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And there I see a little keg,

Its head was made of leather; They knocked upon't with little sticks

To call the folks together.


And then they'd fife away like fun

And play on cornstalk fiddles, And some had ribbons red as blood

All wound around their middles.

I 2.

The troopers, too, would gallop up,

And fire right in our faces;
It scared me almost half to death

To see them run such races.

13 Old Uncle Sam came there to change

Some pancakes and some onions For 'lasses cakes, to carry home

To give to his wife and young ones.

14. I see another snarl of men

A diggin' graves, they told me, So tarnal long, so tarnal deep,

They 'tended they should hold me.

They scared me so, I hooked it off,

Nor slept, as I remember,
Nor turned about till I got home,

Locked up in mother's chamber.



EVEN yet, after months of fighting, the idea of final sep. aration from Great Britain was distasteful to a considerable portion of the American people. To the more enlightened it had long been evident that no other course was possible ; but very many still clung to the hope of a friendly settlement of differences. Some, who were native Englishmen, loved the land of their birth better than the land of their adoption. The Quakers and Moravians were opposed to war as sinful, and would content themselves with such redress as could be obtained by remonstrance. Some, who deeply resented the oppressions of the home government, were slow to relinquish the privilege of British citizenship. Some would willingly have fought had there been hope of success, but could not be convinced that America was able to defend herself against the colossal strength of England. The subject was discussed long and keenly.

The intelligence of America was in favor of separation. All the writers of the colonies urged incessantly that to this it must come. Pamphlets and gazette articles set forth the oppressions of the old country, and the need of independence in order to the welfare of the colonies. Conspicuous among those whose writings aided in convincing the public mind stands the unhonored name of Thomas Paine, the infidel. Paine had been only a few months in the colonies, but his restless mind took a ready interest in the great question of the day. He had a surprising power of direct, forcible argument. He wrote a pamphlet styled “ Common Sense,” in which he urged the Americans to be independent.

The time was now ripe for the consideration by the Congress at Philadelphia of the great question of independence. It was a grave and most eventful step, which no thinking man would lightly take, but it could no longer be shunned. On the 7th of June a resolution was introduced, declaring “That the United Colonies are and ought to be free and independent." The House was not yet prepared for a measure so decisive. Many members still paused on the threshold of that vast change. Pennsylvania and Delaware had expressly enjoined their delegates to oppose it; for the Quakers were loyal to the last. Some other States had given no instructions, and their delegates felt themselves bound, in consequence, to vote against the change. Seven States voted for the resolution ; six voted against it. Greater unanimity than this was indispensable. With much prudence, it was agreed that the matter should stand over for two or three weeks.

On the 4th of July, 1776, a Declaration of Independence was adopted, with the unanimous concurrence of all the thirteen States. In this famous document the usurpations of the English government were set forth in unsparing terms. The divinity which doth hedge a king did not protect poor King George from a rougher handling than he ever experienced before. His character, it was said, was marked by every act which can define a tyrant.” And then it was announced to the world that the Thirteen Colonies had terminated their political connection with Great Britain, and entered upon their career as free and independent States.

The vigorous action of Congress nerved the colonists for their great enterprise of defence. The paralyzing hope of reconciliation was extinguished. The quarrel must now be fought out to the end, and liberty must be gloriously won or

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