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Kennicott's Dissertations on the Hebrew Text, the canons of De Rossi in his Prolegomena so often cited in the preceding pages, and from the canons of Bauer in his Critica Sacra, of Ernesti, of Pfaff, Wetstein, Griesbach, and above all, of Michaelis

, with Bishop Marsh's annotations, often more valuable than the elaborate work of his author. As the subject of various readings is of great importance, and has been treated at considerable length by different learned men, we shall conclude this article with a list of the principal separate treatises in which it has been discussed.

1. Adami Rechenbergii Dissertatio Critica de Variantibus Novi Testamenti Lectionibus Græcis. Lipsiæ, 1690. 4to.

2. Joannis Clerici Ars Critica. 8vo. London, 1698. The two first sections of the third part of this very valuable critical work treat on the origin and correction of false readings, both in profane and particularly in the sacred writers.

3. Christoph. Matt. Pfaffii Dissertatio Critica de Genuinis Libro. rum Novi Testamenti Lectionibus. Amstelodami, 1709. 8vo.

4. J. H. ab Elswich Dissertatio de Recentiorum in Novum Fædus Critice. Vitebergæ, 1711.

5. J. W. Baieri Dissertatio de Variarum Lectionum Novi Testamenti usu et abusu. Altdorf, 1712.

6. J. L. Frey Commentarius de Variis Lectionibus Novi Testamenti. Basil, 1713.

7. Chr. Luderi Dissertatio de Causis Variantium Lectionum Scripturæ. Lipsiæ, 1730.

8. J. A. Osiandri Oratio de Originibus Variantium Lectionum Novi Testamenti. Tubingen, 1739. 4to.

9. J. A. Osiandri Disputatio de Præcipuis Lectionibus Variis Nori Testamenti. Tubingen, 1747. 4to.

10. J. C. Klemm Principia Criticæ Sacræ Novi Testamenti. Tubingen, 1746. 4to.

11. Jo. Geo. Richter Exercitatio de Arte Critica Scripturæ Interprete. Lugd. 1750. 4to.

12. C. B. Michaelis Tractatio Critica de Variis Lectionibus Novi Testamenti caute colligendis et dijudicandis, in qua cum de illarum causis tum de cautelis agitur, simulque de codicibus, versionibus antiquis, et Patribus, partim curiosa, partim utilia, asseruntur. Hale, 1749. 4to.

This treatise was the foundation on which J. D. Michaelis built his " admirable chapter" on the various readings of the New Testament, as Bishop Marsh most truly terms it. This chapter forms by far the largest portion of the first volume of his introduction to the New Testament. The Latin treatise of his father is of extreme rarity.

13. Jo. Jac. Wetstenii Libelli ad Crisin atque Interpretationem Novi Testamenti. Adjecta est Recensio Introductionis Bengelii ad Crisin Novi Testamenti, atque Glocestrii Ridley Dissertatio de Syriacarum Novi Fæderis Indole atque Usu. Illustravit Joh. Salomo Semler. Halæ Magdeburgicæ, 1766. 8vo.

The first 109 pages of this volume contain Wetstein's Animadversiones et Cautiones ad Examen Variarum Lectionum Novi Testamenti Necessariæ, which were first printed in the second volume of his edition of the Greek Testament, pp. 859 .-874. They have been consulted for the preceding observations on various readings. Wetstein's rules for judging of various readings are given with great clearness and precision ; and the whole volume " is a publication which should be in the hands of every critic.” (Bishop Marsh.)




It is obvious, even on the most cursory perusal of the Holy Scriptures, that some passages are cited in other subsequent passages; and, in particular, that numerous quotations from the Old Testament are made in the New. In these references, there is frequently an apparent contradiction or difference between the original and the quotation; of which, as in the contradictions alleged to exist in the Scriptires, (which have been considered and solved in the preceding volume,' infidelity and scepticism have sedulously availed themselves. These seeming discrepancies, however, when brought to the touchstone of criticism, instantly disappear : and thus the entire harmony of the Bible becomes fully evident. The appearance of contradiction, in the quotations from the Old Testament that are found in the New, is to be considered in two points of view, namely, 1. As 10 the external form, or the words in which the quotation is made ; and, 2. As to the internal form, or the manner or purpose to which it is applied by the sacred writers.

