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to be wrought, the countenance cession takes place in commemoaccording to her account, becomes ration of the manifestation of our of the most lovely pink ; when not, Saviour to the Gentiles. The it remains unchanged, or turus image is carried round a part of pale.

the top of the Capitoline hill. I I was present on one occasion, was present once. when the ceremony was performed formed by the public buildings of in the chapel of the Bambino. the Capitol, and the various acA lady, apparently the wife of cesses from the west, together with a wealthy shopkeeper, was the the Piazza below, were completely patient; she seemned in perfect filled with persons of the lower health, but within a few days of orders, many thousands were preher confinement. A long litany sent, and the church was was chanted, during which the crowded, that it was with great lady knelt before the altar. At difficulty I could force my way the conclusion of it, the priest with into it. The grand object of most great reverence took the Bambino of them appeared to be to get a from off the altar, and presented near view of the Bambino, and it to the lady, who kissed its toes, if possible, to kiss its toes. The and then rubbed her forehead upon spot where this ceremony took them; she then rose from her place, made a strong impression knees, and the priest, a young my

mind. I fancied to myself, man, slowly and solemly rubbed that if Cæsar could have looked the fore part of her person with up from his grave, he would inthe image in the form of a cross, stantly have demanded what new first

up and down, and then across. province had been subdued, what By undergoing this process, she conqueror was now passing in triwas quite satisfied that she would umph over the Capitoline hill, pass quickly and safely through attended by all the flamens and her approaching trial. As a proof priests in their robes ? And if St, of her benevolence, she brought Paul could have come from his with her a poor woman in the same own hired house, and been presituation, on whom the same pro- sent, he would, without doubt, cess was performed, and also about have imagined that the multitude a dozen of

children with sore

were assembled to witness a sacrieyes or sore feet, to whom also the fice to Jupiter Capitolinus; or to image was presented. When all see the spolia opima deposited in had been operated upon, some pray

the heatben temple. I could perers concluded the function, and the ceive no semblance of Christian lady we were told paid for all. The worship in the service, but it Romanists

say, that in the respect brought clearly and strongly to which they pay to images, they my mind the scenes acted on the intend none to the image, and all same spot in Pagan Rome. Near to the object represented. But the foot of the long stair leading if they believe that there is no to the Ara Celi is a very small inherent virtue in the doll I have chapel, containing a model of the been describing, 'to what purpose

true Bambino. It is exhibited on is it taken off the altar,


the same occasions with the other, plied to the person of the patient ? and appears to me to be intended

At Christmas, this Bambino for the use of the old and infirm, forms the principal ornament' of a who are unable to climb the long very fine Presepio, and is dis- stair, or encounter the crowd., played to public view on one or

There is another image in very two other days during the year. high favour in Rome, a statue On the feast of Epiphany, a pro- of the Virgin Mary, in the church

I can

on the

can be

of the Augustines. It is known by which


traveller in Italy must the name of the Madonna del see thousands, are in the very worst Parto, and represents the Virgin style of sign-painting. I Mary as being black, an idea which hardly attempt to describe them : I understand is founded

houses burning and the Virgin words, “ I am black but comely,” Mary helping the inhabitants out in the Song of Solomon (i. 5.) of the flames; Carriages and horses This Virgin takes a peculiar charge running 'over children, and St. of women in labour, whence her Anthony or St. Francis stopping name, Our Lady of the Birth. I the horses or appearing in the have rarely entered this church at clouds to protect the children, and any hour of the day without find- so forth. As I particularly wished ing several women on their knees to explain this part of the Catholic before the image ; and sometimes superstition to you, I have made there were crowds of all ages and various attempts to purchase one both sexes.

Sometimes also I of these pictures, but without suchave seen women just able to crawl cess, as I would only buy one after their confinement, using the which had actually been presented first of their returning strength to

to a saint. They are the most come to give thanks to the statue ridiculous things which for its protection and assistance imagined. Each, in general, has vouchsafed to them.

P.G.R. signifying, for the favour I repeatedly noticed persons received, and the date of the event, after praying sometime before the in a corner. statue, rise and approaching it, dip There is a small chapel at the a small quantity of cotton wool Porta Paradisi of the town of Asti into the oil of a lamp which burned in Piedmont, the walls and roof beside it; this they wrap up care- of which are completely clothed fully, and carry away to be applied with these pictures; the number to their friends who are in labour, must amount to several thousands. in order to help forward their This, like almost all the exterdelivery. But although this Ma- nal forms of the Roman Catholic donna is peculiarly in vogue for church, is derived from the cerepersons in these circumstances, monies of Heathen Rome, * while she is also applied to in many

another class of votive offerings other cases, and I have rarely seen show yet more clearly how closely a shrine adorned by so many votive modern has followed after ancient offerings. On her own person are

