain the whole of the New Testament; others comprise particular books or fragments of books; and there are several which contain, not whole books arranged according to their usual order, but detached portions or lessons (avayuwosis), appointed to be read on certain days in the public service of the Christian church; from which again whole books have been put together. These are called Lectionaria, and are of two sorts: 1. Evangelisteria, containing lessons from the four Gospels; and, 2. Apostolus, comprising lessons from the Acts and Epistles, and sometimes only the Epistles themselves. When a manuscript contains both parts, Michaelis says that it is called Apostolo-Evangelion. Forty-six Evangelisteria were collated by Griesbach for the four Gospels of his edition of the New Testament; and seven Lectionaria or Apostoli, for the Acts and Epistles. Some manuscripts, again, have not only the Greek text, but are accompanied with a version, which is either interlined, or in a parallel column : these are called Codices Bilingues. The greatest number is in Greek and Latin; and the Latin version is, in general, one of those which existed before the time of Jerome. As there are extant Syriac-Arabic and Gothic-Latin manuscripts, Michaelis thinks it probable that there formerly existed Greek-Syriac, GreekGothic, and other manuscripts of that kind, in which the original and some version were written together. Where a transcriber, instead of copying from one and the same antient manuscript, selects from several those readings, which appear to him to be the best, the manuscript so transcribed is termed a Codex Criticus.

i Saint Paul dictated most of his epistles to amanuenses ; but, to prevent the circulation of spurious letters, he wrote the concluding benediction with his own hand. Compare Rom. xvi. 22. Gal. vi. 11. and 2 Thess. iii. 17, 18. with 1 Cor. xvi. 21.

2 See Vol. IV. Part II. Ch. II. Sect. III. ♡ V. infra.
3 Griesbach, Proleg. ad. Nov. Test. tom. i. pp. cxix.--cxxii

. In the second volume of his Symbolæ Criticæ (pp. 3—30.) Dr. G. has described eleven important Evangelisteria, which had either been not collated before, or were newly examined and collated by himself. Michaelis, vol. ii. part i. pp. 161–163. part ii. 639, 640. The Rev. T. F. Dibdin has described a superb Evangelisterium, and has given fac-similes of its ornaments, in the first volume of his Bibliographical Decameron, pp. xcii.-xciv. This precious manuscript is supposed to have been written at the close of the eleventh, or early in the thirteenth century. The illuminations are executed with singular beauty and delicacy.

4 Introduction to the New Test., vol. ii. part i. p. 164.


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