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SECURITY CLASSIFICATION REFORM

HEARINGS

BEFORE A

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SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE
Luited State

tonne.
COMMITTEE ON
OPERATIONS

Jarecke
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

NINETY-THIRD CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION

ON

H.R. 12004

TO AMEND SECTION 552 OF TITLE 5 OF THE UNITED
STATES CODE (KNOWN AS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMA-
TION ACT) TO PROVIDE FOR THE CLASSIFICATION AND
DECLASSIFICATION OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN THE

INTEREST OF NATIONAL DEFENSE

JULY 11, 25; AND AUGUST 1, 1974

Printed for use of the Committee on Government Operations

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

41-898 O

WASHINGTON : 1974

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COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS

CHET HOLIFIELD, California, Chairman JACK BROOB.S, Texas

FRANK HORTON, New York L. H. FOUNTAIN, North Carolina

JOHN N. ERLENBORN, Illinois ROBERT E. JONES, Alabama

JOHN W. WYDLER, New York JOHN E. MOSS, California

CLARENCE J. BROWN, Ohio DANTE B. FASCELL, Florida

GUY VANDER JAGT, Michigan HENRY S. REUSS, Wisconsin

GILBERT GUDE, Maryland TORBERT H. MACDONALD, Massachusetts PAUL N. MCCLOSKEY, JR., California WILLIAM S. MOORHEAD, Pennsylvania JOHN H. BUCHANAN, JR., Alabama WM. J. RANDALL, Missouri

SAM STEIGER, Arizona BENJAMIN S. ROSENTHAL, New York GARRY BROWN, Michigan JIM WRIGHT, Texas

CHARLES THONE, Nebraska FERNAND J. ST GERMAIN, Rhode Island RICHARD W. MALLARY, Vermont JOHN C. CULVER, Iowa

STANFORD E. PARRIS, Virginia FLOYD V. HICKS, Washington

RALPH S. REGULA, Ohio DON FUQUA, Florida

ANDREW J. HINSHAW, California JOHN CONYERS, JR., Michigan

ALAN STEELMAN, Texas BILL ALEXANDER, Arkansas

JOEL PRITCHARD, Washington
BELLA S. ABZUG, New York

ROBERT P. HANRAHAN, Illinois
HAROLD D. DONOHUE, Massachusetts
JAMES V. STANTON, Ohio
LEO J. RYAN, California
CARDISS COLLINS, Illinois
JOHN L. BURTON, California 1

HERBERT ROBACK, Staf Director
ELMER W. HENDERSON, General Counsel
MILES Q. ROMNEY, Counsel-Administrator
DOUGLAS G. DAHLIN, A880ciate Counsel

J. P. CARLSON, Minority Counsel
WARREN B. BOHLER, Minority Professional Staff

FOREIGN OPERATIONS AND GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SUBCOMMITTEE

WILLIAM S. MOORHEAD, Pennsylvania, Chairman JOHN E. MOSS, California

JOHN N. ERLENBORN, Illinois TORBERT H. MACDONALD, Massachusetts PAUL N. MCCLOSKEY, JR., California JIM WRIGHT, Texas

GILBERT GUDE, Maryland BILL ALEXANDER, Arkansas

CHARLES THONE, Nebraska BELLA S. ABZUG, New York

RALPH S. REGULA, Ohio JAMES V. STANTON, Ohio

EX OFFICIO CHET HOLIFIELD, California

FRANK HORTON, New York WILLIAM G. PHILLIPS, Staff Director

NORMAN G. CORNISH, Deputy Staff Director HAROLD F. WHITTINGTON, Professional Staff Member

L. JAMES KRONFELD, Counsel

MARTHA M. Doty, Clerk
NANCY E. WENZEL, Secretary

1 Elected to committee, pursuant to H. Res. 1272, July 29, 1974.

(11)

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Hearings held on-

Page

July 11.

1

July 25.

257

August 1.

353

Text of H.R. 12004.

3

Statement of -

Becker, Albert H., research security coordinator, Georgia Institute

of Technology

420

Colby, William E., Director, Central Intelligence Agency; accom-

panied by John Warner, General Counsel; and Lyle Miller, Deputy

Legislative Counsel.

354

Cooke, David O., Deputy Assistant Secretary (Administration),

Office of the Comptroller, Department of Defense; accompanied by

J. J. Liebling, Deputy Assistant Secretary (Security Policy), Office

of the Comptroller; Maj. Gen. J. J. Cody, Deputy Director, Con-

tract Administration Services, Defense Supply Agency; and Robert

Andrews, General Counsel's Office, Office of the Secretary of

Defense

73,138

Cox, Arthur M., writer and lecturer in foreign affairs

4 13
Dembling, Paul G., General Counsel, U.S. General Accounting Office;
accompanied by John J. Higgins, Associate General Counsel; and
Edward A. J. Chicca, Attorney-Adviser, Office of General Counsel..

42
Fascell, Hon. Dante B., a Representative in Congress from the State
of Florida

31

Goodale, James C., executive vice president, the New York Times;

accompanied by Felix Belair, Jr., Washington staff correspondent;

and Eric M. Freedman, the New York Times legal department.--. 396

Halperin, Morton H...

258
Laise, Carol C., Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, De-
partment of State...

313

Marshall, Charles L., Director, Division of Classification, U.S.

Atomic Energy Commission; accompanied by Robert Tharp, Act-

ing Director, Safeguards and Security Division -

433

Rakestraw, W. Vincent, Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legis-
lative Affairs, Department of Justice..

