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which details the dismal human rights record of

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Syria;

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(3) expresses its support for the people of Syria

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in their daily struggle for freedom, respect for

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human rights and civil liberties, democratic self-gov

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ernance, and the establishment of the rule of law;

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(4) encourages the President and the Secretary of State to reach out to dissidents, human rights ac

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tivists, and the nonviolent democratic opposition in

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Syria, and to assist them in their efforts; and

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(5) urges the adoption and pursuit of these and

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(B) cease the illegal occupation by Syria of

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(D) not pursue research, development, ac

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will not be undertaken in the future, and will

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agree to allow United Nations and other inter

•HCON 18 IH

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national observers to verify such assurances;

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and

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(E) live in peace and security with the

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IV

109TH CONGRESS

1ST SESSION

H. CON. RES. 32

Expressing the grave concern of Congress regarding the occupation of the

Republic of Lebanon by the Syrian Arab Republic.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

JANUARY 26, 2005 Ms. Ros-LEHTINEN (for herself and Mr. ENGEL) submitted the following con

current resolution; which was referred to the Committee on International Relations

CONCURRENT RESOLUTION Expressing the grave concern of Congress regarding the oc

cupation of the Republic of Lebanon by the Syrian Arab Republic.

Whereas the Syrian Arab Republic is the only country cur

rently occupying another country that is a full member of the United Nations, in violation of all international laws and norms, including United Nations Security Council Resolutions 425, 426, 520, and 1559;

Whereas since its invasion of the Republic of Lebanon in

1976, the Syrian regime has implemented a systematic policy of occupation over Lebanon that has transformed the political, social, and economic character of Lebanon;

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Whereas on July 20, 1976, President Hafez al-Assad of Syria

stated that, “Syria and Lebanon were one state and one

people . . ."; Whereas the total Syrian occupation was complete on October

13, 1990, when the Syrian troops launched aerial and ground attacks and occupied the Lebanese presidential palace and the ministry of defense, ousting the constitutional government of Prime Minister Michel Aoun of Leb

anon;

Whereas the Syrian regime appointed their own proxy gov

ernment and president in occupied Lebanon and started a large-scale persecution operation against the Lebanese people by arresting, abducting, torturing, and killing op

ponents to the occupation; Whereas, on May 22, 1991, following the occupation of Bei

rut, Lebanon, Syria concluded the Brotherhood Treaty for Coordination and Cooperation with Lebanon;

Whereas this treaty solidified the integration of the two coun

tries in matters of security and intelligence, finance and trade, and industry and agriculture, by establishing the mechanism for Syrian command under the cover of "joint" decision-making;

Whereas the Syrian regime has continued to employ a wide

range of policy means to transform Lebanon into a “client state” and a Syrian political satellite;

Whereas Syria clearly tampered with the Lebanese par

liamentary elections of 1992, 1996, and 2000, amending electoral laws in all instances, which delineated voting districts and laid down intricate procedures for the elections, which were rigged in a way to guarantee results favorable to Syria;

.HCON 32 IH

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Whereas Syrian-backed ad-hoc modifications to the Lebanese

constitution extended the presidential tenure of the Lebanese president Elias Harawi by three years, allowed Emile Lahoud, commander of the Lebanese army, to become president, and extended Lahoud's term in contravention of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559;

Whereas Lebanese judicial institutions have been utilized and

mobilized to impose Syrian control, including the routine issuance of death sentences in abstentia against patriots

and oppositionists; Whereas Lebanese Broadcasting Law No. 382 of 1994 pro

vided the legislative framework for controlling and restricting Lebanese radio and television;

Whereas the muzzle on the free flow of information and opin

ion in Lebanon is in sharp contrast to the legacy of journalism in that country;

Whereas Syria has reportedly widely utilized the practices of

kidnapping and arresting Lebanese citizens, using torture against them, and causing their virtual disappearance;

Whereas Human Rights Watch reported that in November

1999 Syrian authorities in Damascus, Syria, offering no explanation whatsoever, returned the dead body of Lebanese citizen Adel Khalaf Ajouri, aged 52, who had “disappeared” in 1990;

Whereas within Lebanon itself, Syria reportedly operated de

tention facilities in Tripoli, Beirut, Shtaura in the Bekka Valley, and Anjar on the Lebanese-Syrian border;

Whereas “Syrian order” in Lebanon was institutionalized

when Damascus led the process of disarming the Leba

.HCON 32 IH

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