Rome. displayed jewels of every sort. In the heathen temples it was Her fingers are literally covered with rings, and round her neck I * Thus Tibullus says, El. I. L. 3. have counted eighteen necklaces of Nunc Dea, nunc succurre mihi nam posse rubies, pearls, and coral; sundry

Picta docet templis multa labella tuis.' watches were also hung about her

See Middleton's Letter from Rome. person. The other votive offerings

How much it is to be regretted that a man are attached to the adjoining walls who saw so clearly the errors of the Popish of the church, and cover several church, should in the latter part of his hundred square feet.

life give so much reason to doubt the

soundness of his own faith. There is not The votive offerings in Italy are

in the English language a more convincing of various sorts. Jewels and trin

work than his letter from Rome; to me it kets are given by the rich, the has been peculiarly so, from having the lower orders give articles of less good fortune to read it in Rome, surcost. A very common offering for

rounded by the remains of ancient Pagan

ism, and in the habit of daily witnessing a favour received is a painting of the forms which the Romish church has the event. These paintings, of copied from her predecessor.;;!



common to present to the demon Virgin Mary, and a crucifix of there adored, a foot, a hand, an great value; our guide assured us arm, or a head, of coarse pottery, that the crucifix wrought the mirain token of gratitude for the reco- cles much better than the saint. very of that part of the body from While I was examining the wax some disease or accident. These figures, a man came down into the ancient votive offerings are by no

church, and threw himself pros. means rare; I have seen hundreds trate on the floor, calling out of them in the shop of a dealer in loudly, Saint Antonino ! Saint antiquities. Now in modern Italy Antonino! Grazia! Grazia! he they present in exactly the same crawled forward from the foot of manner hands and legs and arms of the stair to the altar, licking the silver to the Virgin Mary or a pavement with his tongue the saint, in token of gratitude for the whole way, and leaving a mark recovery of the part of the body behind him, as if a large snail had offered.

passed along. Any one who has The manufacture of these votive seen the abominations of the paveofferings is no inconsiderable branch ment of a church in the south of of the trade of the silversmiths in Italy, will feel that it required a Roine. They are sold by weight, stout stomach even to witness the and are in general very thin. The

Doubtless the man conquantity of them which adorn a sidered it as a most meritorious popular shrine is astonishing, and work. sometimes they are of great value; Besides those little tigures, there for example, there is lying within is another tolerably numerous class the superb crystal coffin of St. of votive offerings, composed of Charles Boromeo at Milan, a baby swords and daggers, guns and pisof solid gold, presented to him a tols, which it is understood, are few years ago by one of the ladies generally presented by persons who of the Imperial House of Austria, have been in the habit of using in return for a living child, for them contrary to law, in plain whom she considered herself as language, by robbers and banditti, somehow indebted to the saint. who, when they resolve to abandon

In the south of Italy, where the their wicked course of life, thus peasantry are very poor, silver is consecrate as it were their

weapons too expensive an article to be to their favourite saint, and vow to obtained by them for their offer- sin no more. ings, and they have recourse to Fire-arms which have accidenlittle figures of wax painted. The tally burst, are in like manner largest collection of these I have presented as marks of gratitude for yet seen, is in the subterraneous escaping uninjured; there is a large church of Saint Antonino, in the

museum of

weapons of town of Sorrento, not far from about the shrine of the Madonna Naples. They are attached to del Parto mentioned above. In the walls, or suspended from the the same way the lame who have roof of his chapel in hundreds, and recovered the use of their limbs, represent the various parts of the present their crutches to the saint, human body which the saint had through whose intercession they cured, or the infants over whose think they have been relieved." Of birth he had presided. In this all the offerings to the Virgin subterraneous church three Mary, the most common is a small different articles famed for working silver heart, having V.M. P.G.R. miracles. The body of Saint An- 'stamped upon it. This is presentonino, (there are sundry saintsted for any favour, or as a token of this mane) a picture of the of devotedness to her service; and

every sort


your bene

after ano,

more of these may be seen round good small English dog-whip, bard a popular shrine, than of all the and well-knotted towards the point, others put together.

but I did not succeed in purchasing Let these few facts suffice as to one as I wished to do, for votive offerings. Catholics, how- fit. After prayers, we had a serever, have other modes of getting mon of some length, on the adquit of their sins, besides bribing vantages of punishing the body, the virgin and saint by their offer- for the good of the soul, and ings. You have often heard of the especially that sort of penance Flagellantes, or self-whippers of which is inflicted by means of former times, but you may be whips. During the sermon the lights surprised to learn that the system were extinguished one is still pursued in Rome, and ther, and the concluding part of that there are even in this nine- it was delivered in total darkteenth century, persons who imagine ness.

