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South in the new Cabinet, as Secretary of the Navy. He is a native of South Carolina, but has long lived in Louisiana. He was appointed by President Hayes a Judge of the United States Court of Claims, and is transferred from that position to the Cabinet.

The Attorney-General is Mr. Wayne MacVeagh, of Pennsylvania. He has long been a prominent lawyer of Pennsylvania.

Mr. Thomas L. James, the Postmaster General, is a native and citizen of New York, and was formerly an editor. During the past eight years he has been postmaster of New York City, and has won the reputation of being one of the best postmasters the city ever had.

The census of the United States shows that the population of the country is upwards of fifty millions, the exact number, according to the first returns, which may be slightly changed hereafter, being 50,152,559. This is an increase of 11,600,000 during ten years, or at the rate of more than a million a year.

The increase during the last ten years is very much the largest ever made in that length of time.

Indeed the growth of the country lacks but little of being as great as the entire population of the United States in 1830, half a century ago. The three States of New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio now contain 12,563,705 inhabitants; and in 1830 the whole country had but 12,866,020.

The increase has been very general. The States of northern New England have grown the least, those of the South and West the most ; but not a single State or Territory has as few inhabitants now as it had in 1870.


The appointment of the Marquis of Lorne in 1878 to succeed Earl Dufferin as governor-general of Canada, was


Dominion of Canada.


a very interesting event. His high rank, the fact of his marriage with the daughter of the Queen of England, his youth, and his fine talents made his selection for the high post a peculiarly brilliant and striking one.

The Marquis of Lorne is the eldest son of the Duke of Argyll, one of the greatest and most powerful Scottish nobles, whose family has long been eminent in statesmanship and military fame. The duke himself has for many years occupied a conspicuous place in England as a Liberal leader, and has held some of the highest cabinet offices.

Several years ago the Marquis of Lorne, then a young man, who had just become a member of the House of Commons, was attracted by the beauty and graces of the Princess Louise, the queen's fourth daughter.

The marquis's attachment was returned by the princess; but no member of the English royal family for two centuries had ever married any onė not of royal blood. The Queen at last assented to the union.

The marriage, however, cut off from the young marquis the prospect of an eminent political career at home. It would not do for one closely connected with the royal family to enter actively into political contests, to become the chief of a party, or to aspire to a seat in the cabinet; for the English people are very jealous of royal interference, and the marquis's elevation, no matter how much deserved, would give rise to suspicions of undue royal influence.

The Canadians are justly proud that a daughter of the queen presides over the governor-general's household and dispenses its hospitalities.

The area of the Dominion of Canada is three million five hundred thousand square miles, which is more than that of the United States, and but little less than the whole of Europe.

The political situation of the Dominion of Canada is a curious one. It is doubtful whether a similar instance can be found in the history of the world. On the one hand, it is a dependency of Great Britain. It is presided over by a governor-general, appointed by the British Prime Minister, who receives from the British treasury a salary of fifty thousand dollars a year, and who is the executive of the Dominion. It is protected by British troops, and it is divided into provinces, presided over by lieutenant-governors appointed by the Crown.

On the other hand, Canada has complete control over its local affairs. Its Legislature comprises a Senate, the members of which are chosen for life by the governor-general, and a House of Commons, elected by the people for the period of five years. There is also a Cabinet, which comes into and goes out of office just as the English Cabinet does, according as it is supported or not by the House of Com



The Canadian Parliament votes taxes and expenditures, regulates police, and has generally complete legislative control, subject to the veto of the governor-general, which, as a matter of fact, is never used, any more than is that of the Queen of England.

There are two political parties in Canada, corresponding to those in England, and called Liberals and “ Conservatives.”

One of the principal questions which divide these Canadian parties is that of the commercial policy of the Dominion. The Liberals incline to free trade, and to an arrangement with the United States which will allow the goods of the two countries to pass from one to the other with the least restriction. The Conservatives, on the other hand, favor a more protective policy, and would try to sustain Canadian manufactures by a high tariff.


Dominion of Canada.


The population of Canada in 1861 was 3,090,561, exclusive of Indians in the North-west and Hudson Bay Territories; in 1871 it was 3,906,810, a remarkable increase in ten years.

The names of the Provinces and their population are as follows: Ontario

1,620,842 Quebec

1,191,505 Nova Scotia

387,800 New Brunswick

285,777 Manitoba .

13,000 British Columbia, including Indians .



All the industries of Canada, the building of ships, the fisheries, the products of the forests, the lumber trade, and even agriculture, are growing and highly successful, and the Dominion is enjoying a golden age of peace and prosperity almost as bright as were the dreams of Acadia of old.

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* Acting Vice-President and President pro tem. of the Senate.

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