A considerable difference of opinion exists among some learned men, whether the Evangelists and other writers of the New Testament quoted the Old Testament from the Hebrew, or from the venerable Greek version, usually called the Septuagint. Others, however, are of opinion, that they did not confine themselves exclusively to either; and this appears most probable. The only way by which to determine this important question, is to compare and arrange the texts actually quoted. Drusius, Junius, Glassius, Cappel, Hoffmann,"

. Eichhorn, Michaelis, and many other eminent Biblical critics on the Continent, have ably illustrated this topic; in our own country indeed, it has been but little discussed. The only writers on this subject, known to the author, are the Rev. Dr. Randolph, formerly Regius

1 See Vol. I. Appendix, No. III. pp. 529_597. 2 " Immanuelis Hoffmanni, Ling. Grec. in Acad. Tub. Prof. P. O. et III. Sem. Theol. Ephori, Demonstratio Evangelica per ipsum Scripturarum consensum, in oraculis ex Vet. Testamento in Novo Allegatis Declarata." Edidit, observationibus illustravit, Vitam Auctoris, et Commentationem Historico-Theologicam de recta ratione allegata ista interpretandi, præmisit Tob. Godofredus Hegelmaier, Collegii Bebenhusani Professor, et Verbi Divini Minister Tubinge.” 1773–79–81, in three volumes 4to. In this very elaborate work, every quotation from the Old Testa ment in the New, is printed at full length, first as cited by the Evangelists and Apostles, then in the original Hebrew, and thirdly in the words of the Septuagini. Greek Version. The learned author ihen examines it both critically and herineneutically, and shows the perfect harmony subsisting between the Old and New Testaments. Hoffmann's Demonstratio Evangelica is extremely scarce, and very little known in this country.

3 « The Prophecies and other texts cited in the New Testament, compared with tho Hebrew original, and with the Septuagint version. To which are added notes Professor of Divinity in the University of Oxford, the Rev. Dr. Henry Owen, and the Rev. Thomas Scott:? but they have treated it with so much ability and accuracy, that he has to acknowledge himself indebted to their labours for great part of his materials for the present chapter ;) having only classified what they have noticed in the order of the sacred books; an arduous undertaking, from which, however, the author has himself derived equal pleasure and benefit. And, in the hope that it may contribute to elucidate some very difficult passages, he offers the result of his labours in the following tables.

As it respects, then, the external form of the quotations, or the words in which the citations are actually made in the New Testament, the passages adduced from the Old Testament may be arranged under the two following classes, viz. 1. Quotations made from the Hebrew Scriptures; and, 2. Quotations made from the Septuagint version of them. by Thomas Randolph, D. D. Oxford, 1782.” 4to. This valuable and beautifully printed tract, is now rarely to be met with, and only to be procured at siz times its original price. The most material of this excellent critic's observations are inserted in the notes to this chapter.

1 « The Modes of Quotation, used by the Evangelical Writers explained and vindica:ed. By the Rev. Dr. Henry Owen, London, 1789." 4to. The design of this elaborate work is, 1. To compare the quotations of the evangelists with each other, and with the passages referred to in the Old Testament, in order to ascer. tain the real differences : - 2. To account for such differences, and to reconcile the Evangelists with the Prophets, and with each other :- and, 3. To show the just application of such quotations, and that they fully prove the points which they were brought to establish.

2 In a collation of the quotations from the Old Testament in the New, with the Septuagint. This valuable comparison is inserted in the 9th and 10th volumes of the Christian Observer for the years 1810 and 1811 : and is simply designated by the initials of the late venerable and learned author's name.

3 Besides the works mentioned in the preceding notes, the author has constantly availed himself of the researches of Drusius (Parallela Sacra), in the 8th volume of the Critici Sacri ; - of Cappel's Critica Sacra, lib. ii. (in vol. i. pp. 136–172 of Prof. Vogel's edition); -- of Glassius's Philologia Sacra, part ii. pp. 1387, seq. (ed. Dathii); and of Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament, translated by Bishop Marsh (vol. i. pp. 200—246, 470—493.) Dr. Gerard's Institutes of Biblical Criticism have also been occasionally referred to, as well as Schlegelius's Dissertatio De Agro sanguinis et Prophetià circa eum allegatâ, in the Thesaurus Dissertationum Exegeticarum ad Nov. Test. tom. ii. pp. 309–340.




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QUOTATIONS FROM THE HEBREW SCRIPTURES IN THE New TESTAMENT. I. Quotations exactly agreeing with the Hebrew. – II. Quotations

nearly agreeing with the Hebrew. - III. Quotations agreeing with the Hebrew in sense, but not in words.- IV. Quotations that gie the general sense, but abridge or add to it. – V. Quotations taken from several passages of Scripture. - VI. Quotations differing from the Hebrew, but agreeing with the Septuagint. — VII. Quotations in which there is reason to suspect a different reading in the Hebrew. – VIII. Passages in which the Hebrew seems to be corrupted.

