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and has been repeatedly printed. By the Protestant churches it was received with great approbation, and to this day it is held in great esteem for its simplicity, perspicuity, and fidelity. Father Simon criticised it with great severity ; but our learned countryman, Matthew Poole, in the preface to his Synopsis Criticorum Sacrorum, reckons it among the best versions : and the ecclesiastical historian, Dupin, commends it for its close adherence to the Hebrew. Junius and Tremellius have been very particular in expressing the article by demonstrative pronouns.
5. In 1996, was published (after the author's decease) a new Latin translation of the Bible, by SEBASTIAN SCHMIDT, who was professor of oriental languages at Strasburgh. Of this version there have been several editions. It is strictly literal ; and is chiefly useful to young students in the Hebrew language.
6. The version of John AUGUSTUS Dathe, who was professor of oriental literature at Leipsic, is deservedly in high repute for its general fidelity and elegance, both in this country and on the continent. It was originally published in detached octavo volumes: the Pentateuch, in 1781; the Historical Books, in 1784; the Greater Prophets, in 1779, and again in 1785; the Minor Prophets in 1773 (the third edition in 1790); the Psalms, in 1787; and the Books of Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon, in 1789. Professor Dathe “never published any part
, until he had repeatedly explained it in his public lectures, and convinced himself that no difficulties remained, but such as could not be removed. In this manner was his translation produced, which may be considered as a perpetual commentary.'
7. In the year 1816, another new translation of the Old Testament, from the Hebrew, was commenced by M. M. HENRY AUGUSTUS Schort and JULIUS FREDERICK WINZER. One volume only has appeared, comprising the Pentateuch. This version professes to be very close.
M. Besides the preceding new modern Latin versions, there have been several editions of the Latin Vulgate, so much corrected from the original Hebrew and Greek as in some degree to be considered new translations. Of this number are the Latin Bibles published by Clarius, Eber, and the Osianders.
Isidore Clarius's edition of the Vulgate first appeared at Venice, in 1542, and is of extreme rarity : it was reprinted at the same place in 1557 and 1564. He has not only restored the antient Latin text, but has also corrected it in a great number of places which he con
a ceived to be erroneously translated, so as to make them conformable to the Hebrew original
. Although he corrected more than eight thousand places, as he states in his preface, yet he omitted some, lest he should offend the Roman Catholics by making too many alterations in the Vulgate version."
The method of Clarius was followed by Paul Eber, who corrected the Vulgate from Luther's German version. His edition was pub
1 Aikin’s Biographical Dictionary, vol. x. Supplement, p. 306.
lished at Wittemberg, in 1565, with the addition of Luther's translation, under the authority of Augustus, Elector of Saxony; and was reprinted in 1574, in ten volumes, quarto,
The edition of Luke Osiander appeared in 1578, and has since been very often reprinted; as also has a German translation of it, which was first published at Stutgard, in 1600. Andrew Osiander's edition was also printed in 1600, and frequently since. They have both corrected the Vulgate, according to the Hebrew originals; and have occasioned some confusion to their readers, by inserting their emendations in a character different from that in which the Vulgate text is printed.
IV. There are likewise several Latin versions of the New Testament, made both by Catholics and Protestants, of which those of Erasmus, Beza, and Sebastiani are particularly worthy of notice.
1. The celebrated ERASMUS has the honour of being the first translator of the New Testament into the Latin language from the original Greek. His object was, to give a faithful and clear version ; in which it is admitted that he succeeded as far as it was possible at that time. In this version he followed not only the printed copies, but also four Greek manuscripts; according to the example of Jerome, he varied but litle from the Vulgate. The first edition of his translation appeared in 1516, and was dedicated to Pope Leo X., by whom it was highly commended in a letter of thanks which he wrote to Erasmus. The pontiff's praises, however, did not prevent his labours from being censured with great severity by certain Roman Catholic writers, against whom Erasmus defended himself with great spirit
. His version has been frequently printed, and corrected, both by himself and by his editors.
2. The Latin version of THEODORE Beza was first published in 1556, and has since been repeatedly printed. On account of its fidelity, it has always been highly esteemed by Protestants of every denomination. Bishop Walton, indeed, was of opinion that he was justly charged with departing unnecessarily from the common readings, without the authority of manuscripts; but a careful examination of Beza's translation will shew that that distinguished prelate was in this instance mistaken.
