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England Chronology

1147 King deposed and murdered; Edward III. in power. 1328-Independence of Scotland recognized.

1337-Edward took the title of King of France, and created his son Edward Duke of Cornwall. 1338-Beginning of the Hundred Years' War with France. 1346-Victory of Crecy. 1347-Capture of Calais. 1349-The Black Death. 1356-Victory of Poitiers. 1360-Treaty of Bretigny. 1377 —Wycliffe began the Reformation; Edward III. died and Richard II. became king. 1384-Chaucer began the Canterbury Tales. 1398-Richard banished the Duke of Hereford and Duke of Norfolk. 1399-The Duke of Hereford returned to England and claimed his estate and the Crown; Richard deposed and murdered; Parliament set aside the order of succession and chose Henry IV. king. 1400-Rebellion of Glendower. 1401-Persecution of heretics. 1403-Revolt of the Percies; Battle of Shrewsbury. 1413-Henry V. became king. 1415-Battle of Agincourt. 1420-Treaty of Troyes. 1422-Henry VI. crowned King of England and France; Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester Protectors during the King's minority. 1428-Siege of Orleans. 1431-Joan of Arc burned. 1450-Cade's insurrection. 1453-End of the Hundred Years' War; loss of France. 1455-1485-Wars of the Roses. 1461Henry dethroned; Edward IV. king. 1470-Warwick restored Henry VI. 1471-Henry died a prisoner in the Tower. 1477-Caxton printed the first book in England. 1483-Edward V. became king; Richard, Duke of Gloucester, appointed Protector; he murdered Edward in the Tower; Richard III. became sovereign; rebellion suppressed. 1485-Battle of Bosworth Field; Henry VII. king.

1497-The Cabots discovered the American continent. 1499-Warbeck, the Pretender, executed. 1509-Henry VIII. king. 1513-" Battle of the Spurs"; Battle of Flodden. 1515-Wolsey became Cardinal and Lord Chancellor. 1520-Field of the Cloth of Gold. 1521-The Pope conferred on Henry the title of "Defender of the Faith." 1529-Fall of Wolsey. 1531Clergy compelled to acknowledge Henry the Head of the English Church. 1532-Henry privately married Anne Boleyn. 1534-The authority of the Pope in England abolished. 1536-England and Wales finally united; insurrection in the North. 1547-Edward VI. king; Duke of Somerset regent. 1550 (?)-First Huguenot emigration to England. 1552-The Forty-two Articles of religion (afterward reduced to thirty-nine). 1553—Mary sovereign; Lady Jane Grey executed; Mary married Philip II. of Spain. 1555-6—Severe persecution of the Protestants. 1558-Loss of Calais.

1558-Elizabeth became ruler. 1559-Protestantism restored. 1571— English Puritans began to be prominent. 1580-Jesuit missionaries landed in England. 1587-Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. 1588-Defeat of the

Armada. 1601-Passage of a poor law. 1603-Completion of the conquest of Ireland; James I. King of Scotland and England; plot against the King; Raleigh imprisoned. 1605-The Gunpowder Plot. 1606-Severe laws against the Catholics. 1618-Raleigh executed. 1621-Impeachment of Lord Bacon. 1625-Charles I. became king. 1641-Execution of Stratford. 1642-Beginning of the Civil War. 1644-Battle of Marston Moor. 1645—Battle of Naseby. 1647-Charles a prisoner; he makes a secret treaty with the Scots. 1648 Royalist revolt, Pride's Purge. 1649-The King executed; the Commonwealth declared.

1649-50-Cromwell's campaign in Ireland. 1650-Battle of Dunbar. 1651 -Battle of Worcester. 1652-War with the Dutch. 1653-Cromwell made the Protector. 1655 War with Spain. 1658-Richard Cromwell, Protector. 1659-The Army compelled Richard to abdicate. 1660-General Monk called a free Parliament.

1660-Charles II. invited to return by the Parliament; becomes ruler of England. 1662-Act of Uniformity passed. 1695-War with the Dutch; the Plague in London. 1666-Great fire of London. 1667-The Dutch sailed up the Medway; the Cabal came into power; publication of "Paradise Lost." 1670-Secret Treaty of Dover; publication of the "Pilgrim's Progress.' 1678-Titus Oates' plot. 1679-Passage of Habeas Corpus Act. 1680Rise of Whigs and Tories. 1683-Execution of Russell and Sidney for participation in Rye-House Plot. 1685-James II. became king; Monmouth's rebellion; Battle of Sedgemoor.