It is understood that as soon they can atone for their sins, as the last candle is extinguished, by the laceration of their bodies, the penitents begin to undress, and while the great head of the Ca- when the preacher ceased, the flag. tholic church, provides them with ellation commenced. It lasted ample accommodation for the fully a quarter of an hour; hunpurpose.

dreds were certainly flogging someBeing resolved to satisfy my thing, but whether their own bare curiosity on this singular subject, backs, or the pavement of the by being present at the ceremony, church, I cannot tell. To judge I went one evening to the church from the sounds, some used the of the Caravita, where it is per- whips, and others their hands, but formed on the Tuesdays ayd Thurs- the darkness was so total, I could days of Lent. The service com

see nothing; and besides having menced about an hour after sun-set. some little fear for my own person, The church is spacious, and the num- I had got into a snug corner where ber of men present was, as nearly as I calculated no thongs could reach I could judge, about five hun- The groaning and crying dred. There were only six or eight were horrid, but the scene was small candles, so that from the altogether so perfectly ludicrous, first I could only see indistinctly. that I had much difficulty in reDuring prayers, two or three at- pressing an inclination to laugh, tendants entered, each having an

When the flagellation ceased, iron hoop, on which were suspen

prayers were read, during which ded about a hundred leathern the penitents put on their

clothes, thongs. These were distributed if ever they had taken them oft, among

the congregation, but some and composed their countenances. had brought their whips along Lights were brought in, and the with them. I examined the thongs congregation dismissed with the and found them exactly like a usual benediction.



SIR,-I am one of the many who feel somethin.


for such a fear, is there not still like a dread at some danger, lest Protestantism the

very of Popery ever again should be wounded in the house prevailing in our land; but suppos- of its friends, and Popery be inading that there is no real ground vertantly aided by those who are

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daily praying, that the man of sin I have occasionally seen this unmay be destroyed with the bright- called-for use of the word catholic ness of the Saviour's coming ? Is in the


of The Christian there no way in which such holy Guardian. Thus Columbus, in men may give occasion for Papists your last number when shewing the smilingly to say among themselves entire adaptation of Christianity to

Let them alone; they are doing all nations, says - her essential our work very snugly for us ?

character is wholly catholic.' In One way, and which it is the ob- the heading of that article it is ject of these few lines to reprehend, better styled Christianity an Unihowever trifling it may appear to

versal Religion, which word uniothers, is the frequent and im- versal, when the sentence will proper use of the word Catholic, allow, I beg to recommend as a and Catholic Church,

substitute for that here exposed, May not the pleading for a and would caution all against catholic spirit, as opposed to a adopting expressions, which by sectarian, and the praying for being wrested from their legitithe good estate of the Catholic mate use, may occasion “ the way church be considered by some as

of truth to be evil spoken of.” arising from a very kindly feeling In concluding these remarks, I towards the Popish church, which trust my spirit breathes,

“ Grace is the very opposite of that church be with all them that love

our for which they pray, and whose

Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity.” prosperity they are seeking? viz.

Non. Con. the Universal Church of Christ.I can easily suppose some persons We are happy to find our friend reasoning – What a good church Non Con so feelingly alive to must the Catholic church be, that the deceivableness of Popery, we hear so much said in her and the rather as so many of his favour by Protestants, and for brethren, by their zeal in favour whose welfare they constantly of Romish emancipation, and pray!' And are there none in that their opposition to all enactments corrupt church sufficiently Jesuiti- for restraining the violation of cal to take

the weapon

aimed the Lord's day, have evinced a at then, and turn the edge thereof fearful departure from the prinagainst those who prepared it? ciples of the Baxters, Owens, In the true spirit of Jesuitism,

and other Non-conformist worpractising upon the unwary with thies of former days. The term their cunning craftiness whereby Catholic, is from its obvious they lie in wait to deceive, they meaning of universal, incorrect, have probably in

numerous in- as applied to the Romish sect; stances addressed the ignorant in

and therefore we generally presubstance as follows:-You see fer the terms Papist, Romanist, that our church must be the true &c. They must however be lachurch, or else you would not hear mentably ignorant, who can supso much said on its behalf by pose the Holy Catholic Church, Protestants ; nay, you must plainly to mean the Unholy Romish see, that while they are

Protestants Apostacy. At the same time we in name, they are Catholics in insert the greater part of Non heart; for in their national creed Con's letter, though not sure they are ever repeating, “I believe whether it may not be regarded in the Holy Catholic Church !' as a needless caution.—ED.

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