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EORGE III. was King for sixty years (1760-1820), and his long reign saw greater events and more important changes for England than perhaps any other period of equal length. He came to the throne, as you will note, several years after the breaking out of the French and Indian War in America. This was the supreme struggle between England and France for the mastery of our continent. The particulars of the tremendous struggle, as well as of the Revolution and the War of 1812, will be told more fully in our history of the United States.

The first few years of the French and Indian War went against the British, because the French were better organized and were wise enough to win the support of most of the fierce Indian tribes. Then, under the splendid guidance of William Pitt, who became really Prime Minister of England, a great change was wrought. The best officers were sent across the ocean, and they were given enough troops to organize and carry out decisive campaigns. The crowning victory was won by Wolfe at Quebec in 1759. Spain then ceded Florida to Great Britain, and, when peace was made in 1763, the Union Jack waved over the eastern half of the continent, and France was left with scarcely a foothold between the Atlantic and the Mississippi.

The next important war in which Great Britain became engaged was with her thirteen American colonies, the war of which we speak as the "Revolution." Opening in 1775, it was pressed with the greatest valor under General

George Washington, and through cold, heat, sufferings, and starvation, was brought to a successful conclusion in October, 1781, by the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia. The final treaty by which England recognized the independence of the United States was signed September 3, 1783, and the last of the English forces in this country left New York on November 25th of the same year.

The most highly civilized nations are subject at irregular times to violent outbreaks, which often result in bloodshed. In the early summer of 1780 London was terrorized by a series of riots under a madman, Lord George Gordon, who went wild because of the repeal of some harsh laws against the Romanists. The savage mob held possession of the city for nearly a week and caused much destruction, Newgate being among the buildings burned.

In 1782 Ireland secured the independence of her Parliament, though she remained subject to the Kingdom of Great Britain. She was still in a ferment of discontent, and during the French Revolution, an association of the disaffected, called the "United Irishmen," formed a secret understanding with France, which sent several expeditions to their aid. The rebellions were put down with crushing severity, and through the most flagrant bribery of members of the Irish Parliament, Ireland was, on the 1st of January, 1800, united to Great Britain under the title of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

England had to fight a long time in India to maintain her supremacy. The first Governor General, Warren Hastings (1774), through his great ability, extended her power there while she was losing in other quarters. But he was as unscrupulous in many respects as the Duke of Marlborough, and, in 1786, was impeached by the Commons for injustice, oppression, and extortion. His trial lasted seven years, and ended in his acquittal. The English dominion was extended later, and, in 1815 Ceylon was annexed to Great Britain. The exposure of the corruption of the East Indian Company caused it to be broken up, and, in 1784, a "Board of Control" was created for the administration of Indian affairs. A formidable rebellion broke out under Tippoo Saib, an Indian prince whose capital was at Seringapatam. He led his army in several open battles against the English, but finally his capital was stormed and he himself slain (1799). India was absorbed into the regular system of English government.

I have referred to the dreadful suffering among the poorer people caused by the excessive taxation, the bad harvests, and the scarcity of work. Everything seemed to be askew. Childen only six years old were compelled to work fourteen and fifteen hours daily, and then their pay would not buy them enough food to quiet the pangs of starvation. They were beaten and abused until they often welcomed death as a relief. Such a woful state of affairs always



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