1688-Arrival of William of Orange; his Declaration; flight of James. 1689--William and Mary rule; grand alliance against Louis XIV.; Jacobite rebellion in Scotland; siege of Londonderry; the “Bible of English Liberty.” 1690-Battle of the Boyne. 1691-Treaty of Limerick. 1694-Death of Queen Mary; Bank of England incorporated. 1697-Peace of Ryswick. 1702 -Anne reigned; war with France. 1704 Battle of Blenheim; Gibraltar taken. 1706 Battle of Ramillies. 1707-Union of England and Scotland; Union Jack adopted. 1713-Treaty of Utrecht; George I. became king. 1715 -Rebellion in Scotland. 1718-War with Spain. 1720-The South Sea scheme. 1721-Sir Robert Walpole the first prime minister. 1727-War with Austria and Spain; George II. became king. 1738-John Wesley: rise of the Methodists. 1741-War of the Austrian succession. 1743-Battle of Dettingen. 1746-The Pretender defeated at Culloden. 1748--Peace of Aixla-Chapelle. 1751-Correction of the Julian calendar. 1753-British Museum founded. 1756-Seven Years' War with France. 1757-Battle of Plassey; foundation of England's Indian empire. 1759-Storming of Quebec; erection of Eddystone Lighthouse. 1760-George III. became king. 1763—Canada

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ceded to Great Britain. 1768-Royal Academy founded. 1769—James Watt secured his first patent for an improved steam engine.

1775-The American Revolution began. 1776-Declaration of American Independence. 1780-The Gordon riots in London. 1781-Defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 1782-Ireland secured independence for its parliament. 1783-Treaties of Paris and Versailles; recognition of the independence of the United States. 1786-Impeachment of Warren Hastings. 1787 (?)—West Africa colonized. 1793-War with France. 1796-Discovery of vaccination against smallpox announced by Dr. Edward Jenner. 1800-Union of Great Britain and Ireland. 1802-Colonization of Australia. 1805-Battle of Trafalgar. 1807-Abolition of the slave trade. 1808-14-The Peninsula War. 1810 George III. became insane; Prince of Wales appointed regent. 1812-15 -Second war with America. 1814-South Africa acquired. 1815-Battle of Waterloo. 1819-First Atlantic steamship. 1820-George IV. became king. 1829-Passage of the Catholic Emancipation Act. 1830--William IV. king; steam locomotives introduced. 1832-Passage of Reform Bill. India trade thrown open; slavery abolished in all the colonies.


1837-Victoria queen. 1839-The Opium War. 1840-Union of Upper and Lower Canada; marriage of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. 1842— China compelled to open a number of ports for trade; the Afghan War. 1846 -Famine in Ireland; Repeal of the Corn Laws. 1849-Annexation of the Punjaub. 1851-The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park. 1852-Colonization of New Zealand and annexation of part of the Burman Empire. 1854-The Crimean War. 1857-58-The Indian Mutiny. 1858-The sovereignty of India given to the Crown; first Atlantic cable. 1861-Death of Prince Albert; imprisonment for debt abolished; the Trent affair. 1863-London underground railway opened. 1867-The Dominion of Canada established; War with Abyssinia. 1870-Limited female suffrage granted and first Irish Land Bill passed. 1877-Victoria made Empress of India. 1885-Over 2,500,000 new voters admitted under the Reform Act of 1884. 1887-The Queen's Jubilee.

1899-October 12, opening of the South African War; October 20, siege of Kimberley begun; October 29, siege of Ladysmith begun; October 30, British entrapped and defeated in a sortie from Ladysmith; November 26, Battle of Modder River; December 10, British under General Gatacre ambuscaded and severely defeated near Stormberg; December 10-11, Lord Methuen defeated at Spyfontein and General Wauchope killed; December 15, General Buller disastrously defeated at Tugela River. 1900-January 6, Lord Roberts and General Kitchener arrive in South Africa to take command; January 23-25, British after capturing Spion Kop compelled to abandon it; February 12, Lord Roberts invaded the Orange Free State; February 15, General French relieved

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