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The King was so angered that he ordered the rebellious bishops to be sent to the Tower. This tyrannous act caused hundreds of Catholics and many Tory Cavaliers to turn against him. On the way through the streets the bishops were cheered by thousands, for all loved and respected them. At the trial, not one of the judges dared say the Declaration of Indulgence was legal, and a prompt verdict of not guilty was rendered. London received the news with bonfires, illuminations, and shouts of rejoicing.

It was only a short time before this that an event took place whose consequences were of momentous importance to the kingdom: this was the birth, on June 10th, of James Francis Edward, son of the King and of his second wife, Mary of Modena. By his first wife the King had already two daughters— Mary, who had married William, Prince of Orange, and lived in Holland, and a younger daughter, Anne, married to George, Prince of Denmark, and then living in London. Both daughters were ardent Protestants, and it was because of the prospect that one of them would ascend the throne upon the death of James that the English people had submitted to his many violations of law.

The birth of a prince, however, dashed all these hopes, for he would of course be reared by his father as a strict Catholic. The angry people declared that no prince had been born, and that the infant was the child of obscure parents whom the royal couple were trying to palm off upon them as the legal successor to the throne. The disappointment was so bitter that on the day the bishops were set at liberty a number of leading citizens sent a secret and urgent invitation to William, Prince of Orange, to come to England with an army to defend the claim of his wife, Mary, to the English throne. William took time to consider the important matter and then decided to accept the invitation. He was greatly influenced in taking this step by the warm support of the leading Catholic princes of Europe-excepting the King of France-and by the friendship of the Pope himself, who made no secret of his disgust with the idiotic rashness of the English King.

James had no suspicion of what was going on, but he did gain an unmistakable hint of the truth when one of the principal regiments of his army, being drawn up in line before him, he haughtily told them that all who would not agree to help in carrying out his intentions relating to the "Test Act" must quit the service. To his dismay near all the soldiers immediately laid down their weapons. James sent to Ireland for Catholic troops, for he could depend upon no others. Louis of France saw the peril of the King and warned him repeatedly; but James would pay no heed, nor did he believe there was a possibility of a successful uprising until he learned that the Prince of Orange and his armament were on the eve of sailing for England. Then the terrified numskull tried to conciliate his subjects by making concessions, but it was too late.

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JAMES II. RECEIVING NEWS OF THE COMING OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE

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England-Flight of James II

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On the 5th of November, 1688, William landed with 14,000 troops at Torbay. He issued a declaration that he came to protect the liberties of England and to secure the calling of a free Parliament, which should redress grievances and inquire into the facts concerning the birth of the Prince of Wales. The scared James tried to rally a force to resist the invader, but was terrified when his own son-in-law, Prince George, and Lord John Churchill, afterward Duke of Marlborough, went over to William's side. James' troops kept slipping from him, and finally his younger daughter, Anne, passed over to the enemy. "God help me," exclaimed the despairing King, "when my own

children desert me!"

Unwilling to make terms with his enemies, he hastily arranged the escape of himself and his family. In the darkness of a stormy night the Queen stole out of Whitehall with her infant child and was safely carried to France. This babe, whose birth caused all the trouble, never received any more royal title than that of "The Pretender," which he passed to his son, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, the "Young Pretender."

Shortly after midnight, on the 11th of December, the King followed his wife in flight. Crossing the Thames, he dropped the great Seal of State into the river, foolishly imagining that without it his adversary could not legally decide the questions left unsettled at his departure. This seal was accidentally fished up some months afterward. When the King reached the coast, he was captured by some fishermen and brought back; but William did not wish him, and allowed him to escape a second time. James reached France, where he was welcomed and supported by Louis XIV.

The extraordinary feature of the Revolution of 1688 was that it was accomplished without bloodshed. It came in the fulness of time, when the path was opened and everything was in readiness.

I am sure you will be interested in learning something more about the infamous Judge Jeffreys. He saw it was high time for him to leave, and, disguising himself as a sailor, he set out to escape. He went into a cellar in Wapping, and was drinking beer, when a man looked at him so keenly that Jeffreys knew he was recognized. He pretended to be seized with a fit of coughing, and turned his face toward the wall, still holding the beer mug, ready to drink when his coughing should stop. But the man, knowing he was not mistaken, ran outside and told the mob that the chief of all wretches was in their power. They swarmed in, seized him, and carried him before the Lord Mayor, who, in answer to the entreaty of Jeffreys, saved him from the mob by sending him to the Tower, where he died in 1689, his end hastened by his drunkenness.

James II., being out of the kingdom, the situation was simplified. A Con

vention, or Parliament, met and declared that James had broken the original contract between King and people, and that the throne as a consequence was vacant. On the invitation of an assembly of peers and commoners, the Prince of Orange assumed charge of the government, and called a Convention of the. Estates of the Realm, which assembled January 22, 1689.

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