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ILLIAM OF ORANGE was a silent, reserved man, devoid of all personal magnetism, but with stern qualities and virtues that commanded respect. The Declaration of Rights having been read to him and his wife, Mary, they assented to it, and were formally invited to accept the joint sovereignty of the realm, with the understanding that the duties were to be administered by · William alone.

It was not in the nature of things that the accession of William and Mary should be acceptable to all. The extreme Tories still clung to James II. These adherents became known as Jacobites, from the Latin Jacobus for James. There were many of them in the South of Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland. They kept communication with James, and were forever plotting for his restoration.

Parliament having drawn up the "Bill of Rights," it was signed by the King, and became the law of the realm. In the words of Lord Chatham, the Great Charter of 1215, the second Petition of Right of 1628, and the Bill of Rights of 1689 make "the Bible of English Liberty." The "divine right" of kings to rule, which had cost more than one of them his life, vanished into the mists of the Dark Ages. It was distinctly declared that only with the consent of Parliament could a standing army be maintained in time of peace; that the people could not be taxed in any form whatever without permission of the same body; that every man, no matter how humble his station, had the

right to petition the crown for redress of any wrong; that no interference would be permitted with the election of members of Parliament; that the laws should be faithfully executed regardless of the King's wishes or views; and finally that no Roman Catholic, or one marrying a Roman Catholic, should ever be eligible to the throne of England.

In those days, as at the present time, an overwhelming majority of the Irish were Roman Catholics, but they had been gradually ousted from their hold on the land, most of which was owned by a comparatively few Protestant settlers. We know that James II. had placed the military authority and the civil government in the hands of the Catholics. His loyal supporter, Tyrconnel, now rallied the Catholics, and invited James to come over from France and claim his own, assuring him that he was certain to secure it. It was because the Protestants in the north of Ireland stood by the Prince of Orange that they have ever since been known as Orangemen.

Louis of France was profoundly interested in this movement, and furnished money, arms, and troops to James, who landed in Ireland in March, 1689. He made his headquarters at Dublin, where he issued his famous Act of Attainder, which ordered all who were in rebellion against his authority to appear for trial on a certain day, under penalty of being declared traitors, hanged, drawn and quartered, and their property confiscated. It was a tremendous document, and that there might be no mistake about it, more than two thousand people were warned by name that if they failed to do as commanded, they would be put to death without trial.

Having launched this thunderbolt, James and his troops next laid siege to the Protestant town of Londonderry, which in the face of sickness, persistent attack, and impending starvation, held out for more than three months. When all hope seemed gone, an English force sailed up the river, dashed through the obstructions and rescued the brave city.

In the following summer William himself went over to Ireland and commanded at the battle of the Boyne, fought in the east, on the banks of the river of the same name. He had a more numerous force than his opponent, and it was better disciplined and well armed. Because of a wounded right arm William was compelled to handle his sword with his left. Yet he was foremost in the battle, and fought with splendid valor. James took care to keep beyond reach of the lusty blows and viewed the fight from the top of a neighboring hill. His own Irish soldiers were so disgusted with his cowardice that they cried out after their defeat, "Change kings with us and we'll fight you over again!" James waited only long enough to see that the day was lost, when he galloped off, denouncing his Irish army, and, reaching the coast, sailed for France, where he was safe from harm. The conquest of Ireland was completed,



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