3. In the year 1817, a new Latin version of the New Testament was published by LEOPOLDO SEBASTIANI, the very learned editor of Lycophron (Romæ, 1803, royal 4to), justly celebrated throughout the East, and not altogether unknown in England, for the losses he sustained, and misfortunes he suffered, in consequence of important services which he gratuitously rendered to the British government, while resident in Persia as president of the missionaries sent out by the church of Rome, at the time that Buonaparte attempted to establish relations with the court of Ispahan. The version is made from the Alexandrian manuscript, with which the translator states that he collated several manuscripts and collections of various readings, availing himself also of every critical aid he could procure, and particularly of the writings of the Greek fathers, and the assistance of VOL. II.
the most learned of the modern Greek clergy. To obtain the latter
, M. Sebastiani expressly travelled through the whole of Greece. In all doctrinal points, this version is made conformable to the tenets inculeated by the church of Rome.
The Latin version of M. Schott, which is printed with his critical edition of the Greek Testament, has already been noticed in page 137. supra: to this professor Keila has added the two following, neither of which has fallen under the writer's observation.
(1.) Chr. Guil. Thalemanni Versio Latina Evangeliorum Matthæi, Lucæ, et Johannis, itemque Actuum Apostolorum, edita a C.C. Tittmanno. Berolini, 1781, 8vo. The remaining books of the New Testament were translated by M. Iaspis, and intitled,
Versio Latina Epistolarum Novi Testamenti, perpetua annotatione illustrata a Godofredo Sigismundo laspis. Lipsiæ, Vol. I. 1793, Vol. II. 1797, Svo.
(2.) Sacri Novi Testamenti Libri omnes, veteri Latinitate donati ab Henrico Godofredo Reichardo. Lipsiæ, 1799, 8vo.
SECTION III. VERSIONS IN THE MODERN LANGUAGES OF EUROPE. I. GERMAN VERSION of Luther. - Notice of Ten Versions derired
from it. - Notice of other German Versions by Protestants, and by Roman Catholics. - Jewish German Versions. — II. Versions IN THE LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN THE British Isles, — 1. English Versions, particularly Wickliffe's Bible. - T'indal's Bible.
. Coverdale's Bible. - Matthewe's. Cranmer's or the Great Bible. - Genera Bible. - English Versions by Roman Catholics at Rheims and Douay. — King James's Bible, or the authorised Ver
- , sion now in use. — History of it. — Notice of its best editions. — • Its excellency vindicated against recent Objectors. — Testimonies of eminent critics to its fidelity and ercellency. -2. Welsh Version.
3. Irish Version. — 4. Gaelic Version. - 5. Manks Version. - III. FRENCH VERSIONS.- IV. Durch VERSION. - V. ITALIAN VERSION. - VI. SPANISH VERSIONS. – VII. Russian VER
- VIII. Croat VERSION. — IX. BASQUE VERSION. - X. HUNGARIAN VERSION. - XI. Polish VERSIONS.
XII. BOHEMIAN VERSION. - XII. Romaic or Modern GREEK VERSIONS.
XIV. XV. BULGARIAN and WALLACHIAN VERSIONS. – XVI. ROMANESE VERSIONS. --XVII. TURKISH VERSIONS. - XVIN. PORTUGUESE VERSION. XIX. ALBANIAN VERSION.
MALTESE VERSION. THE translations of the Scriptures into the different modern languages of Europe are so numerous, that it is difficult to obtain cor
1 M. Sebastiani's translation is intitled “Novum Testamentum, ob frequentes omnium Interpretationum Hallucinationes, nunc demum ex Codice Alexandrino, adhibitis etiam compluribus manuscriptis variantibusque Lectionibus editis, summa fide ac curâ Latine redditum. Omnibus Sacris Auctoribus Græcis, Sacris Criticis
, Glossariis, et Instructioribus per totam Græciam Ecclesiasticis Viris diligentissime consultis. Interprete Leopoldo Sebastiani Romano. Londini, 1817.” Royal 8vo. 2 Keilii Elementa Hermeneutices Novi Testamenti,
p. 158. Lipsiæ, 1811, 12mo.
rect accounts of all of them. The following table exhibits at one view the chief translations which have been made, together with the years of their appearance, the names of their authors where these could be ascertained, and the places where they were severally printed.