276

Rhoads, Dr. James B., Archivist of the United States and Acting

Chairman of the Interagency Classification Review Committee; ac-

companied by William L. Brown, Executive Director, Interagency

Classification Review Committee..

49

Steelman, Hon. Alan, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Texas..

36

Wise, David.

264

Letters

, statements, etc., submitted for the record by-

Bancroft, Harding F., executive vice president, the New York Times:

Statement before a subcommittee of the Senate.

_399-407

Becker, Albert H., research security coordinator, Georgia Institute of

Technology:

Cost to meet security requirements over the last 10 years.

431

Costs of maintaining a secure library--

431

Cost as a result of implementing these procedures etc...

431

F. Contract security classification specification (DD form 254) -422-425

Cody, Maj. Gen. J. J., Deputy Director, Contract Administration

Services, Defense Supply Agency, Department of Defense,

statement.

142-163

Letters, statements, etc., submitted for the record by-Continued
Colby, William E., Director, Central Intelligence Agency:

Page
Disposition of Freedom of Information Act requests -

383–392 Information on exempted documents.-

367 Status report on the declassification of CIA documents on the Bay of Pigs incident.

395 Supplementary statement

359-360 Cooke, David O., Deputy Assistant Secretary (Administration), Office of the Comptroller, Department of Defense: Information concerning documents reviewed.

174-175 Information regarding disclosure of classified military information

to foreign governments and international organizations... 179- 221 Statement.

74-130 Submissions to additional subcommittee questions.

245-256 Sundry information relative to the hearings.

228–229, 239, 242 Dembling, Paul G., General Counsel, U.S. General Accounting Office, statement.

42-26 Fascell, Hon. Dante B., a Representative in Congress from the State of Florida, statement

31-32 Halperin, Morton H.: Disposition of different types of information...

276 Statement.

262-263 Laise, Carol C., Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, Department of State: Submissions to additional subcommittee questions. 333,

336, 338-347 Marshall, Charles L., Director, Division of Classification, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission: AEC Manual Appendix 3401–Classification and Declassification Handbook..

435-439 Procedures for making declassified reports available to the public. 440-441 Statement.-

433-435 Moorhead, Hon. William S., a Representative in Congress from the

State of Pennsylvania, and chairman, Foreign Operations and
Government Information Subcommittee:
Discussion transcript-

242-245 Exchange of correspondence with the Department of Defense.. 234-238,

268-269
Moss, Hon. John E., a Representative in Congress from the State of
California:
Article from the New York Times of November 12, 1973, by

Lesley Oelsner, entitled “FBI To Open Secret Files, With Some
Deletions, on Hiss, Chambers, and the Rosenbergs'

311-313 Excerpt from the Congressional Record of April 22, 1948.

286
Opinion drafted by the Congressional Research Service of the
Library of Congress, and an excerpt of 1971 testimony of Mr.
Justice Rehnquist..

289-295 Rakestraw, W. Vincent, Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legislative Affairs, Department of Justice: Statement.

277-282 Submissions relative to the hearings

298

299, 301, 302, 304, 305, 307, 308–309
Rhoads, Dr. James B., Archivist of the United States and Acting
Chairman, Interagency Classification Review Committee:
Information regarding declassification process..

67 July 26, 1974, letter from Robert D. Barber, Assistant Director,

Security, U.S. Information Agency, re proposed amendment to
H.R. 12004.

62-63
Number of official notifications and reprimands for classification
abuses between April 1, 1973, and March 31, 1974, table-

70 Report on data index systems, August 9, 1974.

65-66 Statement.

49-55

Page 443 444

505

598

615

623

APPENDIXES
Appendix 1.-Resolution on security classification by the Joint AHA-SAA-

OAH Committee on Historians and Archives, September 15, 1973.-
Appendix 2.-Statements submitted for the hearing record.--
Appendix 3.–Study by Harold C. Relyea, Analyst, American National
Government, Government and General Research Division, Congressional
Research Service, the Library of Congress, entitled “The Evolution of
Government Information Security Classification Policy: A Brief Overview

(1775–1973),” September 11, 1973..
Appendix 4.–Pamphlet entitled “Guidebook for the Authorized Classifier,'

U.S. Atomic Energy Commission..
Appendix 5.–Pamphlet entitled "The Availability of Department of State

Records".
Appendix 6.- Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Secrecy,

July 1, 1970.
Appendix 7.-Interagency Classification Review Committee Progress

Report, April 1974.
Appendix 8.—Excerpt from the Federal Register, August 23, 1973, entitled

*Interagency Classification Review Committee, Appeals Procedures”. Appendix 9.–Pamphlet entitled “Know Your Rights to Mandatory Review

of Classified Documents".
Appendix 10.-Study by Harold C. Relyea, Analyst, Government and
General Research Division, Congressional Research Service, the Library
of Congress, entitled “Comment Upon and General Analysis of Pending
Bills Regarding Government Information Security Classification Policy,

May 16, 1974.
Appendix 11.— Article from the New York Times magazine dated February
4, 1973, by Theodore Draper, entitled "The Classifiers of Classified

Documents Are Breaking Their Own Classification Rules"
Appendix 12.- Article from Foreign Affairs dated October 1973, by Nicholas

deB. Katzenbach, entitled “Foreign Policy, Public Opinion and Secrecy''.

643

720

723

727

741

747

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