– IX. Passages which are mere references or allusions. THE

quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures may be considered under the nine following classes, viz. 1. Quotations exactly agreeing with the Hebrew; -2. Those which agree nearly with the Hebrew; - 3. Quotations, agreeing with the Hebrew in sense, but not in words; – 4. Such as give the general sense ; — 5. Quotations, which are taken from several passages of Scripture ;-6. Quotations differing from the Hebrew, but agreeing with the Septuagint; -7. Quotations, in which there is reason to suspect a different reading in the Hebrew, or that the Apostles , understood the words in a sense different from that expressed in our Lexicons ;-8. Passages, in which the Hebrew seems to be corrupted :-— and 9. Passages

, which are not properly citations, but mere references or allusions,

I. Quotations exactly agreeing with the Hebrew.? 1. Hos. xi. 1.

agrees with

Matt. ii. 15.

Εξ Αιγυπτου εκαλεσα τον υίον μας. 1.... called my son out of Egypt. Out of Egypt have I called my son. 2. Deut. viii. 3.

Matt. iv. 4. Luke iv. 4.

Ουκ επ' αρτω μονω ζησεται αναρω15 ΟΤΝ την πος, αλλ' επι παντι ξημασι εκπορευ

ομένω δια στοματος Θεου. Man doth not live by bread only, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the LORD doth out of the mouth of God. man live.

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וממצרים קראתי לבני

לא על הלחם לבדו

על־כל־ מוצא פי־יהוה

In the first edition of this work, the author had simply given the references to these quotations. They are now inserted at length, in order to save the student's time, and also to enable him more readily to compare the Hebrew and Greek together; and the English version of the passages is annexed for the convenience of the mere English reador.

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Isa. liii. 4.

אכן חלינו הוא נשא .Xna Tag vodots s&uo=ads ומכאבינו סבלם

Matt. viii. 17.
Αυτος τας ασθενειας ημων ελαβε,

כי חסד חפצתי ולא


Our infirmities he hath borne: Himself took our infirmities, and And our sorrows, he hath carried bare our sicknesses. them. (Bp. Lowth.) .. Hos. vi. 6.

Matt. ix. 13. xii. 7.
Ελεον 8ελω, και ου ουσιαν.

I will have mercy and not sacri-
I desired mercy and not sacrifice. fice.
Lev. xix. 18.

Matt. xix. 19. xxii. 39

Αγαπησεις τον πλησιον σου ως Thou shalt love thy neighbour as

GEAUTOV. illyself.

Thou shalt love thy neighbour, as

thyself. 7. Psal. cxviu. 22, 23.

Matt. xxi. 42. Mark xü. 10.
Luke xx. 17. Acts iv. 11.

ואהבת לרעך כמוך

אבן מאסו הבונים היתה

לראש פנה: מאת יהוה -dv assdoxauadav ei oixoda שמל:A Mouvres, otros eytvm2 tis xspare היתה זאת היא נפלאה .Mias mapa Kog100 6v510 aism, xdץ בעינינו

The stone which the builders re- eds. 3auuuadsm sv opacious uov. fused, is become the head stone of The stone which the builders rethe corner. This is the Lord's do- jected, the same is become the head iny, and it is marvellous in our eyes. of the corner: this is the Lord's do

ing, and it is marvellous in our eyes. S. Psal. cx. 1.

Matt. xxii. 44. Mark xü. 36.

Luke xx. 42.
Ειπεν ο Κυριος τω Κυρίω μου
Καθου εκ δεξιων μου, έως αν ξω τους

εχθρους σου υποποδιον των ποδων σου. The Lord said unto my Lord, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Sit thon at my right hand, until I thou on my right hand until I make make thine enemies thy footstool. thine enemies thy footstool. 9. Psal. xxii. 19. (18. of English

Matt. xxvii. 35.

Διεμερισανσο τα ματια μου εαυτοις, και επι τον ιματισμος μου εβαλον κληgov.

They parted my garments among They part my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they them, and cast lots upon my vesture.

cast lots.

נאם יהוה לאדני שב

עד - אשת איביך לימיני, עד הדם לרגליך

יחלקו בגדי להם ועל־ לבושי יפילו גורל

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