1478 Boniface Ferrer dialect of)
1522 1534 Martin Luther Wittemberg English
1526 1535 Tindal & Coverdale Uncertain French
1535 Robert Olivetan Geneva Swedish 1534 1541 Olaus Petri
Upsal, Sweden Danish
1524 1550 Palladius and others - Copenhagen Dutch
S Antonio Bruccioli's
1556 1569 Cassiodorus de Reyna Frankfort or Basil Russian
1519 1581 Cyril and Methodius. Ostrog Helvetian dialect 1525 1529
Zurich Lower Saxon dialect 1533
Lubeck Finnish 1548 1642
Rochelle Welsh 1567 1588
London Hungarian 1574 1589
Vienna Wendish 1584
Wittemberg Icelandic 1584 'Thorlack
Holum, Iceland Pomeranian dialect 1588 Unknown
1585 1596 Several Bohemian 1593 Several
Cralitz, Moravia Hebrew
Maximus Calliergi Geneva Wallachian 1648
Belgrade Romanese 1657
1660 S. B. Chylinsky London Turkish
Lazarus Seaman Oxford Irish
1602 1685 Dr. Daniel, Bp. Bedell | London Livonian 1685 1689
Riga Esthonian 1685 1689
Bishop Wilson and London and
Ferreira d'Almeida, Amsterdam and Portuguese
1769 1776 Antonio Martini,(Cath.)| Turin Spanish
1793, 4 Padre Scio, (Cath) Madrid Maltese
and Signor Cannolo Of the various translations above enumerated, the following are more particularly worthy of notice.
1 This table is copied from Messrs. Thomson and Orme's Historical Sketch of the Translation and Circulation of the Scriptures, p. 45. with some corrections.
1. GERMAN VERSIONS. - As Germany has the honour of being the country where the art of printing was first discovered, so it was distinguished in the annals of sacred literature, by being the first in which the Holy Scriptures were issued from the press in the vernacular language of its inhabitants. So early indeed as the year 1466, a German translation from the Latin Vulgate was printed, the author of which is unknown. Scarcely, however, had the Reformation commenced, when Luther meditated a new version of the Scriptures for the general use of his countrymen. His first publication comprised the seven penitential Psalms, from the Latin of John Reuchlin. These appeared in 1517, and were followed by the New Testament in 1522; by the Pentateuch, in 1523; by the Book of Joshua, and the remaining historical Books, in 1524; in which year also appeared the books of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs. In 1526 were published the prophecies of Jonah and Habakkuk; in 1528, those of Zechariah and Isaiah ; in 1529, the apoeryphal book of Wisdom; in 1530, the book of Daniel, together with the remaining apocryphal books; in 1531, the entire book of Psalms; and 1531 and 1532, the rest of the prophetical books. All these portions of Luther's translation are of extreme rarity: in the revision of it he received very important assistance from the learned and candid Philip Melancthon, who also corresponded with eminent men on various topics of biblical
criticism, in order to render the translation as correct as possible. Further to ensure its accuracy, a select party of learned men assembled daily with Luther at Wittemberg, to revise every sentence which he had made directly from the Hebrew and Greek. Melancthon collated the Greek original
, Cruciger the Chaldee, and other professors the Rabbinical Writings. Justus Jonas, John Bugenhagen, and Matthew Aurogallus, also contributed their aid. The whole Bible thus revised was first published in 1530, and again in 1534, 1541, and 1545. Luther made his version directly from the original Hebrew and Greek, and not one of his numerous enemies ever durst charge him with ignorance of those languages. His translation is represented as being uncommonly clear and accurate, and its style in a high degree pure and elegant. Having originally been published in detached portions, as these were gradually and succes
1 A copy of this very rare work is in the splendid collection of Earl Spencer See a description of it in Mr. Dibdin's Bibliotheca Spenceriana, vol. i. pp. 42—41..
2 For further particulars relative to Luther's German Version of the Scriptures, the reader is referred to the life of Philip Melancthon, by Francis Cox, M. A. pp 206–213. (2d edit.) and also to Mr. Townley's Illustrations of Biblical Literature. vol. ii. pp. 271-300. Of the editions of Luther's version above noticed, the venerable Reformer bestowed the greatest care in revising and correcting that of 1541 It was beautifully printed in two folio volumes, and ornamented with wood-cuts. An Unique Copy of this edition upon vellum, which had been Luther's own copy, and constantly used by him until his decease, was in the possession of the late Mr Edwards, (formerly an eminent bookseller) of Manor House, near Harrow-on-theHill. On the sale of his choice Library by agction, in 1813, these precious volumes were purchased by Geo. Hibbert, Esq. for the sum of 891. 58. 6d. See a descrip: tion of these volumes copied from the sale catalogue (No. 812.) in Mr. Dibdin's Bibliograpical Decameron, vol. iii. pp. 123, 124. or in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. lxxsv. part i. p. 254.